This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Autonomous okrugs of Russia" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2013) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Autonomous okrug
CategoryFederated state
LocationRussian Federation
Number4
Populations42,090 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 1,532,243 (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)
Areas177,000 km2 (68,200 sq mi) (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) - 750,000 km2 (289,700 sq mi) (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
Government
  • Okrug Government
Subdivisions

Autonomous okrug (Russian: автономный округ, lit. 'avtonomny okrug'), occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its 85 federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an oblast. The other three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Tyumen Oblast's Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.

History

Originally called national okrug, this type of administrative unit was created in the 1920s and widely implemented in 1930s to provide autonomy to indigenous peoples of the North, like the Karelian National Okrug for the Tver Karelians . In 1977, the 1977 Soviet Constitution changed the term "national okrugs" to "autonomous okrugs" in order to emphasize that they were indeed autonomies and not simply another type of administrative and territorial division. While the 1977 Constitution stipulated that the autonomous okrugs are subordinated to the oblasts and krais, this clause was revised on December 15, 1990, when it was specified that autonomous okrugs are subordinated directly to the Russian SFSR, although they still may stay in jurisdiction of a krai or an oblast to which they were subordinated before.

Autonomous Okrugs

Flag Map Name
Domestic names
Capital
Population (2010)[1]
Area
Formation
Flag of Chukotka
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Чукотский Автономный Округ (Chukotskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Chukot: Чукоткакэн Aвтономныкэн Округ (Chukotkaken Avtonomnyken Okrug)
Anadyr

Russian: Анадырь (Anadyr)

Chukot: Кагыргын (Kagyrgyn)
50,526 721,481 km2 (278,565 sq mi) 1930-12-10
Flag of Yugra
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Ханты-Мансийский Автономный Округ (Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Khanty: Хӑнты-Мансийской Aвтономной Округ (Ȟănty-Mansijskoj Avtonomnoj Okrug)

Mansi: Ханты-Мансийский Автономный Округ (Hanty-Mansijskij Avtonomnyj Okrug)
Khanty-Mansiysk

Russian: Ханты-Мансийск (Khanty-Mansiysk)

Khanty: Ёмвоҷ (Yomvoḉ)

Mansi: Абга (Abga)
1,532,243 534,801 km2 (206,488 sq mi) 1930-12-10
Flag of Nenetsia
Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Ненецкий Автономный Округ (Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Nenets: Ненёцие Aвтономной Ӈокрук (Nenjocije Awtonomnoj Ŋokruk)
Naryan-Mar

Russian: Нарьян-Мар (Naryan-Mar)

Nenets: Няръянa Mарˮ (Nyar'yana Marq)
42,090 176,810 km2 (68,267 sq mi) 1929-07-15
Flag of Yamalo-Nenetsia
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Ямало-Ненецкий Автономный Округ (Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Nenets: Ямалы-Ненёцие Aвтономной Ӈокрук (Yamaly-Nenyotsiye Avtonomnoj Ŋokruk)
Salekhard

Russian: Салехард (Salekhard)

Nenets: Саляʼ Xарад (Salja’ Harad)
522,904 769,250 km2 (297,009 sq mi) 1930-12-10

Former Autonomous Okrugs

Flag Map Name
Domestic names
Capital
Population
Area
Years
Flag of Agin-Buryatia
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Агинский Бурятский Автономный Округ (Aginskiy Buryatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Buryat: Агын Буряадай Aвтономито Tойрог (Agyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
Aginskoye

Russian: Агинское (Aginskoye)

Buryat: Ага (Aga)
76,383 (2008) 19,592 km2 (7,565 sq mi) 1937–2008
Flag of Evenkia
Evenk Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Эвенкийский Автономный Округ (Evenkiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Evenki: Эведы Автомоды Округ (Ēvēde Avtōmōde Okrug)
Tura

Russian: Тура (Tura)

Evenki: Typy (Turu)
16,979 (2007) 763,197 km2 (294,672 sq mi) 1930–2007
Flag of Komi-Permyakia
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Коми-Пермяцкий Автономный Округ (Komi-Permyatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Komi-Permyak: Коми-Пермяцкöй Aвтономнöй Округ (Komi-Permjacköj Avtonomnöj Okrug)
Kudymkar

Russian: Кудымкар (Kudymkar)

Komi-Permyak: Кудымкöр (Kudymkör)
132,824 (2005) 32,770 km2 (12,653 sq mi) 1930–2005
Flag of Koryakia
Koryak Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Корякский Автономный Округ (Koryakskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Koryak: Чав’чываокруг (Čav’čyvaokrug)
Palana

Russian: Палана (Palana)

Koryak: Пылылъын (Pylylʺyn)
22,580 (2007) 292,600 km2 (112,973 sq mi) 1930–2007
Flag of Taymyria
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Таймырский Автономный Округ (Taymyrskiy Avtonomny Okrug) Dudinka

Russian: Дудинка (Dudinka)
38,372 (2007) 879,929 km2 (339,742 sq mi) 1930–2007
Flag of Ust-Orda Buryatia
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug

Russian: Усть-Ордынский Бурятский Автономный Округ (Ust’-Ordynskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Buryat: Усть-Ордын Буряадай Aвтономито Tойрог (Ust’-Ordyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
Ust-Ordynsky

Russian: Усть-Ордынский (Ust-Ordynsky)

Buryat: Ордын Адаг (Ordyn Adag)
134,320 (2008) 22,400 km2 (8,649 sq mi) 1937–2008

Recent developments

In 1990, ten autonomous okrugs existed within the RSFSR. Between 2005 and 2008, the three autonomous okrugs in which the titular nationality constituted more than 30% of the population were abolished. Since then, three more have been abolished, leaving four. On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.[2][3] The process was subsequently scrapped on July 2 following public outcry to the merger.[4]

The ten autonomous okrugs in 1990 were:

Entity in 1990 Status in August 2008
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug now Agin-Buryat Okrug of Zabaykalsky Krai
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug within Magadan Oblast no longer subordinated to Magadan Oblast
Evenk Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai now Evenkiysky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast (no change)
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug now Komi-Permyak Okrug of Perm Krai
Koryak Autonomous Okrug within Kamchatka Oblast now Koryak Okrug of Kamchatka Krai
Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Arkhangelsk Oblast (no change)
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug within Krasnoyarsk Krai now Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District of Krasnoyarsk Krai
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug within Irkutsk Oblast now Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug of Irkutsk Oblast
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug within Tyumen Oblast (no change)

Ethnic composition of autonomous okrugs

The table below also includes autonomous okrugs which have since changed status.

Autonomous Okrug titular nation Russians other[5]
year 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug[6] 52,2 54,9 62,5 42 40,8 35,1
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug[6] 61,6 60,2 59 34,9 36,1 38,1
Koryak Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous)[6] 16,3 16,45 26,6 30,3 62,9 62 50,5 46,2 24,9 40,5 46,5
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Komi) 12,8 11,9 18,6 Steady18,6 66 65,8 62,4 66,1 11,1 9,5 10,8 9
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (Dolgan and Nenets)[6] 9,6 8,9 13,8 15,7 68,9 67,1 58,6 50,0 5 4,4 7,6 10,1
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug[6] 34,1 36,3 39,6 58,3 56,5 54,4
Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug 1,9 0,9 1,2 1,3 74,3 66,3 66 68,1 1,1 0,5 0,7 0,8
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous) 8,1 7,3 23,4 26,7 68,6 66,1 51,8 52,5 9,6 30,8 35,3
Evenk Autonomous Okrug[6] 20 14,1 21,5 22,0 62,5 67,5 61,9 59,4
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Nenets) 10,7 4,2 5,2 5,9 59,1 59,2 58,8 61,7 1,5 1,7 1,9

References

  1. ^ "2010 All-Russian Population Census" (PDF). All-Russian Population Census (in Russian). December 22, 2011. Retrieved May 12, 2019.
  2. ^ Quinn, Eilís (May 14, 2020). ""Catastrophic" economic situation prompts merger talks for Nenets AO and Arkhangelsk Oblast". The Barents Observer. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  3. ^ "Russian Regions to Become Single Federal Subject in Decade-First". The Moscow Times. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  4. ^ Antonova, Elizaveta (July 2, 2020). "The head of the Nenets Autonomous District declared refusal to unite with the Arkhangelsk region". RBC (in Russian). Retrieved July 6, 2020.
  5. ^ Are the people who are in parentheses next to the autonomous regions and the second-largest two-part indigenous autonomous regions.
  6. ^ a b c d e f liquidated Autonomous okrug.

See also