Sukhumi

Аҟәа  (Abkhazian)
სოხუმი  (Georgian)
Сухум(и)  (Russian)

Sokhumi, Aqwa
City
Coat of arms
Sukhumi
Sukhumi
Location of Sukhumi in Abkhazia
Sukhumi
Sukhumi
Location of Sukhumi in Georgia
Coordinates: 43°00′12″N 41°00′55″E / 43.00333°N 41.01528°E / 43.00333; 41.01528
Country Georgia
Partially recognized state Abkhazia[1]
Settled6th century BC
City Status1848
Government
 • MayorAdgur Kharazia
Area
 • Total27 km2 (10 sq mi)
Highest elevation
140 m (460 ft)
Lowest elevation
5 m (16 ft)
Population
 (2018)
 • Total65,439[2]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Postal code
384900
Area code+7 840 22x-xx-xx
Vehicle registrationABH
Websitewww.sukhumcity.ru

Sukhumi or Sokhumi, also known by its official Abkhaz name Aqwa (Abkhazian: Аҟәа, Aqwa; Georgian: სოხუმი, [sɔxumi] (About this soundlisten); Russian: Суху́м(и), Sukhum(i) [sʊˈxum(ʲɪ)]), is a city on the Black Sea coast. It is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Abkhazia, which has controlled it since its war of independence, although most of the international community considers it legally part of Georgia.

Sukhumi's history can be traced back to the 6th century BC, when it was settled by Greeks, who named it Dioscurias. During this time and the subsequent Roman period, much of the city disappeared under the Black Sea. The city was named Tskhumi when it became part of the Kingdom of Abkhazia and then the Kingdom of Georgia. Contested by local princes, it became part of the Ottoman Empire in the 1570s, where it remained until it was conquered by the Russian Empire in 1810. After a period of conflict during the Russian Civil War, it became part of the independent Georgia, which included Abkhazia, in 1918.[3] In 1921, the Democratic Republic of Georgia was occupied by Soviet Bolshevik forces from Russia. Within the Soviet Union, it was regarded as a holiday resort. As the Soviet Union broke up in the early 1990s, the city suffered significant damage during the Abkhaz–Georgian conflict. The present-day population of 60,000 is only half of the population living there toward the end of Soviet rule.

Naming

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In Georgian, the city is known as სოხუმი (Sokhumi) or აყუ (Aqu),[4] in Megrelian as აყუჯიხა (Aqujikha),[5] and in Russian as Сухум (Sukhum) or Сухуми (Sukhumi). The toponym Sokhumi derives from the Georgian word Tskhomi/Tskhumi, meaning beech.[6] It is significant that "dia" in several dialects of Georgian and in Mingrelian means mother and "skuri" means water.[6][better source needed] In Abkhaz, the city is known as Аҟәа (Aqwa), which, according to native tradition, signifies water.[7]

Medieval Georgian sources knew the town as Tskhumi (ცხუმი).[8][9][10] Later, under Ottoman control, the town was known in Turkish as Suhum-Kale, which can be derived from the earlier Georgian form Tskhumi or read to mean "water-sand fortress".[11][12] Tskhumi in turn is supposed to be derived from the Svan language word for "hot",[13] or the Georgian word for "hornbeam tree".

The ending -i in the above forms represents the Georgian nominative suffix. The town was officially called Сухум (Sukhum) in Russian until 16 August 1936, when this was changed to Сухуми (Sukhumi).[citation needed] This remained so until 4 December 1992, when the Supreme Council of Abkhazia restored the original version.[citation needed] Russia also readopted its official spelling in 2008,[14] though Сухуми is also still being used.

In English, the most common form today is Sukhumi, although Sokhumi is increasing in usage and has been adopted by sources including Encyclopædia Britannica,[15] MSN Encarta,[16] Esri[17] and Google Maps.[18]

General information

Sukhumi is on a wide bay of the eastern coast of the Black Sea and serves as a port, rail junction and a holiday resort. It is known for its beaches, sanatoriums, mineral-water spas and semitropical climate. Sukhumi Dranda Airport is near the city. The city is a member of the International Black Sea Club.[19]

History

Coin of Dioscurias, late 2nd century BC. Obverse: The caps (pilei) of Dioscuri surmounted by stars; reverse: Thyrsos, ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡΙΑΔΟΣ
Coin of Dioscurias, late 2nd century BC. Obverse: The caps (pilei) of Dioscuri surmounted by stars; reverse: Thyrsos, ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡΙΑΔΟΣ

The history of the city began in the mid-6th century BC when an earlier settlement of the second and early first millennia BC, frequented by local Colchian tribes, was replaced by the Milesian Greek colony of Dioscurias (Greek: Διοσκουριάς).[20][21] The city is said to have been founded[22][23] and named by the Dioscuri, the twins Castor and Pollux of classical mythology. According to another legend it was founded by Amphitus and Cercius of Sparta, the charioteers of the Dioscuri.[24][25] The Greek pottery found in Eshera, further north along the coast, predates findings in the area of Sukhumi bay by a century suggesting that the centre of the original Greek settlement could have been there.[26]

It became busily engaged in the commerce between Greece and the indigenous tribes, importing salt[27] and wares from many parts of Greece, and exporting local timber, linen, and hemp. It was also a prime center of slave trade in Colchis.[28] The city and its surroundings were remarkable for the multitude of languages spoken in its bazaars.[29]

Although the sea made serious inroads upon the territory of Dioscurias, it continued to flourish and became one of the key cities in the realm of Mithridates VI of Pontus in the 2nd century BC and supported his cause until the end. Dioscurias issued bronze coinage around 100 BC featuring the symbols of the Dioskuri and Dionysus.[30] Under the Roman emperor Augustus the city assumed the name of Sebastopolis[31] (Greek: Σεβαστούπολις). But its prosperity was past, and in the 1st century Pliny the Elder described the place as virtually deserted though the town still continued to exist during the times of Arrian in the 130s.[32] The remains of towers and walls of Sebastopolis have been found underwater; on land the lowest levels so far reached by archaeologists are of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. According to Gregory of Nyssa there were Christians in the city in the late 4th century.[33] In 542 the Romans evacuated the town and demolished its citadel to prevent it from being captured by Sasanian Empire. In 565, however, the emperor Justinian I restored the fort and Sebastopolis continued to remain one of the Byzantine strongholds in Colchis until being sacked by the Arab conqueror Marwan II in 736.

Afterwards, the town came to be known as Tskhumi.[13] Restored by the kings of Abkhazia from the Arab devastation, it particularly flourished during the Georgian Golden Age in the 12th–13th centuries, when Tskhumi became a center of traffic with the European maritime powers, particularly with the Republic of Genoa. Early in the 14th century the Genoese established their short-lived trading factory in Tskhumi and a Catholic bishopric existed there which is now a titular see.[34] The city of Tskhumi became the summer residence of the Georgian kings. According to Russian scholar V. Sizov, it became an important “cultural and administrative center of the Georgian state.[35] A Later Tskhumi served as capital of the OdishiMegrelian rulers, it was in this city that Vamek I (c. 1384–1396), the most influential Dadiani, minted his coins.[36]

The Sohum-Kale fort in the early 19th century.
The Sohum-Kale fort in the early 19th century.

Documents of the 15th century clearly distinguished Tskhumi from Principality of Abkhazia.[37] The Ottoman navy occupied the town in 1451, but for a short time. Later contested between the princes of Abkhazia and Mingrelia, Tskhumi finally fell to the Turks in the 1570s. The new masters heavily fortified the town and called it Sohumkale, with kale meaning "fort" but the first part of the name of disputed origin. It may represent Turkish su, "water", and kum, "sand", but is more likely to be an alteration of its earlier Georgian name.[13]

Sukhumi Botanical Garden

At the request of the pro-Russian Abkhazian prince, the town was stormed by the Russian Marines in 1810 and turned, subsequently, into a major outpost in the North West Caucasus. (See Russian conquest of the Caucasus). Sukhumi was declared the seaport in 1847 and was directly annexed to the Russian Empire after the ruling Shervashidze princely dynasty was ousted by the Russian authorities in 1864. During the Russo-Turkish War, 1877–1878, the town was temporarily controlled by the Ottoman forces and Abkhaz-Adyghe rebels.

Sukhumi quay
Sukhumi quay

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the town and Abkhazia in general were engulfed in the chaos of the Russian Civil War. A short-lived Bolshevik government was suppressed in May 1918 and Sukhumi was incorporated into the Democratic Republic of Georgia as a residence of the autonomous People's Council of Abkhazia and the headquarters of the Georgian governor-general. The Red Army and the local revolutionaries took the city from the Georgian forces on 4 March 1921, and declared Soviet rule. Sukhumi functioned as the capital of the "Union treaty" Abkhaz Soviet Socialist Republic associated with the Georgian SSR from 1921 until 1931, when it became the capital of the Abkhazian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the Georgian SSR. By 1989, Sukhumi had 120,000 inhabitants and was one of the most prosperous cities of Georgia. Many holiday dachas for Soviet leaders were situated there.

Sukhumi in 1912. Early color photo by Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii
Sukhumi in 1912. Early color photo by Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii

Beginning with the 1989 riots, Sukhumi was a centre of the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, and the city was severely damaged during the 1992–1993 War. During the war, the city and its environs suffered almost daily air strikes and artillery shelling, with heavy civilian casualties.[38] On 27 September 1993 the battle for Sukhumi was concluded by a full-scale campaign of ethnic cleansing against its majority Georgian population (see Sukhumi Massacre), including members of the pro-Georgian Abkhazian government (Zhiuli Shartava, Raul Eshba and others) and mayor of Sukhumi Guram Gabiskiria.

Although the city has been relatively peaceful and partially rebuilt, it is still suffering the after-effects of the war, and it has not regained its earlier ethnic diversity. A relatively large infrastructure reconstruction program was launched in 2019-2020 focusing on the renovation of the waterfront, rebuilding city roads and cleaning city parks.[citation needed] Its population in 2017 was 65,716, compared to about 120,000 in 1989. During summer holidays season its population usually doubles and triples with a large inflow of international tourists.[39]

Population

Demographics

Historic population figures for Sukhumi, split out by ethnicity, based on population censuses:[40]

Year Abkhaz Armenians Estonians Georgians Greeks Russians Turkish Ukrainians Total
1897 Census 1.8%
(144)
13.5%
(1,083)
0.4%
(32)
30.9%
(2,565)
14.3%
(1,143)
21.1%
(1,685)
2.7%
(216)
7,998
1926 Census 3.1%
(658)
9.4%
(2,023)
0.3%
(63)
23.3%
(5,036)
10.7%
(2,298)
23.7%
(5,104)
--- 10.4%
(2,234)
21,568
1939 Census 5.5%
(2,415)
9.8%
(4,322)
0.5%
(206)
19.9%
(8,813)
11.3%
(4,990)
41.9%
(18,580)
--- 4.6%
(2,033)
44,299
1959 Census 5.6%
(3,647)
10.5%
(6,783)
--- 31.1%
(20,110)
4.9%
(3,141)
36.8%
(23,819)
--- 4.3%
(2,756)
64,730
1979 Census 9.9%
(10,766)
10.9%
(11,823)
--- 38.3%
(41,507)
6.5%
(7,069)
26.4%
(28,556)
--- 3.4%
(3,733)
108,337
1989 Census 12.5%
(14,922)
10.3%
(12,242)
--- 41.5%
(49,460)
--- 21.6%
(25,739)
--- --- 119,150
2003 Census 56.3%
(24,603)
12.7%
(5,565)
0.1%
(65)
4.0%
(1,761)
1.5%
(677)
16.9%
(8,902)
--- 1.6%
(712)
43,716
2011 Census 67.3%
(42,603 )
9.8%
(6,192)
--- 2.8%
(1,755)
1.0%
(645)
14.8%
(9,288)
--- --- 62,914

Religion

Most of the inhabitants belong to the Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic Churches, Islam and the Abkhaz traditional religion.

Culture

Main sights

Sukhumi theatres which offer classical and modern performances, with the theatre season lasting from September to June. Several galleries and museums exhibit modern and historical Abkhaz visual art. Sukhumi Botanical Garden was established in 1840 and is one of the oldest botanical gardens in the Caucasus.

Medieval bridge over the Besletka river known as the Queen Tamar Bridge.
Medieval bridge over the Besletka river known as the Queen Tamar Bridge.

Sukhumi houses a number of historical monuments, notably the Besleti Bridge built during the reign of queen Tamar of Georgia in the 12th century. It also retains visible vestiges of the defunct monuments, including the Roman walls, the medieval Castle of Bagrat, several towers of the Kelasuri Wall, also known as Great Abkhazian Wall, constructed between 1628 and 1653 by Levan II Dadiani to protect his fiefdom from the Abkhaz tribes;[41] the 14th-century Genoese fort and the 18th-century Ottoman fortress. The 11th century Kamani Monastery (12 kilometres (7 miles) from Sukhumi) is erected, according to tradition, over the tomb of Saint John Chrysostom. Some 22 km (14 mi) from Sukhumi lies New Athos with the ruins of the medieval city of Anacopia. The Neo-Byzantine New Athos Monastery was constructed here in the 1880s on behest of Tsar Alexander III of Russia.

Northward in the mountains is the Krubera Cave, one of the deepest in the world, with a depth of 2,140 meters.[42]

Education

The city hosts a number of research and educational institutions, including the Abkhazian State University, the Sukhumi Open Institute and about a half a dozen of vocational education colleges. From 1945 to 1954 the city's electron physics laboratory was involved in the Soviet program to develop nuclear weapons. Additionally, the Abkhaz State Archive is located in the city.

Until 19th century young people from Abkhazia usually received their education mainly at religious schools (Muslims at Madrasas and Christians at Seminaries), although a small number of children from wealthy families had opportunity to travel to foreign countries for education. The first modern educational institutions (both schools and colleges) were established in the late 19th-early 20th century and rapidly grew until the second half of the 20th century. For example, the number of college students grew from few dozens in the 1920s to several thousands in the 1980s.

According to the official statistical data, Abkhazia has 12 TVET colleges (as of 2019, est.) providing education and vocational training to youth mostly in the capital city, though there are several colleges in all major district centers. Independent international assessments suggest that these colleges train in about 20 different specialties attracting between 1200 and 1500 young people annually (aged between 16 and 29) (as of 2019, est.).[43] The largest colleges are as follows:[citation needed]

Higher education in Sukhumi currently is represented by one university, Abkhazian State University,[44] which has a special status in the education system in Abkhazia and it manages its own budget.[45]

Abkhaz State University (1979), has its own campus which is a home for 42 departments organized into 8 faculties providing education to about 3300 students (as of 2019, est.).[43]

Climate

Sukhumi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), that is almost cool enough in summer to be an oceanic climate.

Climate data for Sukhumi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 10.0
(50.0)
10.7
(51.3)
12.8
(55.0)
16.8
(62.2)
20.4
(68.7)
24.2
(75.6)
26.5
(79.7)
26.8
(80.2)
24.1
(75.4)
20.3
(68.5)
15.6
(60.1)
12.0
(53.6)
18.3
(65.0)
Average low °C (°F) 2.2
(36.0)
2.7
(36.9)
4.5
(40.1)
8.3
(46.9)
12.2
(54.0)
16.2
(61.2)
19.0
(66.2)
18.6
(65.5)
14.8
(58.6)
10.4
(50.7)
6.6
(43.9)
3.9
(39.0)
10.0
(49.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 102
(4.0)
76
(3.0)
102
(4.0)
102
(4.0)
92
(3.6)
89
(3.5)
83
(3.3)
107
(4.2)
120
(4.7)
114
(4.5)
104
(4.1)
108
(4.3)
1,199
(47.2)
Average rainy days 17 15 16 15 12 11 10 10 10 12 16 16 160
Source 1: climatebase.ru[46]
Source 2: Georgia Travel Climate Information[47]

Administration

On 2 February 2000, President Ardzinba dismissed temporary Mayor Leonid Osia and appointed Leonid Lolua in his stead.[48] Lolua was reappointed on 10 May 2001 following the March 2001 local elections.[49]

On 5 November 2004, in the heated aftermath of the 2004 presidential election, president Vladislav Ardzinba appointed head of the Gulripsh district assembly Adgur Kharazia as acting mayor. During his first speech he called upon the two leading candidates, Sergei Bagapsh and Raul Khadjimba, to both withdraw.[50]

On 16 February 2005, after his election as president, Bagapsh replaced Kharazia with Astamur Adleiba, who had been Minister for Youth, Sports, Resorts and Tourism until December 2004.[51] In the 11 February 2007 local elections, Adleiba successfully defended his seat in the Sukhumi city assembly and was thereupon reappointed mayor by Bagapsh on 20 March.[52]

In April 2007, while President Bagapsh was in Moscow for medical treatment, the results of an investigation into corruption within the Sukhumi city administration were made public. The investigation found that large sums had been embezzled and upon his return, on 2 May, Bagapsh fired Adleiba along with his deputy Boris Achba, the head of the Sukhumi's finance department Konstantin Tuzhba and the head of the housing department David Jinjolia.[53] On 4 June Adleiba paid back to the municipal budget 200,000 rubels.[54] and on 23 July, he resigned from the Sukhumi city council, citing health reasons and the need to travel abroad for medical treatment.[55]

On 15 May 2007, president Bagapsh released Alias Labakhua as First Deputy Chairman of the State Customs Committee and appointed him acting Mayor of Sukhumi, a post temporarily fulfilled by former Vice-Mayor Anzor Kortua. On 27 May Labakhua appointed Vadim Cherkezia as Deputy Chief of staff.[56] On 2 September, Labakhua won the by-election in constituency No. 21, which had become necessary after Adleiba relinquished his seat. Adleiba was the only candidate and voter turnout was 34%, higher than the 25% required.[57] Since Adleiba was now a member of the city assembly, president Bagapsh could permanently appoint him Mayor of Sukhumi on 18 September.[58]

Following the May 2014 Revolution and the election of Raul Khajimba as president, he on 22 October dismissed Labakhua and again appointed (as acting Mayor) Adgur Kharazia, who at that point was Vice Speaker of the People's Assembly.[59] Kharazia won the 4 April 2015 by-election to the City Council in constituency no. 3 unopposed,[60] and was confirmed as mayor by Khajimba on 4 May.[61]

List of Mayors

# Name From Until President Comments
Chairmen of the (executive committee of the) City Soviet:
Vladimir Mikanba 1975 [62] 1985 [62]
D. Gubaz <=1989 >=1989
Nodar Khashba 1991 [62] First time
Guram Gabiskiria 1992 27 September 1993
Heads of the City Administration:
Nodar Khashba 1993 [62] 26 November 1994 Second time
26 November 1994 1995 [62] Vladislav Ardzinba
Garri Aiba 1995 2000
Leonid Osia 2 February 2000 [48] Acting Mayor
Leonid Lolua 2 February 2000 [48] 5 November 2004 [50]
Adgur Kharazia 5 November 2004 [50] 16 February 2005 [51] Acting Mayor, first time
Astamur Adleiba 16 February 2005 [51] 2 May 2007 [53] Sergei Bagapsh
Anzor Kortua May 2007 15 May 2007 Acting Mayor
Alias Labakhua 15 May 2007 29 May 2011
29 May 2011 1 June 2014 Alexander Ankvab
1 June 2014 22 October 2014 Valeri Bganba
Adgur Kharazia 22 October 2014 Present Raul Khajimba Second time

Transport

Railway station
Railway station

The city is served by several trolleybus and bus routes. Sukhumi is connected to other Abkhazian towns by bus routes.[citation needed]

There is a railway station in Sukhumi, that has a daily train to Moscow via Sochi.[63]

Babushara Airport now handles only local flights due to the disputed status of Abkhazia.[citation needed]

Notable people

Notable people who are from or have resided in Sukhumi:

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Georgia

Twin towns — Sister cities

Sukhumi is twinned with the following cities:

See also

References

  1. ^ Abkhazia is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Abkhazia and Georgia. The Republic of Abkhazia unilaterally declared independence on 23 July 1992, but Georgia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory and designates it as a territory occupied by Russia. Abkhazia has received formal recognition as an independent state from 7 out of 193 United Nations member states, 1 of which has subsequently withdrawn its recognition.
  2. ^ https://ugsra.org/ofitsialnaya-statistika.php?ELEMENT_ID=386
  3. ^ Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abkhazia". Encyclopedia Britannica. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica Inc. pp. 33. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
  4. ^ Abkhaz Loans in Megrelian, p. 65
  5. ^ Otar Kajaia, 2001–2004, Megrelian-Georgian Dictionary (entry aq'ujixa).
  6. ^ a b Assays from the history of Georgia. Abkhazia from ancient times to the present day. Tbilisi, Georgia: Intelect. ISBN 978-9941-410-69-7.
  7. ^ Colarusso, John. "More Pontic: Further Etymologies between Indo-European and Northwest Caucasian" (PDF). p. 54. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
  8. ^ Vita Sanctae Ninonis Archived 5 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. TITUS Old Georgian hagiographical and homiletic texts: Part No. 39
  9. ^ Martyrium David et Constantini Archived 5 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. TITUS Old Georgian hagiographical and homiletic texts: Part No. 41
  10. ^ Kartlis Cxovreba: Part No. 233. TITUS
  11. ^ Goltz, Thomas (2009). "4. An Abkhazian Interlude". Georgia Diary (Expanded ed.). Armonk, New York / London, England: M.E. Sharpe. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-7656-2416-1.
  12. ^ Abkhazeti.info (in Russian)
  13. ^ a b c Room, A. (2005), Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features and Historic Sites. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, Jefferson, North Carolina, and London, ISBN 0-7864-2248-3, p. 361
  14. ^ Абхазию и Южную Осетию на картах в РФ выкрасят в "негрузинские" цвета
  15. ^ "Sokhumi". (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 6 November 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: Britannica.com
  16. ^ "Sokhumi". (2006). In Encarta. Retrieved 6 November 2006: Encarta.msn.com Archived 30 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine
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  18. ^ "Google Maps changes Sukhumi to Sokhumi following Georgia's request". Agenda.ge. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
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  20. ^ Arrian, Periplus of the Euxine Sea, 14
  21. ^ King, Charles (2004). "The Expedition of Flavius Arrianus". The Black Sea. A history. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-924161-3.
  22. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 275
  23. ^ Pomponius Mela, Chorographia, 1.111
  24. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 22.8.24
  25. ^ Solinus, Polyhistor, 15.17
  26. ^ David, Braund (1994). Georgia in Antiquity. A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC AD 562. Calendon Press. pp. 107–108. ISBN 0198144733.
  27. ^ David, Braund (1994). Georgia in Antiquity. A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC AD 562. Calendon Press. p. 58. ISBN 0198144733.
  28. ^ Blair, William (1833). An inquiry into the state of slavery amongst the Romans. T. Clark. p. 25.
  29. ^ Strabo, The Geography, BOOK XI, II, 16
  30. ^ David, Braund (1994). Georgia in Antiquity. A History of Colchis and Transcaucasian Iberia 550 BC AD 562. Calendon Press. pp. 158–159. ISBN 0198144733.
  31. ^ Hewitt, George (1998) The Abkhazians: a handbook St. Martin's Press, New York, p. 62, ISBN 0-312-21975-X
  32. ^ Dioscurias. A Guide to the Ancient World, H.W. Wilson (1986). Retrieved 20 July 2006, from Xreferplus.com[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ Vinogradov, Andrey (2014). "Some Notes On The Topography Of Eastern Pontos Euxeinos In Late Antiquity And Early Byzantium". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
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  36. ^ "Abkhazia – Unfalsified History" Zurab Papaskiri.
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  38. ^ "The Human Rights Watch report, March 1995 Vol. 7, No. 7". Hrw.org. Retrieved 4 July 2010.
  39. ^ 2003 Census statistics (in Russian)
  40. ^ Population censuses in Abkhazia: 1886, 1926, 1939, 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989, 2003 (in Russian)
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  43. ^ a b https://ugsra.org/ofitsialnaya-statistika.php?ELEMENT_ID=409
  44. ^ Abkhazian State University on Abkhazian Chamber of Commerce website
  45. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 May 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) (in Russian)
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  47. ^ "Georgia, Sukhumi climate information". Travel-climate.com. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
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Sources and external links

Coordinates: 43°00′N 41°01′E / 43.000°N 41.017°E / 43.000; 41.017