Chuvash Republic — Chuvashia
Чувашская Республика — Чувашия
Other transcription(s)
 • ChuvashЧӑваш Республики — Чӑваш Ен
 • TransliterationÇăvaš Respubliki — Çăvaš Jen
Coat of arms of Chuvash Republic — Chuvashia
Anthem: "State Anthem of the Chuvash Republic"[3]
Coordinates: 55°33′N 47°06′E / 55.550°N 47.100°E / 55.550; 47.100
Federal districtVolga[1]
Economic regionVolga-Vyatka[2]
 • BodyState Council[4]
 • Head[6]Oleg Nikolayev[5]
 • Total18,343 km2 (7,082 sq mi)
 • Rank74th
 • Total1,186,909
 • Estimate 
 • Rank39th
 • Density65/km2 (170/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Rural
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[10])
ISO 3166 codeRU-CU
License plates21, 121
OKTMO ID97000000
Official languagesRussian;[11] Chuvash[12]

Chuvashia (Russian: Чувашия; Chuvash: Чӑваш Ен, romanized: Çăvaš Jen), officially the Chuvash Republic — Chuvashia,[note 1] is a republic of Russia located in Eastern Europe. It is the homeland of the Chuvash people, a Turkic ethnic group. It borders with the Mari El Republic in the north, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in the west, the Republic of Mordovia in the southwest, Ulyanovsk Oblast in the south, and the Republic of Tatarstan in the east and southeast. Its capital is the city of Cheboksary. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 1,251,619.[14]


The Chuvash Republic is located in the center of European Russia, in the heart of the Volga-Vyatka economic region, mostly to the west of the Volga River, in the Volga Upland. It borders with the Mari El Republic in the north, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast in the west, the Republic of Mordovia in the southwest, Ulyanovsk Oblast in the south, and the Republic of Tatarstan in the east and southeast. There are over two thousand rivers in the republic—with the major ones being the Volga, the Sura, and the Tsivil—as well as four hundred lakes. Some of the Volga River valley reservoirs are in the north of the republic, and the Sura River flows towards the Volga along much of the republic's western boundary.

The climate is moderately continental, with the average temperatures ranging from −13 °C (9 °F) in January to +19 °C (66 °F) in July. Annual precipitation varies between 450 and 700 millimeters (18 and 28 in), but is uneven from one year to another. Natural resources include gypsum, sand, clay, sapropel deposits, phosphorite, and peat. There are oil and natural gas deposits, although their extraction has not yet been commercially pursued. Forests, mostly in the south along the Sura River, cover approximately 30% of the land.[15]


A map of the Chuvash Republic
Seat of the Government of the Chuvash Republic
Residence of the President of Chuvash Republic

Main article: History of Chuvashia

The ancestors of the Chuvash were Bulgars and Suars, Oghur Turkic tribes residing in the Northern Caucasus in the 5th to 8th centuries. In the 7th and 8th centuries, a part of the Bulgars left for the Balkans, where, together with local South Slavs, they established the state of modern Bulgaria. Another part moved to the Middle Volga Region (see Volga Bulgaria), where the Bulgar population that did not adopt Islam formed the foundation of the Chuvash people.[15]

During the Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria, the steppe-dwelling Suar migrated north, where Volga Finnic tribes, such as the Mordvins and Mari lived. The Chuvash claim to be the descendants of these Suars who assimilated with the Mari. In 1242, they became vassals of the Golden Horde. Later Mongol and Tatar rulers did not intervene in local internal affairs as long as tribute was paid annually to Sarai. When the power of the Golden Horde began to diminish, local Mişär Tatar Murzas from Piana and Temnikov tried to govern the Chuvash area.

During Ivan the Terrible's war of conquest against the Khanate of Kazan, in August 1552, the Chuvash Orsai and Mari Akpar Tokari princes swore their loyalty to the Grand Duchy of Muscovy at Alatyr on the Sura River. Between 1650 and 1850, the Russian Orthodox Church sent Chuvash-speaking missionaries to try to convert the Chuvash to the Orthodox faith. A group of these missionaries created a written Chuvash language. Most of the Chuvash who stayed in the area became Orthodox Christians, but some remained pagan.

On May 15, 1917, the Chuvash joined the Idel-Ural Movement and in December 1917 joined the short-lived Idel-Ural State, when an agreement was reached with Tatar representatives to draw the eastern border of Chuvashia at the Sviyaga River. In 1918–1919, the Russian Civil War encompassed the area. This ended with victory for the Bolsheviks. To gain support from the local population, Lenin ordered the creation of a Chuvash state within the Russian SFSR. On June 24, 1920, the Chuvash Autonomous Oblast was formed, which was transformed into the Chuvash ASSR in April 1925.

Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of the Chuvash Republic


Until 2012, the Chuvash Republic officially had the status of a state. In the constitution of Chuvashia (version 6 - dated September 13, 2011 No. 46), the following was fixed: "The Chuvash Republic is a republic (state) within the Russian Federation."

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the republic was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Chuvashia CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the Republic Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Republic administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Republic of Chuvashia is the fundamental law of the region. The State Council of the Chuvash Republic is the republic's regional standing legislative (representative) body. The highest executive body is the Republic's Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters.


Despite not being large, the republic is one of the most densely populated regions in the Russian Federation.[citation needed] Population: 1,251,619 (2010 Census);[14] 1,313,754 (2002 Census);[16] 1,336,066 (1989 Census).[17]

The capital (and largest city) is Cheboksary (population 464,000 in 2010). Cheboksary is situated mostly on the southern bank of the Volga in the northern part of the republic (one northern bank district was added in the second part of the 20th century), approximately 650 kilometers (400 mi) east of Moscow. Nearby to the east is the next largest city, Novocheboksarsk (population 124,000 in 2010).


Largest cities or towns in Chuvashia
2010 Russian Census
Rank Administrative Division Pop.
1 Cheboksary City of republic significance of Cheboksary 453,721 Kanash
2 Novocheboksarsk City of republic significance of Novocheboksarsk 124,097
3 Kanash Kanashsky District 45,607
4 Alatyr Alatyrsky District 38,203
5 Shumerlya Shumerlinsky District 31,722
6 Tsivilsk Tsivilsky District 13,479
7 Kugesi Cheboksarsky District 11,917
8 Kozlovka Kozlovsky District 10,359
9 Vurnary Vurnarsky District 10,086
10 Yadrin Yadrinsky District 9,614
Historical population
Source: Census data

Vital statistics

Unbaptized Chuvash people in 1870
Baptized Chuvash people in 1870
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service Archived April 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
Average population (× 1,000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Fertility rates
1970 1,227 22,465 10,993 11,472 18.3 9.0 9.3
1975 1,266 22,956 12,450 10,506 18.1 9.8 8.3
1980 1,302 22,612 13,908 8,704 17.4 10.7 6.7
1985 1,311 24,385 13,913 10,472 18.6 10.6 8.0
1990 1,339 21,116 13,545 7,571 15.8 10.1 5.7 2.12
1991 1,342 19,113 13,459 5,654 14.2 10.0 4.2 1.96
1992 1,346 16,673 14,141 2,532 12.4 10.5 1.9 1.72
1993 1,347 14,410 16,876 −2,466 10.7 12.5 −1.8 1.48
1994 1,345 14,498 18,003 −3,505 10.8 13.4 −2.6 1.48
1995 1,345 13,842 17,727 −3,885 10.3 13.2 −2.9 1.41
1996 1,343 13,542 16,880 −3,338 10.1 12.6 −2.5 1.37
1997 1,341 12,822 16,762 −3,940 9.6 12.5 −2.9 1.30
1998 1,339 13,300 15,957 −2,657 9.9 11.9 −2.0 1.34
1999 1,337 12,129 17,997 −5,868 9.1 13.5 −4.4 1.22
2000 1,331 12,363 18,640 −6,277 9.3 14.0 −4.7 1.25
2001 1,324 11,986 18,980 −6,994 9.1 14.3 −5.3 1.20
2002 1,314 12,956 19,808 −6,852 9.9 15.1 −5.2 1.30
2003 1,304 13,171 19,978 −6,807 10.1 15.3 −5.2 1.32
2004 1,295 13,734 19,371 −5,637 10.6 15.0 −4.4 1.38
2005 1,286 13,133 19,682 −6,549 10.2 15.3 −5.1 1.32
2006 1,277 13,291 18,900 −5,609 10.4 14.8 −4.4 1.34
2007 1,269 14,835 18,642 −3,807 11.7 14.7 −3.0 1.50
2008 1,262 14,967 18,436 −3,469 11.9 14.6 −2.7 1.51
2009 1,257 16,103 17,492 −1,389 12.8 13.9 −1.1 1.63
2010 1,252 16,174 18,186 −2,012 12.9 14.5 −1.6 1.65
2011 1,249 16,165 16,923 −758 12.9 13.6 −0.7 1.67
2012 1,245 17,472 16,607 865 14.0 13.3 0.7 1.83
2013 1,242 17,351 16,324 1,027 14.0 13.1 0.9 1.85
2014 1,240 17,224 16,535 689 13.9 13.3 0.6 1.88
2015 1,237 17,138 16,266 872 13.8 13.1 0.7 1.91
2016 1,236 16,403 16,258 145 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.87
2017 1,233 13,947 15,571 −1,624 11.3 12.6 -1.3 1.65
2019 11,624 15,196 −3,572 9.5 12.4 -2.9
2020 11,305 18,845 −7,540 9.3 15.5 -6.2

Note: TFR[18]

Ethnic groups

According to the 2021 Census, ethnic Chuvash make up 63.7% of the republic's population. Other groups include Russians (30.7%), Tatars (2.7%), Mordvins (0.7%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.[19]

1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census[14] 2021 census[19]
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Chuvash 667,695 74.6% 777,202 72.2% 770,351 70.2% 856,246 70.0% 887,738 68.4% 906,922 67.8% 889,268 67.7% 814,750 67.7% 684,930 63.7%
Russians 178,890 20.0% 241,386 22.4% 263,692 24.0% 299,241 24.5% 338,150 26.0% 357,120 26.7% 348,515 26.5% 323,274 26.9% 329,991 30.7%
Tatars 22,635 2.5% 29,007 2.7% 31,357 2.9% 36,217 3.0% 37,573 2.9% 35,689 2.7% 36,379 2.8% 34,214 2.8% 29,092 2.7%
Mordvins 23,958 2.7% 22,512 2.1% 23,863 2.2% 21,041 1.7% 20,276 1.6% 18,686 1.4% 15,993 1.2% 13,014 1.1% 7,707 0.7%
Others 1,301 0.1% 6,703 0.6% 8,596 0.7% 10,930 0.9% 14,874 1.3% 19,606 1.4% 23,599 1.8% 18,298 1.6% 23,085 2.2%
1 112,104 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[20]


Osteopetrosis affects 1 newborn out of every 20,000 to 250,000[21] worldwide, but the odds are much higher in the Russian region of Chuvashia (1 of every 3,500–4,000 newborns) due to genetic traits of the Chuvash people.[22][23]


Religion in Chuvashia as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[24][25]
Russian Orthodoxy
Other Orthodox
Other Christians
Rodnovery and other native faiths
Spiritual but not religious
Atheism and irreligion
Other and undeclared

According to a 2012 survey,[24] 64.7% of the population of Chuvashia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 4% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of non-Russian Orthodox churches, 3% of the population (mostly Tatars) follow Islam, 3% are unaffiliated Christians, 1% follow indigenous faiths (Vattisen Yaly, Chuvash folk religion). In addition, 24% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 1% is atheist and 2.3% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.[24] There is a growing population of Jehovah's Witnesses among the people despite the official ban by the Russian Government.

Study of religion is compulsory for schoolchildren in Chuvashia. Of the students, approximately 76.9% are enrolled for Orthodox Studies, 16.0% for Secular Studies, 15.7% for World Religions Studies and 1.4% for Islamic Studies.[26]


There are five higher educational institutions, including the Chuvash State University, the Chuvash State Pedagogical University, and the Chuvash State Agrarian University located in Cheboksary. These, together with 28 colleges and technical schools, are currently attended by approximately 45,000 students.


Main article: Economy of Chuvashia

In a liquor distillery, Mariinsky Posad

The Chuvash Republic is the most populous and fertile area in the middle Volga region. There are deciduous woodlands on fertile black earth. In agriculture, wheat and sugar-beet, pigs and beef cattle have become more important than the rye, oats, barley and dairy cattle which are typical for the whole area.

The republic is Russia's center for growing hops and is famous throughout the country for its long history of beer brewing. It is also a major center for electrical engineering, especially in the area of power transmission and control systems.[15] Other leading industries are metalworking, electricity generation, and chemical manufacturing. There are also large timber-working mills at Shumerlin.

The largest companies in the region include Khimprom Novocheboksarsk (revenues of $164.54 million in 2017), Accond (confectionery maker$, 152.55 million), Cheboksary Instrument-Making Plant ($142.26 million), NPP EKRA (power engineering$, 101.13 million).[27]


The transport network in the republic is one of the most developed in Russia. The republic's system of roads, railroads, waterways, and airports closely ties the region with others in and outside of Russia.[15]


Only four roads in the Chuvash Republic are classified as important federal highways. The most important is Highway M-7, which runs from Nizhny Novgorod through the northern parts of the republic from Yadrinsky Nikolskoye via Malye Tyumerli, Kalmykovo, Khyrkasy, Novye Lapsary, Kugesi, Shivlinsk, Staraya Tyurlema, to Kazan in the Republic of Tatarstan. It also forms a connection via Chuvashia through the southern suburbs of Cheboksary and Novocheboksary to the Mari El Republic and the Vyatka Highway. Part of this road is classified as a motorway, the only one in the republic. From Yadrinsky Nikolskoye, the federal road P-178 runs through Yadrin, Shumerlya, Alatyr, to Surskoye in Ulyanovsk Oblast and further to Ulyanovsk. In the eastern part of Chuvashia, the federal road A-151 runs from Tsivilsk through Kanash, Komsomolskoye, Chkalovskoye, Karabay-Shemursha, Shemursha to Ulyanovsk and Saratov. All other roads in Chuvashia are classified as local area roads.

Automobiles, trucks, and buses are the major forms of transportation, with the republic ranking fourth in highway density in all of Russia.[15] Cheboksary is situated on one of the main highways of the Russian Federation leading from Moscow to the industrial areas of Tatarstan, the southern Urals, and Siberia. A recently completed bridge across the Volga River in the north connects the republic to the developed Ural and Volga Federal Districts. To the south, highways connect Chuvashia with Saratov and Volgograd. Extensive public and private bus systems connect all towns within the republic with each other and with the surrounding regions.[15]

The standard speed of transportation of containers by road is 400 kilometers (250 mi) per day. The average time of delivery from Cheboksary to Moscow is 1.5 days; to Saint Petersburg, 2.5 days; and to Western Europe, 10 to 15 days.[15]


The railway network is highly developed, convenient, and accessible year-round. One of the largest railway junctions of Russia – Kanash—is in the center of the republic. Via Kanash, the rail system connects the major towns in Chuvashia with the big industrial centers of eastern Siberia, the Urals, and Moscow. Express trains are reliable and provide a low-cost, comfortable way to travel. Express trains to and from Moscow are available every day, with the overnight journey taking approximately fourteen hours each way.

The following lines serve railway traffic in the Chuvash Republic:

In addition to these lines, there are 26 kilometers (16 mi) of 1,520 mm (4 ft 11+2732 in) gauge industrial lines running from Altyshevo station, on Alatyr-Kanash section, to Pervomaysky, located just west of Starye Aybesi in Alatyrsky District.

All railway lines in Chuvashia are operated by the MPS Gorky Railway Division. Steam locomotives were mostly replaced in 1970 by diesel locomotives and when the main Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk line was electrified, the diesel locomotives were replaced by electric ones.

The Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk line is a double track main line, while the others are single track lines. The 84 km (52 mi) Sviyazhsk-Kanash section was electrified in 1986, the 142 km (88 mi) Kanash-Sergach section in 1987.

In 1967, there were four daily passenger trains in both directions on the Alatyr-Kanash line. One of them was the semifast Sochi-Sverdlovsk-Sochi long-distance transit train, halting only at Alatyr, Buinsk, and Kanash. Cheboksary was connected by daily semifast passenger train to Moscow. The travel time was 17.30[clarification needed] hours for the 758 km (471 mi) journey. 21 express and passenger trains used the Arzamas-Kanash-Sviyazhsk main line in the summer high season in both directions. Of these, four did not halt in Chuvashia. Most of the remaining semifast trains stopped at Shumerlya, Piner, Burnary, and Kanash. Four pairs of semifast trains also stopped at Tyurmari. In the 1999–2000 timetable, 11 pairs of Moscow-Kanash-Kazan express trains stopped at Kanash. The Chuvashia 53/54 express trains between Moscow and Kanash took 11.23 hours, back 10.57 hours.[clarification needed]

In addition to Russian 1,524 mm (5 ft) gauge railways, there were six 750 mm (2 ft 5+12 in) narrow gauge railway lines: two short peat briquette industry lines at Severny and Sosnovka on the north side of the Volga, and four forest railways at Shumerlya, Atrat and Kirya. All opened in the 1930s. In 1965, their total length was 145 kilometers (90 mi):

All lines were closed in the economic uncertainty after the breakup of the Soviet Union.


Volga River in Chuvashia

The Volga and Sura Rivers connect Chuvashia to a national and international water network. To the south, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Moscow and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, cargo transportation is possible from Chuvash river ports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk (on the Black Sea), Astrakhan, and ports situated on the Danube River. However, the river is frozen from December through April.[15] Cheboksary is a frequent stop on the many boat tours of the Volga.[15]


The international Cheboksary Airport receives both cargo and passenger aircraft of practically all types and sizes. There are regularly scheduled flights to Moscow and other destinations. Additionally, Cheboksary is about a four-hour drive from Strigino International Airport, the airport primarily serving Nizhny Novgorod, which offers a greater number of flights, including connections through Aeroflot and Belavia.


While Russian is the predominant business language, the Chuvash language is still spoken by many, especially in the country. The Chuvash language belongs to the Oghur subgroup of the Turkic language group. In ancient times a runic system of writing was used. Chuvashi now uses a modified Cyrillic script that was adopted in 1871.

There has been a resurgence of native Chuvash pride, with many people looking back to their Chuvash roots and exploring the culture and heritage and relearning the language. Most building signs, road signs, and announcements are in both Russian and Chuvash.

At present Chuvash Republic has six professional theaters:

and over 30 amateur theaters, a Philharmonic Society, an Academic Folk Song and Dance Group, an Academic Choir, a Chamber Orchestra, and some professional concert groups.

There are also more than 20 museums, exhibition halls and modern art galleries.

Chuvash Republic has more than 565 public libraries, the book collection being over 10 million units.

Monuments of Architecture

There are about 627 monuments of architecture in Chuvashia, including 54 of national importance: the Vvedensky Cathedral (1657), the Holy Trinity Monastery (1566), the Salt House, the houses of Chuvash famous merchants (Zeleischikov, Solovtsov, the Efremov family) (18th-19th century) in Cheboksary, the Tolmachev family house and Trinity Cathedral (18th century) in the town of Tsivilsk, the Burashnikov house in the town of Yadrin.

Surhuri (Chuvash: Сурхури) is the Chuvash national holiday.


Chuvashia, along with Mordovia, has given some of the best modern race walkers, as Vera Sokolova, Olimpiada Ivanova, Yelena Nikolayeva and Vladimir Andreyev. Additionally, the 2008 IAAF World Race Walking Cup was held in Cheboksary. Chuvashia is also represented by the basketball team Cheboksary Hawks, which performs in Russia Superleague 2.

Creative unions


See also


  1. ^ Russian: Чувашская Республика — Чувашия; Chuvash: Чӑваш Республики — Чӑваш Ен


  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Law #12
  4. ^ Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 77
  5. ^ "Putin dismissed the head of Chuvashia, Mikhail Ignatiev, in connection with a loss of confidence". NewsRU (in Russian). January 29, 2020. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  6. ^ Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 68
  7. ^ "Сведения о наличии и распределении земель в Российской Федерации на 01.01.2019 (в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации)". Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved August 29, 2023.
  8. ^ "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  9. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  10. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  12. ^ Constitution of the Chuvash Republic, Article 8
  13. ^ "Chuvashiya | republic, Russia".
  14. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i Steven Brown and Olin Lagon (June 2001). "Economic Overview of the Republic of Chuvashia". United States Peace Corps Business Development Volunteers in Chuvashia. Archived from the original on July 4, 2005. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
  16. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  17. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  18. ^ "БГД".
  19. ^ a b "Национальный состав населения". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved December 30, 2022.
  20. ^ "Впн-2010". Archived from the original on December 25, 2018. Retrieved December 22, 2011.
  21. ^ "Osteopetrosis: MedlinePlus Genetics".
  22. ^ "Остеопетроз рецессивный (мраморная болезнь костей) - ДНК-диагностика - Центр Молекулярной Генетики".
  23. ^ "Медицинская генетика Чувашии". Archived from the original on February 1, 2016.
  24. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  25. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  26. ^ "Всё больше чувашских школьников предпочитают изучать светскую этику".
  27. ^ Выписки ЕГРЮЛ и ЕГРИП, проверка контрагентов, ИНН и КПП организаций, реквизиты ИП и ООО. СБИС (in Russian). Retrieved October 20, 2018.


Further reading