Tokyo Metropolis
Clockwise from top:
The Big Mikan,[1] New York of Eastern Asia
Anthem: "Tokyo Metropolitan Song"
(東京都歌, Tōkyō-to Ka)
Interactive map outlining Tokyo
Location within Japan
Location within Japan
Coordinates: 35°41′23″N 139°41′32″E / 35.68972°N 139.69222°E / 35.68972; 139.69222
CapitalTokyo (de facto; de iure: Shinjuku)[2]
Divisions23 special wards, 26 cities, 1 district, and 4 subprefectures
 • BodyTokyo Metropolitan Government
 • GovernorYuriko Koike (Indp.)
 • Representatives42
 • Councilors11
 • Total2,194 km2 (847 sq mi)
 • Metro
13,452 km2 (5,194 sq mi)
 • Rank45th in Japan
Highest elevation2,017 m (6,617 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
 • Total14,094,034
 • Rank1st in Japan
 • Density6,363/km2 (16,480/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro40,800,000
 • Metro density3,000/km2 (7,900/sq mi)
 • Dialects
GDP [7]
 • TotalJP¥109.692 trillion
US$1.027 trillion (2020)
 • MetroJP¥222.129 trillion
US$2.084 trillion (2020)
Time zoneUTC+09:00 (Japan Standard Time)
ISO 3166-2
FlowerYoshino cherry
BirdBlack-headed gull

Tokyo (/ˈtki/;[8] Japanese: 東京, Tōkyō, [toːkʲoː] ), officially the Tokyo Metropolis (東京都, Tōkyō-to), is the capital city of Japan and one of the most populous cities in the world, with a population of over 14 million residents as of 2023.[9] The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes Tokyo and parts of six neighbouring prefectures, is the most-populous metropolitan area in the world, with 40.8 million residents as of 2023.[10]

Located at the head of Tokyo Bay, Tokyo is part of the Kantō region on the central coast of Honshu, Japan's largest island. Tokyo serves as Japan's economic center and the seat of both the Japanese government and the Emperor of Japan. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government administers Tokyo's central 23 special wards (which formerly made up Tokyo City), various commuter towns and suburbs in its western area, and two outlying island chains known as the Tokyo Islands. Despite most of the world recognising Tokyo as a city, since 1943 its governing structure has been more akin to a prefecture, with an accompanying Governor and Assembly taking precedence over the smaller municipal governments which make up the metropolis. Notable special wards in Tokyo include Chiyoda, the site of the National Diet Building and the Tokyo Imperial Palace, Shinjuku, the city's administrative center, and Shibuya, a commercial, cultural, and business hub in the city.

Before the 17th century, Tokyo, then known as Edo, was mainly a fishing village. It gained political prominence in 1603 when it became the seat of the Tokugawa shogunate. By the mid-18th century, Edo was among the world's largest cities, with over a million residents. Following the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the imperial capital in Kyoto was moved to Edo, and the city was renamed Tokyo (lit.'Eastern Capital'). In 1923, Tokyo was damaged substantially by the Great Kantō earthquake, and the city was later badly damaged by allied bombing raids during World War II. Beginning in the late 1940s, Tokyo underwent rapid reconstruction and expansion that contributed to the era's so-called Japanese economic miracle in which Japan's economy propelled to the second-largest in the world at the time behind that of the United States.[11] As of 2023, the city is home to 29 of the world's largest 500 companies listed in the annual Fortune Global 500.[12]

In 20th and 21st centuries, Tokyo has hosted several major international events, including the Summer Olympics and Paralympics in 1964, the postponed-Summer Olympics and Paralympics in 2021, and three G7 summits in 1979, 1986, and 1993. Tokyo is an international research and development hub and an academic center with several major universities, including the University of Tokyo, the top-ranking university in the country.[13][14] Tokyo Station is the central hub for the Shinkansen, Japan's high-speed railway network, and Shinjuku Station in Tokyo is the world's busiest train station. The city is home to the world's tallest tower, Tokyo Skytree.[15] The Tokyo Metro Ginza Line, which opened in 1927, is the oldest underground metro line in Asia–Pacific.[16]

Tokyo's nominal gross domestic output was 113.7 trillion yen or US$1.04 trillion in FY2021 and accounted for 20.7% of the country's total economic output, which converts to 8.07 million yen or US$73,820 per capita.[17] Including the Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo is the second-largest metropolitan economy in the world after New York, with a 2022 gross metropolitan product estimated at US$2.08 trillion.[18] Although Tokyo's status as a leading global financial hub has diminished with the Lost Decades since the 1990s, when the Tokyo Stock Exchange was the world's largest, with a market capitalisation about 1.5 times that of the NYSE,[19] the city is still a large financial hub, and the TSE remains among the world's top five major stock exchanges.[20] Tokyo is categorized as an Alpha+ city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. The city is also recognized as one of the world's most livable ones; it was ranked fourth in the world in Global Livability Ranking, published in 2021.[21]


Tōkyō in kanji
Japanese name

Tokyo was originally known as Edo (江戸), a kanji compound of (e, "cove, inlet") and (to, "entrance, gate, door").[22] The name, which can be translated as "estuary", is a reference to the original settlement's location at the meeting of the Sumida River and Tokyo Bay. During the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the name of the city was changed to Tokyo (東京, from "east", and kyō "capital"), when it became the new imperial capital,[23] in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital () in the name of the capital city (for example, Kyoto (京都), Keijō (京城), Beijing (北京), Nanjing (南京), and Xijing (西京)).[22] During the early Meiji period, the city was sometimes called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph. Some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei";[24] however, this pronunciation is now obsolete.[25]


Main article: History of Tokyo

For a chronological guide, see Timeline of Tokyo.

Pre-1869 (Edo period)

Main article: Edo

See also: Perry Expedition and Bakumatsu

Tokyo was originally a village called Edo, in what was formerly part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified by the Edo clan, in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu moved from Mikawa Province (his lifelong base) to the Kantō region. When he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century.[26]

Edo was still the home of the Tokugawa shogunate and was not yet the capital of Japan (the Emperor himself lived in Kyoto almost continuously from 794 to 1868).[27] During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, and in the presence of such peace, the shogunate adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.[28] The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires, earthquakes, and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city.

This prolonged period of seclusion however came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation.[29] Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations, especially in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments.[30] Meanwhile, supporters of the Emperor leveraged the disruption that these widespread rebellious demonstrations were causing to further consolidate power by overthrowing the last Tokugawa shōgun, Yoshinobu, in 1867.[31] After 265 years, the Pax Tokugawa came to an end.

Edo, 1865 or 1866. Photochrom print. Five albumen prints joined to form a panorama. Photographer: Felice Beato.


Main articles: Tokyo City and Tokyo Prefecture (1868–1943)

Edo was renamed Tokyo (Eastern Capital) on September 3, 1868, as the new government was consolidating its power after the fall of the Edo shogunate. The young Emperor Meiji visited once at the end of that year and eventually moved in in 1869. Tokyo was already the nation's political center,[32] and the emperor's residence made it a de facto imperial capital as well, with the former Edo Castle becoming the Imperial Palace. The city of Tokyo was officially established on May 1, 1889.

The Tokyo Metro Ginza Line portion between Ueno and Asakusa was the first subway line built in Japan and East Asia completed on December 30, 1927.[16] Central Tokyo, like Osaka, has been designed since about 1900 to be centered on major railway stations in a high-density fashion, so suburban railways were built relatively cheaply at street level and with their own right-of-way. Though expressways have been built in Tokyo, the basic design has not changed.[citation needed]

Tokyo went on to suffer two major catastrophes in the 20th century: the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, which left 140,000 dead or missing; and World War II.[33]


Main article: Bombing of Tokyo

In 1943, the city of Tokyo merged with the prefecture of Tokyo to form the "Metropolitan Prefecture" of Tokyo. Since then, the Tokyo Metropolitan Government served as both the prefecture government for Tokyo, as well as administering the special wards of Tokyo, for what had previously been Tokyo City. World War II wrought widespread destruction of most of the city due to the persistent Allied air raids on Japan and the use of incendiary bombs. The bombing of Tokyo in 1944 and 1945 is estimated to have killed between 75,000 and 200,000 civilians and left more than half of the city destroyed.[34]

The deadliest night of the war came on March 9–10, 1945, the night of the American "Operation Meetinghouse" raid;[35] as nearly 700,000 incendiary bombs rained on the eastern half of the city, mainly in heavily residential wards. Two-fifths of the city were completely burned, more than 276,000 buildings were demolished, 100,000 civilians were killed, and 110,000 more were injured.[36][37] Between 1940 and 1945, the population of Japan's capital city dwindled from 6,700,000 to less than 2,800,000, with the majority of those who lost their homes living in "ramshackle, makeshift huts".[38]


After the war, Tokyo became the base from which the United States under Douglas MacArthur administered Japan for six years. Tokyo struggled to rebuild as occupation authorities stepped in and drastically cut back on Japanese government rebuilding programs, focusing instead on simply improving roads and transportation. Tokyo did not experience fast economic growth until the 1950s.[39]

After the occupation of Japan ended in 1952, Tokyo was completely rebuilt and was showcased to the world during the 1964 Summer Olympics. Present in Tokyo then were the Yoyogi National Gymnasium and the 0 Series Shinkansen, the first bullet train of its class in the world. The 1970s and the 1980s brought new high-rise developments. In 1978, Sunshine 60 – the tallest skyscraper in Asia until 1985, and in Japan until 1991[40] – and Narita International Airport were constructed, and the population increased to about 11 million in the metropolitan area.[41] The Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum has historic Japanese buildings that existed in the urban landscape of pre-war Tokyo.

Tokyo's subway and commuter rail network became one of the busiest in the world[42] as more and more people moved to the area. In the 1980s, real estate prices skyrocketed during a real estate and debt bubble. The bubble burst in the early 1990s, and many companies, banks, and individuals were caught with mortgage-backed debts while real estate was shrinking in value. A major recession followed, making the 1990s Japan's "Lost Decade",[43] from which it is now slowly recovering.

Tokyo still sees new urban developments on large lots of less profitable land. Recent projects include Ebisu Garden Place, Tennōzu Isle, Shiodome, Roppongi Hills, Shinagawa (Shinagawa Station, a major hub for Shinkansen), and the Marunouchi side of Tokyo Station. Buildings of significance have been demolished for more up-to-date shopping facilities such as Omotesando Hills.[44]

Land reclamation projects in Tokyo have also been going on for centuries. The most prominent is the Odaiba area, now a major shopping and entertainment center. Various plans have been proposed[45] for transferring national government functions from Tokyo to secondary capitals in other regions of Japan, to slow down rapid development in Tokyo and revitalize economically lagging areas of the country. These plans have been controversial[46] within Japan and have yet to be realized.

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami that devastated much of the northeastern coast of Honshu was felt in Tokyo. However, due to Tokyo's earthquake-resistant infrastructure, damage in Tokyo was very minor compared to areas directly hit by the tsunami,[47] although activity in the city was largely halted.[48] The subsequent nuclear crisis caused by the tsunami has also largely left Tokyo unaffected, despite occasional spikes in radiation levels.[49][50]

On September 7, 2013, the IOC selected Tokyo to host the 2020 Summer Olympics. Thus, Tokyo became the first Asian city to host the Olympic Games twice.[51] However, the 2020 Olympic Games were postponed from July 23 to August 8, 2021, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also unclear how the city will deal with an increasing number of issues, urging scholars to offer possible alternative approaches to tackle the most urgent problems.[52][non sequitur] Although the COVID-19 pandemic has impeded the growth of many industries, the real estate market in Japan is yet to be negatively impacted.

In April 2022, Japanese real estate has become one of the safest investments for foreign investors around the world.[53]

Geography and government

Main article: Tokyo Metropolitan Government

A satellite photo of Tokyo in 2018 taken by ESA Sentinel-2
The Tokyo Metropolitan Government Building

The mainland portion of Tokyo lies northwest of Tokyo Bay and measures about 90 km (56 mi) east to west and 25 km (16 mi) north to south. The average elevation in Tokyo is 40 m (131 ft).[54] Chiba Prefecture borders it to the east, Yamanashi to the west, Kanagawa to the south, and Saitama to the north. Mainland Tokyo is further subdivided into the special wards (occupying the eastern half) and the Tama area (多摩地域) stretching westwards. Tokyo has a latitude of 35.65 (near the 36th parallel north), which makes it more southern than Rome (41.90), Madrid (40.41), New York City (40.71) and Beijing (39.91).[55]

Within the administrative boundaries of Tokyo Metropolis are two island chains in the Pacific Ocean directly south: the Izu Islands, and the Ogasawara Islands, which stretch more than 1,000 km (620 mi) away from the mainland. Because of these islands and the mountainous regions to the west, Tokyo's overall population density figures far under-represent the real figures for the urban and suburban regions of Tokyo.[56]

Under Japanese law, the prefecture of Tokyo is designated as a to (), translated as metropolis.[57] Tokyo Prefecture is the most populous prefecture and the densest, with 6,100 inhabitants per square kilometer (16,000/sq mi); by geographic area it is the third-smallest, above only Osaka and Kagawa. Its administrative structure is similar to that of Japan's other prefectures. The 23 special wards (特別区, tokubetsu-ku), which until 1943 constituted the city of Tokyo, are self-governing municipalities, each having a mayor, a council, and the status of a city.

In addition to these 23 special wards, Tokyo also includes 26 more cities ( -shi), five towns ( -chō or machi), and eight villages ( -son or -mura), each of which has a local government. The Tokyo Metropolitan Government administers the whole metropolis including the 23 special wards and the cities and towns that constitute the prefecture. It is headed by a publicly elected governor and metropolitan assembly. Its headquarters is in Shinjuku Ward.

OkutamaHinoharaŌmeHinodeAkirunoHachiōjiMachidaMizuhoHamuraFussaMusashimurayamaTachikawaAkishimaHinoTamaHigashiyamatoHigashimurayamaKodairaKokubunjiKunitachiFuchūInagiKiyoseHigashikurumeNishitōkyōKoganeiMusashinoMitakaKomaeChōfuNerimaSuginamiSetagayaItabashiNakanoToshimaShinjukuShibuyaMeguroKitaBunkyoChiyodaChūōMinatoShinagawaŌtaAdachiArakawaTaitōKatsushikaSumidaKotoEdogawaSaitama PrefectureYamanashi PrefectureKanagawa PrefectureChiba PrefectureSpecial wards of TokyoWestern TokyoNishitama District


See also: List of cities in Tokyo Metropolis by population

A map with Nishi-Tama District in green
A map of the Izu Islands with black labels
A map of the Ogasawara Islands with black labels

Since 2001, Tokyo consists of 62 municipalities: 23 special wards, 26 cities, 5 towns and 8 villages. Any municipality of Japan has a directly elected mayor and a directly elected assembly, each elected on independent four-year cycles. 23 of Tokyo's municipalities cover the area that had been Tokyo City until WWII, 30 remain today in the Tama area (former North Tama, West Tama and South Tama districts), 9 on Tokyo's outlying islands.

Flag, name w/o suffix Full name District or
Population LPE code
(w/o checksum)
Japanese Transcription Translation
Adachi 足立区 Adachi-ku Adachi Ward 674,067 13121
Arakawa 荒川区 Arakawa-ku Arakawa Ward 213,648 13118
Bunkyō 文京区 Bunkyō-ku Bunkyō Ward 223,389 13105
Chiyoda 千代田区 Chiyoda-ku Chiyoda Ward 59,441 13101
Chūō 中央区 Chūō-ku Chūō Ward
(Central Ward)
147,620 13102
Edogawa 江戸川区 Edogawa-ku Edogawa Ward
(Edo River Ward)
685,899 13123
Itabashi 板橋区 Itabashi-ku Itabashi Ward 569,225 13119
Katsushika 葛飾区 Katsushika-ku Katsushika Ward
(after Katsushika District)
447,140 13122
Kita 北区 Kita-ku Kita Ward
(North Ward)
345,063 13117
Kōtō 江東区 Kōtō-ku Kōtō Ward 502,579 13108
Meguro 目黒区 Meguro-ku Meguro Ward 280,283 13110
Minato 港区 Minato-ku Minato Ward
(Harbor/Port District)
248,071 13103
Nakano 中野区 Nakano-ku Nakano Ward 332,902 13114
Nerima 練馬区 Nerima-ku Nerima Ward 726,748 13120
Ōta 大田区 Ōta-ku Ōta Ward 722,608 13111
Setagaya 世田谷区 Setagaya-ku Setagaya Ward 910,868 13112
Shibuya 渋谷区 Shibuya-ku Shibuya Ward 227,850 13113
Shinagawa 品川区 Shinagawa-ku Shinagawa Ward 392,492 13109
Shinjuku 新宿区 Shinjuku-ku Shinjuku Ward 339,211 13104
Suginami 杉並区 Suginami-ku Suginami Ward 570,483 13115
Sumida 墨田区 Sumida-ku Sumida Ward 260,358 13107
Taitō 台東区 Taitō-ku Taitō Ward 200,486 13106
Toshima 豊島区 Toshima-ku Toshima Ward
(after Toshima District)
294,673 13116
Akiruno あきる野市 Akiruno-shi Akiruno City 80,464 13228
Akishima 昭島市 Akishima-shi Akishima City 111,449 13207
Chōfu 調布市 Chōfu-shi Chōfu City 240,668 13208
Fuchū 府中市 Fuchū-shi Fuchū City
(provincial capital city)
260,891 13206
Fussa 福生市 Fussa-shi Fussa City 58,393 13218
Hachiōji 八王子市 Hachiōji-shi Hachiōji City 579,330 13201
Hamura 羽村市 Hamura-shi Hamura City 55,596 13227
Higashikurume 東久留米市 Higashi-Kurume-shi Higashi-Kurume City
East Kurume City
(as opposed to Kurume City, Western Japan)
116,869 13222
Higashimurayama 東村山市 Higashi-Murayama-shi Higashi-Murayama City
East Murayama City
(after Murayama Region)
150,984 13213
Higashiyamato 東大和市 Higashi-Yamato-shi Higashi-Yamato City
(here: Tokyo's Yamato City)[64]
(as opposed to Kanagawa's Yamato City)
85,229 13220
Hino 日野市 Hino-shi Hino City 185,133 13212
Inagi 稲城市 Inagi-shi Inagi City 87,927 13225
Kiyose 清瀬市 Kiyose-shi Kiyose City 74,495 13221
Kodaira 小平市 Kodaira-shi Kodaira City 194,757 13211
Koganei 小金井市 Koganei-shi Koganei City 121,516 13210
Kokubunji 国分寺市 Kokubunji-shi Kokubunji City
(provincial temple city)
122,787 13214
Komae 狛江市 Komae-shi Komae City 81,671 13219
Kunitachi 国立市 Kunitachi-shi Kunitachi City 75,867 13215
Machida 町田市 Machida-shi Machida City 429,040 13209
Mitaka 三鷹市 Mitaka-shi Mitaka City 189,168 13204
Musashimurayama 武蔵村山市 Musashi-Murayama-shi Musashi-Murayama City
(as opposed to Murayama City, Dewa Province)
70,649 13223
Musashino 武蔵野市 Musashino-shi Musashino City
(after Musashino Region)
143,686 13203
Nishitokyo 西東京市 Nishi-Tōkyō-shi Nishi-Tokyo City
(Western Tokyo City)
200,102 13229
Ōme 青梅市 Ōme-shi Ōme City 136,071 13205
Tachikawa 立川市 Tachikawa-shi Tachikawa City 184,183 13202
Tama 多摩市 Tama-shi Tama City
(after Tama district/area/river)
147,953 13224
Hinode 日の出町 Hinode-machi Hinode Town Nishi-Tama
(Western Tama [ja])
17,141 13305
Hinohara 檜原村 Hinohara-mura Hinohara Village 2,194 13307
Mizuho 瑞穂町 Mizuho-machi Mizuho Town 33,117 13303
Okutama 奥多摩町 Okutama-machi Okutama Town
(Rear/Outer Tama Town)
5,177 13308
Hachijō 八丈町 Hachijō-machi Hachijō Town
(on Hachijō Island)
Hachijō 7,516 13401
Aogashima 青ヶ島村 Aogashima-mura Aogashima Village
(on Aogashima)
169 13402
Miyake 三宅村 Miyake-mura Miyake Village
(on Miyake Island)
Miyake 2,451 13381
Mikurajima 御蔵島村 Mikurajima-mura Mikurajima Village
(Mikura Island Village)
328 13382
Ōshima 大島町 Ōshima-machi Ōshima Town
([Izu] Grand Island Town)
Ōshima 7,762 13361
To-shima 利島村 Toshima-mura To-shima Village
(on homonymous island)
309 13362
Niijima 新島村 Niijima-mura Niijima Village
(on homonymous island)
2,697 13363
Kōzushima 神津島村 Kōzushima-mura Kōzushima Village
(on homonymous island)
1,856 13364
Ogasawara 小笠原村 Ogasawara-mura Ogasawara Village
(on homonymous islands)
Ogasawara 3,029 13421
Tokyo 東京都 Tōkyō-to Tokyo "Metropolis"
functionally: ~ Prefecture
literally/etymologically: ~ Capital
13,960,236 13000
ISO: JP-13

Municipal mergers

Main article: List of mergers in Tokyo

When Tokyo reached its current extent except for smaller border changes in 1893, it consisted of over 170 municipalities, 1 (by definition: district-independent) city, nine districts with their towns and villages, plus the island communities that had never part of ritsuryō[clarification needed] districts. By 1953, the number of municipalities had dropped to 97. The current total of 62 was reached in 2001.

National parks

Ogasawara National Park, a UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site

As of March 31, 2008, 36% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks (second only to Shiga Prefecture), namely the Chichibu Tama Kai, Fuji-Hakone-Izu, and Ogasawara National Parks (the last a UNESCO World Heritage Site); Meiji no Mori Takao Quasi-National Park; and Akikawa Kyūryō, Hamura Kusabana Kyūryō, Sayama, Takao Jinba, Takiyama, and Tama Kyūryō Prefectural Natural Parks.[65]

A number of museums are located in Ueno Park: Tokyo National Museum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Shitamachi Museum and National Museum for Western Art, among others. There are also artworks and statues at several places in the park. There is also a zoo in the park, and the park is a popular destination to view cherry blossoms.


Minor quakes

A bilingual sign in Shibuya with instructions (in Japanese and English) in case of an earthquake

Tokyo is near the boundary of three plates, making it an extremely active region for smaller quakes and slippage which frequently affect the urban area with swaying as if in a boat, although epicenters within mainland Tokyo (excluding Tokyo's 2,000 km (1,243 mi)–long island jurisdiction) are quite rare. It is not uncommon in the metro area to have hundreds of these minor quakes (magnitudes 4–6) that can be felt in a single year, something local residents merely brush off but can be a source of anxiety not only for foreign visitors but for Japanese from elsewhere as well. They rarely cause much damage (sometimes a few injuries) as they are either too small or far away as quakes tend to dance around the region. Particularly active are offshore regions and to a lesser extent Chiba and Ibaraki.[66]

Infrequent powerful quakes

Tokyo has been hit by powerful megathrust earthquakes in 1703, 1782, 1812, 1855, 1923, and much more indirectly (with some liquefaction in landfill zones) in 2011;[67][68] the frequency of direct and large quakes is a relative rarity. The 1923 earthquake, with an estimated magnitude of 8.3, killed 142,000 people, the last time the urban area was directly hit.

Volcanic eruptions

Mount Fuji is about 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Tokyo. There is a low risk of eruption. The last recorded was the Hōei eruption which started on December 16, 1707, and ended about January 1, 1708 (16 days).[69] During the Hōei eruption, the ash amount was 4 cm in southern Tokyo (bay area) and 2 cm to 0.5 cm in central Tokyo.[70] Kanagawa had 16 cm to 8 cm ash and Saitama 0.5 to 0 cm.[70] If the wind blows north-east it could send volcanic ash to Tokyo metropolis.[71] According to the government, less than a millimeter of the volcanic ash from a Mount Fuji eruption could cause power grid problems such as blackouts and stop trains in the Tokyo metropolitan area.[71] A mixture of ash with rain could stick to cellphone antennas, power lines and cause temporary power outages.[71] The affected areas would need to be evacuated.[71]

Water management

The MAOUDC is the world's largest underground floodwater diversion facility.

Tokyo is located on the Kantō Plain with five river systems and dozens of rivers that expand during each season.[72] Important rivers are Edogawa, Nakagawa, Arakawa, Kandagawa, Megurogawa and Tamagawa.[73] In 1947, Typhoon Kathleen struck Tokyo, destroying 31,000 homes and killing 1,100 people.[72] In 1958, Typhoon Ida dropped 400 mm (16 in) of rain in a single week, causing streets to flood.[72] In the 1950s and 1960s, the government invested 6–7% of the national budget on disaster and risk reduction.[72] A huge system of dams, levees and tunnels was constructed.[72] The purpose is to manage heavy rain, typhonic rain, and river floods.[72]

Tokyo has currently the world's largest underground floodwater diversion facility called the Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel (MAOUDC).[74][72] It took 13 years to build and was completed in 2006. The MAOUDC is a 6.3 km (3.9 mi) long system of tunnels, 22 meters (72 ft) underground, with 70-meter (230 ft) tall cylindrical tanks, each tank being large enough to fit a space shuttle or the Statue of Liberty.[72] During floods, excess water is collected from rivers and drained to the Edo River.[73] Low-lying areas of Kōtō, Edogawa, Sumida, Katsushika, Taitō and Arakawa near the Arakawa River are most at risk of flooding.[73]


The former city of Tokyo and the majority of Tokyo prefecture lie in the humid subtropical climate zone (Köppen climate classification: Cfa),[75] with hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters with occasional cold spells. The region, like much of Japan, experiences a one-month seasonal lag. The warmest month is August, which averages 26.9 °C (80.4 °F). The coolest month is January, averaging 5.4 °C (41.7 °F). The record low temperature was −9.2 °C (15.4 °F) on January 13, 1876. The record high was 39.5 °C (103.1 °F) on July 20, 2004. The record highest low temperature is 30.3 °C (86.5 °F), on August 12, 2013, making Tokyo one of only seven observation sites in Japan that have recorded a low temperature over 30 °C (86.0 °F).[76]

Annual rainfall averages nearly 1,600 millimeters (63.0 in), with a wetter summer and a drier winter. The growing season in Tokyo lasts for about 322 days from around mid-February to early January.[77] Snowfall is sporadic, and occurs almost annually.[78] Tokyo often sees typhoons every year, though few are strong. The wettest month since records began in 1876 was October 2004, with 780 millimeters (30 in) of rain,[79] including 270.5 mm (10.65 in) on the ninth of that month.[80] The most recent of four months on record to observe no precipitation is December 1995.[76] Annual precipitation has ranged from 879.5 mm (34.63 in) in 1984 to 2,229.6 mm (87.78 in) in 1938.[76]

Climate data for Kitanomaru Park, Chiyoda, Tokyo (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1875–present)[81][82]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.6
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 9.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.4
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 1.2
Record low °C (°F) −9.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.7
Average snowfall cm (inches) 4
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 5.3 6.1 10.3 10.9 11.1 12.8 12.0 9.4 12.3 11.8 8.2 5.8 116.0
Average relative humidity (%) 51 52 57 62 68 75 76 74 75 71 64 56 65
Average dew point °C (°F) −5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 192.6 170.4 175.3 178.8 179.6 124.2 151.4 174.2 126.7 129.4 149.8 174.4 1,926.7
Percent possible sunshine 61 56 47 45 41 30 34 42 34 37 48 57 44
Average ultraviolet index 2 3 5 7 9 10 10 9 7 5 3 2 6
Source 1: Japan Meteorological Agency[83][84][76]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (UV),[85] Time and Date (dewpoints, 1985–2015)[86]
Graphs are unavailable due to technical issues. There is more info on Phabricator and on

See or edit raw graph data.

Tokyo's climate has warmed significantly since temperature records began in 1876.

Climate data for Tokyo, 1876–1905 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 8.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 2.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −1.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 186.7 178.5 174.1 183.1 204.8 158.5 183.9 207.0 142.8 144.0 167.4 190.8 2,121.6
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[87]

The western mountainous area of mainland Tokyo, Okutama also lies in the humid subtropical climate (Köppen classification: Cfa).

Climate data for Ogouchi, Okutama, Tokyo, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1875–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 17.8
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 6.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.5
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −2.4
Record low °C (°F) −9.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 49.5
Mean monthly sunshine hours 206.5 187.7 173.0 178.4 172.2 104.2 124.8 144.6 104.5 128.7 164.5 186.5 1,874.6
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[88][89]

The climates of Tokyo's offshore territories vary significantly from those of the city. The climate of Chichijima in Ogasawara village is on the boundary between the tropical savanna climate (Köppen classification: Aw) and the tropical rainforest climate (Köppen classification: Af). It is approximately 1,000 km (621 mi) south of the Greater Tokyo Area, resulting in much different climatic conditions.

Climate data for Chichijima, Ogasawara, Tokyo, 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1896–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 26.1
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 20.7
Daily mean °C (°F) 18.5
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 15.8
Record low °C (°F) 8.9
Average rainfall mm (inches) 63.6
Average rainy days (≥ 0.5 mm) 11.0 8.5 9.8 10.0 11.8 8.8 8.6 11.3 13.4 13.7 12.0 11.2 130.1
Average relative humidity (%) 66 68 72 79 84 86 82 82 82 81 76 70 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 131.3 138.3 159.2 148.3 151.8 205.6 246.8 213.7 197.7 173.2 139.1 125.3 2,030.3
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency[90][91]

Tokyo's easternmost territory, the island of Minamitorishima in Ogasawara village, is in the tropical savanna climate zone (Köppen classification: Aw). Tokyo's Izu and Ogasawara islands are affected by an average of 5.4 typhoons a year, compared to 3.1 in mainland Kantō.[92]


Architecture in Tokyo has largely been shaped by Tokyo's history. Twice in recent history has the metropolis been left in ruins: first in the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake and later after extensive firebombing in World War II.[93] Because of this, Tokyo's urban landscape consists mainly of modern and contemporary architecture, and older buildings are scarce.[93] Tokyo features many internationally famous forms of modern architecture including Tokyo International Forum, Asahi Beer Hall, Mode Gakuen Cocoon Tower, NTT Docomo Yoyogi Building and Rainbow Bridge. Tokyo features two distinctive towers: Tokyo Tower and Tokyo Skytree, the latter of which is the tallest tower in both Japan and the world, and the second tallest structure in the world after the Burj Khalifa in Dubai.[15] Mori Building Co started work on Tokyo's new tallest building which was set to be finished in March 2023. The project will cost 580 billion yen ($5.5 billion).[94]

Tokyo contains numerous parks and gardens. There are four national parks in Tokyo Prefecture, including the Fuji-Hakone-Izu National Park, which includes all of the Izu Islands.

A panoramic view of Tokyo from the Tokyo Skytree


Tokyo has enacted a measure to cut greenhouse gases. Governor Shintaro Ishihara created Japan's first emissions cap system, aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emission by a total of 25% by 2020 from the 2000 level.[95] Tokyo is an example of an urban heat island, and the phenomenon is especially serious in its special wards.[96][97] According to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government,[98] the annual mean temperature has increased by about 3 °C (5.4 °F) over the past 100 years. Tokyo has been cited as a "convincing example of the relationship between urban growth and climate".[96]

In 2006, Tokyo enacted the "10 Year Project for Green Tokyo" to be realized by 2016. It set a goal of increasing roadside trees in Tokyo to 1 million (from 480,000), and adding 1,000 ha (2,500 acres) of green space, 88 ha (220 acres) of which will be a new park named "Umi no Mori" (Sea Forest) which will be on a reclaimed island in Tokyo Bay which used to be a landfill.[99] From 2007 to 2010, 436 ha (1,080 acres) of the planned 1,000 ha of green space was created and 220,000 trees were planted, bringing the total to 700,000. As of 2014, roadside trees in Tokyo have increased to 950,000, and a further 300 ha (740 acres) of green space has been added.[100]


Tokyo prefecture population pyramid in 2020
Historical population

As of October 2012, the official intercensal estimate showed 13.506 million people in Tokyo, with 9.214 million living within Tokyo's 23 wards.[101] During the daytime, the population swells by over 2.5 million as workers and students commute from adjacent areas. This effect is even more pronounced in the three central wards of Chiyoda, Chūō, and Minato, whose collective population as of the 2005 National Census was 326,000 at night, but 2.4 million during the day.[102]

In 1889, the Home Ministry recorded 1,375,937 people in Tokyo City and a total of 1,694,292 people in Tokyo-fu.[103] In the same year, a total of 779 foreign nationals were recorded as residing in Tokyo. The most common nationality was English (209 residents), followed by American (182) and Chinese nationals (137).[104]

Tokyo historical population since 1920
Registered foreign nationals[105]
Nationality Population (2024)
China 257,198
South Korea 87,955
Vietnam 44,087
Philippines 35,634
Nepal 35,310
Taiwan 21,771
United States 20,217
Myanmar 19,868
India 17,537
Indonesia 9,719
Others 98,120
This chart is growth rate of municipalities of Tokyo, Japan. It is estimated by census carried out in 2005 and 2010.
  10.0% and over
  10.0% and over
Population of Tokyo[102]
By area1

Special wards
Tama Area

12.79 million
8.653 million
4.109 million

By age2

Juveniles (age 0–14)
Working (age 15–64)
Retired (age 65+)

1.461 million (11.8%)
8.546 million (69.3%)
2.332 million (18.9%)

By hours3


14.978 million
12.416 million

By nationality4

Foreign residents

647,416[105] (4.6% of total[106])

1 Estimates as of October 1, 2007.

2 as of January 1, 2007.

3 as of 2005 National Census.

4 as of January 1, 2024.


Tokyo Skytree, at 634 m (2,080 ft), the tallest tower in the world
Tokyo Stock Exchange
Ginza is a popular upscale shopping area in Tokyo.
Bank of Japan headquarters in Chūō, Tokyo
Marunouchi in Chiyoda, Tokyo
Tokyo Tower at night
Shibuya Crossing in Shibuya, also known as "the Times Square of the Orient", attracts many tourists.

Tokyo has the second-largest metropolitan economy in the world, after New York City, with a gross metropolitan product estimated at US$2 trillion.

Tokyo is a major international finance center;[107] it houses the headquarters of several of the world's largest investment banks and insurance companies, and serves as a hub for Japan's transportation, publishing, electronics and broadcasting industries. During the centralized growth of Japan's economy following World War II, many large firms moved their headquarters from cities such as Osaka (the historical commercial capital) to Tokyo, in an attempt to take advantage of better access to the government. This trend has begun to slow due to ongoing population growth in Tokyo and the high cost of living there.

Tokyo was rated by the Economist Intelligence Unit as the most expensive (highest cost-of-living) city in the world for 14 years in a row ending in 2006, when it was replaced by Oslo, and later Paris.[108][109]

Tokyo emerged as a leading international financial center (IFC) in the 1960s and has been described as one of the three "command centers" for the world economy, along with New York City and London.[110] In the 2020 Global Financial Centers Index, Tokyo was ranked as having the fourth most competitive financial center in the world (alongside cities such as New York City, London, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Singapore, Beijing, San Francisco, Shenzhen and Zürich in the top 10), and second most competitive in Asia (after Shanghai).[111] The Japanese financial market opened up slowly in 1984 and accelerated its internationalization with the "Japanese Big Bang" in 1998.[112] Despite the emergence of Singapore and Hong Kong as competing financial centers, the Tokyo IFC manages to keep a prominent position in Asia. The Tokyo Stock Exchange is Japan's largest stock exchange, and third largest in the world by market capitalization and fourth largest by share turnover. In 1990 at the end of the Japanese asset price bubble, it accounted for more than 60% of the world stock market value.[113] Tokyo had 8,460 hectares (20,900 acres) of agricultural land as of 2003,[114] according to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, placing it last among the nation's prefectures. The farmland is concentrated in Western Tokyo. Perishables such as vegetables, fruits, and flowers can be conveniently shipped to the markets in the eastern part of the prefecture. Komatsuna and spinach are the most important vegetables; as of 2000, Tokyo supplied 32.5% of the komatsuna sold at its central produce market.[citation needed] Farms in Tokyo are more environmentally friendly than in other areas of Japan, due to a different culture and consumer expectations.[115]

With 36% of its area covered by forest, Tokyo has extensive growths of cryptomeria and Japanese cypress, especially in the mountainous western communities of Akiruno, Ōme, Okutama, Hachiōji, Hinode, and Hinohara. Decreases in the price of timber, increases in the cost of production, and advancing old age among the forestry population have resulted in a decline in Tokyo's output. In addition, pollen, especially from cryptomeria, is a major allergen for the nearby population centers. Tokyo Bay was once a major source of fish. Most of Tokyo's fish production comes from the outer islands, such as Izu Ōshima and Hachijō-Jima. Skipjack tuna, nori, and aji are among the ocean products.[116]

Tourism in Tokyo is also a large contributor to its economy. In 2006, 4.81 million foreigners and 420 million Japanese visits to Tokyo were made; the economic value of these visits totaled 9.4 trillion yen according to the Tokyo Metropolitan Government. Many tourists visit the various downtowns, stores, and entertainment districts throughout the neighborhoods of the special wards of Tokyo. Cultural offerings include both omnipresent Japanese pop culture and associated districts such as Shibuya and Harajuku, subcultural attractions such as Studio Ghibli anime center, as well as museums like the Tokyo National Museum, which houses 37% of the country's artwork national treasures (87/233).

The Toyosu Market in Tokyo is the largest wholesale fish and seafood market in the world since it opened on October 11, 2018.[117] It is also one of the largest wholesale food markets of any kind. It is located in the Toyosu area of Kōtō ward. The Toyosu Market holds strong to the traditions of its predecessor, the Tsukiji Fish Market and Nihonbashi fish market, and serves some 50,000 buyers and sellers every day. Retailers, whole-sellers, auctioneers, and public citizens alike frequent the market, creating a unique microcosm of organized chaos that still continues to fuel the city and its food supply after over four centuries.[118]


Main article: Transport in Greater Tokyo

Tokyo Station is the main intercity rail terminal in Tokyo.
Haneda Airport
Tokyo Metro and Toei Subway are two main subway operators in Tokyo.
Hamazakibashi JCT in Shuto Expressway

Tokyo, which is the center of the Greater Tokyo Area, is Japan's largest domestic and international hub for rail and ground transportation. Public transportation within Tokyo is dominated by an extensive network of "clean and efficient"[119] trains and subways run by a variety of operators, with buses, monorails and trams playing a secondary feeder role. There are up to 62 electric train lines and more than 900 train stations in Tokyo.[120] Shibuya Crossing is the "world's busiest pedestrian crossing", with around 3,000 people crossing at a time.[121][122][123]

Narita International Airport in Chiba Prefecture is the major gateway for international travelers to Japan. Japan's flag carrier Japan Airlines, as well as All Nippon Airways, have a hub at this airport. Haneda Airport on the reclaimed land at Ōta, offers domestic and international flights.

Various islands governed by Tokyo have their own airports. Hachijō-jima (Hachijojima Airport), Miyakejima (Miyakejima Airport), and Izu Ōshima (Oshima Airport) have services to Tokyo International and other airports.

Rail is the primary mode of transportation in Tokyo,[124] which has the most extensive urban railway network in the world and an equally extensive network of surface lines. JR East operates Tokyo's largest railway network, including the Yamanote Line loop that circles the center of downtown Tokyo. It operates rail lines in the entire metropolitan area of Tokyo and in the rest of the northeastern part of Honshu. JR East is also responsible for Shinkansen high-speed rail lines.

Two different organizations operate the subway network: the private Tokyo Metro and the governmental Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation. The Metropolitan Government and private carriers operate bus routes and one tram route. Local, regional, and national services are available, with major terminals at the giant railroad stations, including Tokyo, Shinagawa, and Shinjuku.

Expressways link the capital to other points in the Greater Tokyo Area, the Kantō region, and the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku. To build them quickly before the 1964 Summer Olympics, most were constructed above existing roads.[125] Other transportation includes taxis operating in the special wards and the cities and towns. Also, long-distance ferries serve the islands of Tokyo and carry passengers and cargo to domestic and foreign ports.


Main article: Education in Tokyo

See also: List of universities in Tokyo

Yasuda Auditorium, University of Tokyo, Bunkyō

Tokyo is the educational, academic and cultural hub of the country. From primary to tertiary levels, a number of educational institutions that cater to the needs of various pupils operate in the city.

Most notably, Tokyo is the heartland of tertiary education in the country, home to 143 authorised universities in 2020.[126] This number includes the nation's most prestigious and selective universities, such as, University of Tokyo, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Hitotsubashi University, Waseda University, and Keio University. [127] Apart from those aforementioned top-ranking universities, other notable universities in Tokyo include:

Hibiya High School, Chiyoda

The United Nations University, which is the academic arm of the United Nations, is headquartered in Shibuya, Tokyo.

At the secondary level, 429 senior high schools are located in Tokyo, six of which are national, 186 are public, and 237 are private.[128] Some senior high schools, often prestigious national or private ones, run jointly with their affiliated junior high schools, providing six-year educational programmes (Chūkō Ikkan Kyōiku). The Kaisei Academy,[129] Komaba Junior & Senior High School, University of Tsukuba,[130] Azabu High School, and Oin Junior and Senior High School,[131] the largest sources of successful applicants to the nation's top university, the University of Tokyo,[132] are some examples of such.

Bancho Elementary School (public), Chiyoda

At the primary level, there are 1332 elementary schools in Tokyo. Six of them are national, 1261 are public, and 53 are private.[128]

Early-modern-established academies such as Gakushuin and Keio provide all-through educational programmes from primary schools to universities, originally to cater to the needs of traditionally affluent and powerful families.[133]

There are international and ethnic schools that abide by the national curricula of their respective countries or international curricula rather than the Japanese one as well, such as the British School in Tokyo, Tokyo Chinese School, the American School in Japan, and the Tokyo International School.


The National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation, also known as "Miraikan"
Takeshita Street in Harajuku

Tokyo has many museums: In Ueno Park, there is the Tokyo National Museum, the country's largest museum and specializing in traditional Japanese art; the National Museum of Western Art and Ueno Zoo. Other museums include the Artizon Museum in Chūō; the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation in Odaiba; the Edo-Tokyo Museum in Sumida, across the Sumida River from the center of Tokyo; the Nezu Museum in Aoyama; and the National Diet Library, National Archives, and the National Museum of Modern Art, which are near the Imperial Palace.

Tokyo has many theaters for performing arts. These include national and private theaters for traditional forms of Japanese drama. Noteworthy are the National Noh Theatre for noh and the Kabuki-za for Kabuki.[134] Symphony orchestras and other musical organizations perform modern and traditional music. The New National Theater Tokyo in Shibuya is the national center for the performing arts, including opera, ballet, contemporary dance and drama.[135] Tokyo also hosts modern Japanese and international pop, and rock music at venues ranging in size from intimate clubs to internationally known areas such as the Nippon Budokan.

The Sanja Festival in Asakusa

Many different festivals occur throughout Tokyo. Major events include the Sannō at Hie Shrine, the Sanja at Asakusa Shrine, and the biennial Kanda Festivals. The last features a parade with elaborately decorated floats and thousands of people. Annually on the last Saturday of July, an enormous fireworks display over the Sumida River attracts over a million viewers. Once cherry blossoms bloom in spring, many residents gather in Ueno Park, Inokashira Park, and the Shinjuku Gyoen National Garden for picnics under the blossoms.

Harajuku, a neighborhood in Shibuya, is known internationally for its youth style, fashion[136] and cosplay.

In November 2007, Michelin released their first guide for fine dining in Tokyo, awarding 191 stars in total, or about twice as many as Tokyo's nearest competitor, Paris. As of 2017, 227 restaurants in Tokyo have been awarded (92 in Paris). Twelve establishments were awarded the maximum of three stars (Paris has 10), 54 received two stars, and 161 earned one star.[137]


Main article: Sports in Tokyo

Japan National Stadium
Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo wrestling arena

Tokyo, with a diverse array of sports, is home to two professional baseball clubs, the Yomiuri Giants who play at the Tokyo Dome and Tokyo Yakult Swallows at Meiji-Jingu Stadium. The Japan Sumo Association is also headquartered in Tokyo at the Ryōgoku Kokugikan sumo arena where three official sumo tournaments are held annually (in January, May, and September). Soccer clubs in Tokyo include F.C. Tokyo and Tokyo Verdy 1969, both of which play at Ajinomoto Stadium in Chōfu, and FC Machida Zelvia at Nozuta Stadium in Machida. Rugby Union is also played in Tokyo, with multiple Japan Rugby League One clubs based in the city including: Black Rams Tokyo (Setagaya), Tokyo Sungoliath (Fuchū) and Toshiba Brave Lupus Tokyo (Fuchū).

Basketball clubs include the Hitachi SunRockers, Toyota Alvark Tokyo, and Tokyo Excellence.

Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, thus becoming the first Asian city to host the Summer Games. The National Stadium, also known as the Olympic Stadium, was host to a number of international sporting events. In 2016, it was to be replaced by the New National Stadium. With a number of world-class sports venues, Tokyo often hosts national and international sporting events such as basketball tournaments, women's volleyball tournaments, tennis tournaments, swim meets, marathons, rugby union and sevens rugby games, soccer exhibition games, judo, and karate. Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, in Sendagaya, Shibuya, is a large sports complex that includes swimming pools, training rooms, and a large indoor arena. According to Around the Rings, the gymnasium has played host to the October 2011 artistic gymnastics world championships, despite the International Gymnastics Federation's initial doubt in Tokyo's ability to host the championships after the triple disaster hits Japan.[138] Tokyo was also selected to host a number of games for the 2019 Rugby World Cup, and to host the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, which had to be rescheduled to the summer of 2021 due to COVID-19 pandemic.

In popular culture

Akihabara is the most popular area for fans of anime, manga, and games.
FCG Building, home of Fuji TV headquarters

As the largest population center in Japan and the site of the country's largest broadcasters and studios, Tokyo is frequently the setting for many Japanese movies, television shows, animated series' (anime), web comics, light novels, video games, and comic books (manga). In the kaiju (monster movie) genre, landmarks of Tokyo are usually destroyed by giant monsters such as Godzilla and Gamera.

Tokyo is also a popular foreign setting for non-Japanese media. Some Hollywood directors have turned to Tokyo as a backdrop for movies set in Japan. Postwar examples include Tokyo Joe, My Geisha, Tokyo Story and the James Bond film You Only Live Twice; recent examples include Kill Bill, The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo Drift, Lost in Translation, Babel, Inception, The Wolverine and Avengers: Endgame.

Japanese author Haruki Murakami has based some of his novels in Tokyo (including Norwegian Wood), and David Mitchell's first two novels (number9dream and Ghostwritten) featured the city. Contemporary British painter Carl Randall spent 10 years living in Tokyo as an artist, creating a body of work depicting the city's crowded streets and public spaces.[139][140][141][142][143]

International relations

Tokyo is the founding member of the Asian Network of Major Cities 21 and is a member of the Council of Local Authorities for International Relations. Tokyo was also a founding member of the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group.

Sister cities and states

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Japan

As of 2022, Tokyo has twinning or friendship agreements with the following twelve cities and states:[144]

Friendship and cooperation agreements

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources in this section. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Tokyo" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this message)

International academic and scientific research

Research and development in Japan and the Japanese space program are globally represented by several of Tokyo's medical and scientific facilities, including the University of Tokyo and other universities in Tokyo, which work in collaboration with many international institutions. Especially with the United States, including NASA and the many private spaceflight companies,[148] Tokyo universities have working relationships with all of the Ivy League institutions (including Harvard and Yale University),[149] along with other research universities and development laboratories, such as Stanford, MIT, and the UC campuses throughout California,[150][151] as well as UNM and Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico.[152][153][154] Other partners worldwide include Oxford University in the United Kingdom,[155] the National University of Singapore in Singapore,[156] the University of Toronto in Canada,[157] and Tsinghua University in China.[158]

See also


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