Nizhny Novgorod
Нижний Новгород
Clockwise: State Bank building. View of the Oka River and Yarmarka. Stroganov Church. View of the city center from the bridge. Bolshaya Pokrovskaya Street.
Clockwise: State Bank building. View of the Oka River and Yarmarka. Stroganov Church. View of the city center from the bridge. Bolshaya Pokrovskaya Street.
Location of Nizhny Novgorod
Map
Nizhny Novgorod is located in Russia
Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
Location of Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod is located in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod (Nizhny Novgorod Oblast)
Coordinates: 56°19′37″N 44°0′27″E / 56.32694°N 44.00750°E / 56.32694; 44.00750
CountryRussia
Federal subjectNizhny Novgorod Oblast[1]
Founded1221[2]
City status since1221[3]
Government
 • BodyCity Duma[4]
 • Head[6]Oleg Sorokin[5]
Area
 • Total410.68 km2 (158.56 sq mi)
Elevation
200 m (700 ft)
Population
 • Total1,250,619
 • Estimate 
(2018)[8]
1,259,013 (+0.7%)
 • Rank5th in 2010
 • Density3,000/km2 (7,900/sq mi)
DemonymNizhegorodianEdit this on Wikidata
 • Subordinated tocity of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod[1]
 • Capital ofNizhny Novgorod Oblast,[1] city of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod[1]
 • Urban okrugNizhny Novgorod Urban Okrug[9]
 • Capital ofNizhny Novgorod Urban Okrug[9]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[10])
Postal code(s)[11]
in the 603000–603998 range
Dialing code(s)+7 831[3]
OKTMO ID22701000001
City DaySecond Sunday of September[12]
Websitewww.admgor.nnov.ru

Nizhny Novgorod (Russian: Нижний Новгород, IPA: [ˈnʲiʐnʲɪj ˈnovɡərət]), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is, with a population of 1,250,615,[7] the fifth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. From 1932 to 1990, it was known as Gorky (Горький, IPA: [ˈɡorʲkʲɪj]),[13] after the writer Maxim Gorky who was born there. The city is an important economic, transportation and cultural center of Russia and the vast Volga-Vyatka economic region.

History

Seat of medieval princes

After the destruction of the Mordvin Inäzor Obram, a hillfort named Obran Osh (Ashli) on the site of the future stone Kremlin, in 1221 a small Russian wooden hillfort was founded by Grand Duke Yury II. Located at the confluence of two of the most important rivers in his principality, the Volga (Mordvin "Rav" or "Rava") and the Oka, Obran Osh was renamed Nizhny Novgorod. Its name literally means Lower Newtown to distinguish it from the older Veliky Novgorod. Its independent existence was threatened by the continuous Mordvin attacks against it. The major attempt made by Inäzor Purgaz from Arzamas in January 1229 was repulsed, but after the death of Yury II on March 4, 1238 at the Battle of Sit River the Mongols occupied the fortress and the remnants of small Nizhny Novgorod settlement which surrendered without any resistance in order to preserve what had been developed since Purgaz's attack nine years earlier. Later a major stronghold for border protection, Nizhny Novgorod fortress took advantage of a natural moat formed by the two rivers.

Along with Moscow and Tver, Nizhny Novgorod was among several newly founded towns that escaped Mongol devastation on account of their insignificance, but grew into (great) centers in vassalic Russian political life during the period of the Tatar Yoke. With the agreement of the Mongol Khan, Nizhny Novgorod was incorporated into the Vladimir - Suzdal Principality in 1264. After 86 years its importance further increased when the seat of the powerful Suzdal Principality was moved here from Gorodets in 1350. Grand Duke Dmitry Konstantinovich (1323–1383) sought to make his capital a rival worthy of Moscow; he built a stone citadel and several churches and was a patron of historians. The earliest extant manuscript of the Russian Primary Chronicle, the Laurentian Codex, was written for him by the local monk Laurentius in 1377.

Strongest fortress of the Grand Duchy of Moscow

Kuzma Minin appeals to the people of Nizhny Novgorod to raise a volunteer army against the Poles.
Church of the Nativity of Our Lady, built by the Stroganovs
File:Nizhny Novgorod Dmitrovskaya tower.jpg
Minin and Pozharsky Square

After the city's incorporation into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1392, the local princes took the name Shuisky and settled in Moscow, where they were prominent at the court and briefly ascended the throne in the person of Vasily IV. After being burnt by the powerful Crimean Tatar chief Edigu in 1408, Nizhny Novgorod was restored and regarded by the Muscovites primarily as a great stronghold in their wars against the Tatars of Kazan. The enormous red-brick kremlin, one of the strongest and earliest preserved citadels in Russia, was built in 1508–1511 under the supervision of Peter the Italian. The fortress was strong enough to withstand Tatar sieges in 1520 and 1536.

In 1612, the so-called national militia, gathered by a local merchant, Kuzma Minin, and commanded by Knyaz Dmitry Pozharsky expelled the Polish troops from Moscow, thus putting an end to the "Time of Troubles" and establishing the rule of the Romanov dynasty. The main square before the kremlin is named after Minin and Pozharsky, although it is locally known simply as "Minin Square." Minin's remains are buried in the citadel. (In commemoration of these events, on October 21, 2005, an exact copy of the Red Square statue of Minin and Pozharsky was placed in front of St John the Baptist Church, which is believed to be the place from where the call to the people had been proclaimed.)

In the course of the following century, the city prospered commercially and was chosen by the Stroganovs (the wealthiest merchant family of Russia) as a base for their operations. A particular style of architecture and icon painting, known as the Stroganov style, developed there at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.[citation needed]

The historical coat of arms of Nizhny Novgorod in 1981 was a red deer with black horns and hooves on a white field. The modern coat of arms circa 1992 is the same, but the shield can be adorned with golden oak leaves tied with a ribbon with colours of the Russian national flag.

Great trade center

This building formerly housed the Great Russian Fair
Shukhov towers built in the Nizhny Novgorod suburbs near Dzerzhinsk in 1927–1929; one of them is still in place

In 1817, the Makaryev Fair, one of the liveliest in the world, was transferred to Nizhny Novgorod, and started to attract millions of visitors annually. By the mid-19th century, the city was firmly established as the trade capital of the Russian Empire. The world's first radio receiver by engineer Alexander Popov and the world's first hyperboloid tower and lattice shell-coverings by engineer Vladimir Shukhov were demonstrated at the All-Russia industrial and art exhibition in Nizhny Novgorod in 1896. According to official Imperial Russian statistics the population of Nizhny Novgorod as of 14 January 1913 was 97,000.

The largest industrial enterprise was the Sormovo Iron Works which was connected by the company's own railway to Moscow station in the upper part of Nizhny Novgorod. The private Moscow to Kazan Railway Company's station was in the lower part of the city. Other industries gradually developed, and by the start of the 20th century the city was also a first-rank industrial hub. Henry Ford helped build a large truck and tractor plant (GAZ) in the late 1920s, sending engineers and mechanics, including future labour leader Walter Reuther.

Soviet era

There were no permanent bridges over the Volga or Oka before the October Revolution in 1917. Temporary bridges were built during the trade fair. The first bridge over the Volga was started by the Moscow-Kazan Railway Company in 1914, but only finished in the Soviet Era when the railway to Kotelnich was opened for service in 1927.

Maxim Gorky was born in Nizhny Novgorod in 1868 as Alexey Maximovich Peshkov. In his novels he described the dismal life of the city proletariat.

Even during his lifetime, the city was renamed Gorky following his return to the Soviet Union in 1932 on the invitation of Joseph Stalin. The city bore Gorky's name until 1990. His childhood home is preserved as a museum, known as the Kashirin House, after Alexey's grandfather who owned the place.

During much of the Soviet era, the city was closed to foreigners to safeguard the security of Soviet military research and production facilities, even though it was a popular stopping point for Soviet tourists traveling up and down the Volga in tourist boats. Unusually for a Soviet city of that size, even street maps were not available for sale until the mid-1970s.

Mátyás Rákosi, communist leader of Hungary, died there in 1971. The physicist and Nobel laureate Andrei Sakharov was exiled there during 1980-1986 to limit his contacts with foreigners.

An end to the "closed" status of the city accompanied the reinstatement of the city's original name in 1990.[13]

Russian Federation

Since the 1990s, was the site of Lower specialized international forums and exhibitions based on the newly created company "Nizhniy Novgorod fair." In 2000, with the formation of the Volga Federal District city became its center.

Downtown consists in the historical section, despite the fact that the narrow streets become an obstacle to this. In the early 2000s, the historic center begins actively to be built high-rise residential and office buildings, often carried out infill development that has consistently attracted public attention. Arson old wooden buildings are also a problem downtown. Some construction projects started before the crisis of 2008-2009, currently remain frozen, resulting in a lot of the center meets the unfinished retail and office buildings.

In 2010, the city government, with public participation was approved a new master plan development. The new concept of development of business activity involves moving from congested historic center of the city beyond the river (such transfer envisaged by Soviet general plans of the 1980s), the development of the metro, light rail and expansion of the urban area.

Administrative and municipal status

Nizhny Novgorod is the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with one resort settlement and twelve rural localities, incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Nizhny Novgorod is incorporated as Nizhny Novgorod Urban Okrug.[9]

City layout and divisions

State Bank of Nizhny Novgorod built in 1913

Nizhny Novgorod is divided by the Oka River into two distinct parts. The Upper City (Russian: Нагорная часть, Nagornaya chast) is located on the hilly eastern (right) bank of the Oka. It includes three of the eight city districts into which the city is administratively divided:

The Lower City (Russian: Заречная часть, Zarechnaya chast) occupies the low (western) side of the Oka, and includes five city districts:

All of today's lower city was annexed by Nizhny Novgorod in 1929–1931.

Demographics

Nizhny Novgorod is the fifth largest city in Russia, ranking after Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, and Yekaterinburg.

Climate

The climate in the region is continental, specifically humid continental (Dfb), and it is similar to the climate in Moscow, although colder in winter, which lasts from late November until late March with a permanent snow cover. Average temperatures range from +19 °C (66 °F) in July to −9 °C (16 °F) in January.

Climate data for Nizhny Novgorod
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.5
(41.9)
7.0
(44.6)
17.3
(63.1)
26.3
(79.3)
32.5
(90.5)
36.3
(97.3)
38.3
(100.9)
38.0
(100.4)
31.0
(87.8)
24.2
(75.6)
13.2
(55.8)
8.5
(47.3)
38.3
(100.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −5.9
(21.4)
−5.3
(22.5)
1.2
(34.2)
10.9
(51.6)
18.7
(65.7)
22.6
(72.7)
24.7
(76.5)
22.1
(71.8)
15.7
(60.3)
8.0
(46.4)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.6
(23.7)
9.0
(48.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −8.9
(16.0)
−8.7
(16.3)
−2.6
(27.3)
6.1
(43.0)
12.9
(55.2)
17.2
(63.0)
19.4
(66.9)
16.9
(62.4)
11.1
(52.0)
4.7
(40.5)
−2.8
(27.0)
−7.4
(18.7)
4.8
(40.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −11.6
(11.1)
−11.7
(10.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
2.1
(35.8)
7.9
(46.2)
12.6
(54.7)
14.8
(58.6)
12.6
(54.7)
7.6
(45.7)
2.1
(35.8)
−4.8
(23.4)
−9.9
(14.2)
1.3
(34.3)
Record low °C (°F) −41.2
(−42.2)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−6.9
(19.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
5.1
(41.2)
0.9
(33.6)
−5.4
(22.3)
−16.0
(3.2)
−29.4
(−20.9)
−41.4
(−42.5)
−41.4
(−42.5)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 47
(1.9)
38
(1.5)
37
(1.5)
36
(1.4)
46
(1.8)
76
(3.0)
73
(2.9)
69
(2.7)
61
(2.4)
64
(2.5)
55
(2.2)
55
(2.2)
657
(25.9)
Average rainy days 4 3 5 12 15 18 16 16 17 17 10 6 139
Average snowy days 27 22 16 6 1 0.1 0 0 0.4 7 18 25 123
Average relative humidity (%) 85 81 75 65 62 70 71 75 79 82 86 85 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 40.0 77.1 146.1 203.8 278.3 289.6 290.1 239.4 152.2 81.3 38.5 24.4 1,860.9
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[16]
Source 2: Weatherbase (sun only)[17]

Economy

Information technology

Nizhny Novgorod is one of the centers of the IT Industry in Russia. It ranks among the leading Russian cities in terms of the quantity of software R&D providers. Intel has a big software R&D center with more than 500 engineers in the city, as well as a major datacenter. In Nizhny Novgorod there is also a number of offshore outsourcing software developers, including Bell Integrator, Itseez, Tecom, Luximax Systems Ltd., MERA Networks, RealEast Networks, Auriga, SoftDrom, and Teleca, and many other smaller ones that specialize in delivering services to telecommunication vendors.

There are twenty-five scientific R&D institutions focusing on telecommunications, radio technology, theoretical and applied physics, and thirty-three higher educational institutions, among them are Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy, Nizhny Novgorod State University, Nizhny Novgorod Technical University, as well as Nizhny Novgorod Institute of Information Technologies (former MERA Networks training center), that focuses on information technologies, software development, system administration, telecommunications, cellular networks, Internet technologies, and IT management.

Nizhny Novgorod has also been chosen as one of four sites for building an IT-oriented technology park—a special zone that has an established infrastructure and enjoys a favorable tax and customs policy.

Engineering industry

The engineering industry is the leading industry of Nizhny Novgorod economy. It is mainly oriented towards transportation, i.e., the auto industry, shipbuilding, diesel engines, aircraft manufacture, and machine tools, with the auto industry being the leading sector (50%). Largest plants include:

Transportation

OO gauge Model Railway of the high speed Sapsan Railway from Moscow – Saint Petersburg Railway and Moscow to Nizhny Novgorod Railway in the Museum of the Moscow Railway, Moscow
The Metro Bridge
One of the three bridges spanning the Oka
Riverside terminal

Railway

The Gorkovskaya Railroad, a Russian Railways department which operates some 5,700 kilometers (3,500 mi) of rail lines throughout the Middle Volga region and 1,200 kilometers (750 mi) in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, is headquartered in Nizhny Novgorod. Since 1862, there is a railway connection between Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow.[18] Overnight trains provide access to Nizhny Novgorod from Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Kazan, Yaroslavl and others. Since December 2002, a fast train transports passengers between Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow in less than five hours. One can continue from Nizhny Novgorod eastward along the Trans-Siberian Railway, with direct trains to major cities in the Urals and Siberia, as well as to Beijing, Pyongyang, and Ulan-Bator.

The first high-speed rail Sapsan train to Moscow (Kursky Rail Terminal) and Saint Petersburg (Moskovsky Rail Terminal) was launched on July 30, 2010.[19]

Suburban commuter trains (elektrichka) connect Nizhny Novgorod with Vladimir, Dzerzhinsk, Murom, Kirov, Arzamas, Zavolzhye, Balakhna, and others.

Airport

The Nizhny Novgorod International Airport has direct flights to major Russian cities, as well as to Frankfurt (five flights a week by Lufthansa), Dubai, Prague. The air base Sormovo was an important military airlift facility, and Pravdinsk air base was an interceptor aircraft base during the Cold War. S7 Airlines, UTair Aviation goes to Moscow's Domodedovo and Vnukovo Airports daily.

Waterways

Nizhny Novgorod is an important center of Volga cargo and passenger shipping. In the summer, cruise vessels operate between Nizhny Novgorod, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, and Astrakhan. In 2006 a small number of Meteor-class hydrofoils resumed operations on the Volga river.

Highway

The city is served by Russian highway M-7 (Moscow – Nizhny Novgorod – Kazan – Ufa), and is a hub of the regional highway network.

Public transportation

Public transportation within the city is provided by a small subway system (Nizhny Novgorod Metro), tramways, marshrutkas (routed taxis), buses, and trolleybuses. Electric and diesel commuter trains run to suburbs in several directions.

Free shuttle buses run from several points in the city to the MEGA shopping complex, which opened in October 2006 in Fedyakovo, a few kilometers to the east of the Nizhny Novgorod city line.[20]

Aerial tramway

The Nizhny Novgorod Volga Aerial Tramway from Nizhny Novgorod to Bor across Volga river, was opened in 2012.

Main sights

Much of the city downtown is built in the Russian Revival and Stalin Empire styles. The dominating feature of the city skyline is the grand Kremlin (1500–1511), with its red-brick towers. After Bolshevik devastation, the only ancient edifice left within the kremlin walls is the tent-like Archangel Cathedral (1624–31), first built in stone in the 13th century.

Cultural features

Planetarium and circus

There are more than six hundred unique historic, architectural, and cultural monuments in the city.

There are about two hundred municipal and regional art and cultural institutions within Nizhny Novgorod. Among these institutions there are eight theaters, five concert halls, ninety-seven libraries (with branches), seventeen movie theaters (including five movie theaters for children), twenty-five institutions of children optional education, eight museums (sixteen including branches), and seven parks.

Nizhny Novgorod art gallery

The art gallery in Nizhny Novgorod is a large and important art gallery and museums of human history and culture.

Nizhny Novgorod has a great and extraordinary art gallery with more than 12,000 exhibits, an enormous collection of works by Russian artists such as Viktor Vasnetsov, Karl Briullov, Ivan Shishkin, Ivan Kramskoi, Ilya Yefimovich Repin, Isaak Iljitsch Lewitan, Vasily Surikov, Ivan Aivazovsky, there are also greater collections of works by Boris Kustodiev and Nicholas Roerich, not only Russian art is part of the exhibition it include also a vast accumulation of Western European art like works by David Teniers the Younger, Bernardo Bellotto, Lucas Cranach the Elder, Pieter de Grebber, Giuseppe Maria Crespi, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, and lot more.

Finally what makes this gallery extremely important is the amazing collection Russian avant-garde with works by Kazimir Malevich, Wassily Kandinsky, Natalia Goncharova, Mikhail Larionov and so on. There is also collection of East Asian art.

Houses of worship

Pechersky Ascension Monastery
New Fair Cathedral (Alexander Nevsky Cathedral)
Savior (Old Fair) Cathedral

Other notable landmarks are the two great medieval abbeys. The Pechersky Ascension Monastery features the austere five-domed cathedral (1632) and two rare churches surmounted by tent roofs, dating from the 1640s. The Annunciation monastery, likewise surrounded by strong walls, has another five-domed cathedral (1649) and the Assumption church (1678). The only private house preserved from that epoch formerly belonged to the merchant Pushnikov.

There can be little doubt that the most original and delightful churches in the city were built by the Stroganovs in the nascent Baroque style. Of these, the Virgin's Nativity Church (1719) graces one of the central streets, whereas the Church of Our Lady of Smolensk (1694–97) survives in the former village of Gordeyevka (now, part of the city's Kanavinsky District), where the Stroganov palace once stood.

Other notable churches include:

There is also a mosque in Sennaya Square, where the Muslim populations of the city go for Friday prayers, Islamic activities and activities which are organized by the mosque. There is also a small shop to buy halal meats. Most of the Muslims in this city are Tatars.

The centrally located Nizhny Novgorod Synagogue was built in 1881-1883; disused during the Soviet era, it was renovated and reopened ca. 1991.

Other

A singular monument of industrial architecture is a 128-meter-high open-work hyperboloid tower built on the bank of the Oka near Dzerzhinsk as part of a powerline river crossing by the eminent engineer and scientist Vladimir Shukhov in 1929.

A staircase connecting the Kremlin with the Volga river offers a panoramic view of the surroundings. The staircase itself was constructed in the late 1940s by German prisoners of war forced to labor around Gorky.

Education

Nizhny Novgorod is home to the following educational facilities:

There are also twenty research institutes located in the city.

Sports

Several sports clubs are active in the city:

Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Volga Nizhny Novgorod Football 1963 Russian Premier League 1st Lokomotiv Stadium
Torpedo Nizhny Novgorod Ice Hockey 1946 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Trade Union Sport Palace
Start Nizhny Novgorod Bandy 1932 Bandy Super League 1st Start Stadium
BC Nizhny Novgorod Basketball 2000 Professional Basketball League 1st Trade Union Sport Palace
Guberniya Nizhny Novgorod Volleyball 2008 Volleyball Super League 1st FOK Zarechye
Sparta Volleyball 2000 Women's Volleyball Supreme League A 2nd FOK Zarechye
Futbol-Hokkey NN Futsal 1996 Futsal Supreme League 2nd FOK Krasnaya Gorka

2018 FIFA World Cup

Russia became the host nation for the 2018 FIFA World Cup, and it has been decided that some matches will be played in Nizhny Novgorod in a stadium yet to be built. The stadium will be built on an island in the Volga river and will have a capacity of 44,899 people.[23]

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Nizhny Novgorod

International relations

Volga riverside view

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Twin towns and sister cities

Nizhny Novgorod is twinned with:

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #184-Z
  2. ^ a b Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 1.2
  3. ^ a b c Official website of Nizhny Novgorod. Overview of the city Template:Ru icon
  4. ^ Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 26.1.1
  5. ^ Official website of Nizhny Novgorod. Vadim Yevgenyevich Bulavinov, Head of the Administration of Nizhny Novgorod Template:Ru icon
  6. ^ Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 26.1.2
  7. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Law #205-Z
  10. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. ^ Russian Post. Postal Code Search Template:Ru icon
  12. ^ Charter of Nizhny Novgorod, Article 2.2
  13. ^ a b c Decree of October 22, 1990, Article 1
  14. ^ Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  15. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  17. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Nizhny-Novgorod, Russia". Weatherbase. Retrieved December 13, 2012.
  18. ^ Train Station in Nizhny Novgorod Template:Ru icon
  19. ^ "Russian Railways Sapsan to Nizhny Novgorod press release".
  20. ^ How to get to MEGA
  21. ^ http://www.nntu.sci-nnov.ru/nstu.html
  22. ^ "Нижегородский институт управления - филиал РАНХиГС (бывш. ВВАГС)". Vvags.ru. June 25, 2012. Retrieved March 26, 2013.
  23. ^ [1][dead link]
  24. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). © 2009 Twins2010.com. Retrieved October 28, 2009. ((cite web)): External link in |publisher= (help)[dead link]

Sources

Web-cameras

Template:Link GA