.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Japanese. (April 2022) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Japanese article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 3,435 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Japanese Wikipedia article at [[:ja:慶應義塾大学]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ja|慶應義塾大学)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Keio University
Old Keio University Library 3.jpg
MottoLatin: Calamus gladio fortior
Motto in English
The pen is mightier than the sword[1]
TypePrivate research coeducational higher education institution
FounderYukichi Fukuzawa
Academic affiliations
ASAIHL, CoBS, Washington University in St. Louis
McDonnell International Scholars Academy,[2] CEMS – The Global Alliance in Management Education
PresidentProf. Kohei Itoh
Academic staff
full time 2,791 (As of May 1, 2021)[3]
Administrative staff
full-time 3,216 (As of May 1, 2021)[4]
Students33,437 (As of May 1, 2022)[5]
Undergraduates28,641 (As of May 1, 2022)[5]
Postgraduates4,796 (As of May 1, 2022)[5]
1,426[5][note 1]
Other students
0 [note 2]
Athletics39 varsity teams
Colors  Yellow,   blue, and   red
NicknameUnicorns, etc.
Keio University logo.svg

Keio University (慶應義塾大学, Keiō Gijuku Daigaku), abbreviated as Keio (慶應) or Keidai (慶大), is a private research university located in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

It is the oldest institute of western higher education in Japan. Its founder, Fukuzawa Yukichi, originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo.

The university has eleven campuses, primarily in Tokyo and Kanagawa. It has ten undergraduate faculties: Letters, Economics, Law, Business and Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology, Policy Management, Environment and Information Studies, Nursing and Medical Care, and Pharmacy. There are fourteen graduate schools (listed below) and both on- and off-campus research institutes and facilities.

The university is one of the members of the Top Global University Project (Top Type), funded by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.[6] Keio University is also one of the member universities of RU11[7] and APRU, and it is one of only two Japanese universities (alongside the University of Tokyo) to be a member of the World Economic Forum's Global University Leaders Forum.[8]

Its list of alumni and faculty includes three former prime ministers,[9] two astronauts,[9] six international honorary members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a Wolf Prize winner. Keio University also produced the largest number of CEOs of companies listed in the first section of Tokyo Stock Exchange[9][10] and ranks 53rd (in the world) in top 100 Global Executives, according to Times Higher Education's "Alma Master Index 2017".[11]


The founder of Keio Fukuzawa Yukichi's statue on Hiyoshi campus.
The founder of Keio Fukuzawa Yukichi's statue on Hiyoshi campus.
East Research Building in Mita
East Research Building in Mita

Keio traces its history to 1858 when Fukuzawa Yukichi, who had studied the Western educational system at Brown University in the United States, started to teach Dutch while he was a guest of the Okudaira family. In 1868 he changed the name of the school to Keio Gijuku and devoted all his time to education. While Keio's initial identity was that of a private school of Western studies, it expanded and established its first university faculty in 1890, and became known as a leading institute in Japanese higher education. It was the first Japanese university to reach its 150th anniversary, celebrating this anniversary in 2008.

Keio has leading research centres. It has approximately 30 Research Centers located on its five main campuses and at other facilities for advanced research in Japan.[12] Keio University Research Institute at SFC (KRIS) has joined the MIT and the French INRIA in hosting the international W3C.[13]


In his speech at an alumni gathering on November 1, 1896, Fukuzawa stated the mission of Keio as follows:

Keio Gijuku shouldn't be satisfied with being just one educational institution.
Its mission is expected to be a model of the nobility of intelligence and virtue,
to make clear how it can be applied to its family, society, and nation,
and to take an actual action of this statement.
It expects all students to be leaders in society by the practice of this mission.

Those sentences were given to students as his will and considered as the simple expression of Keio's actual mission.[14]

Academic culture

Keio is known for being the first institution to introduce many modern education practices in Japan.

Keio is the earliest Japanese school that introduced an annual fixed course fee, designed by Fukuzawa.[note 3] It initially introduced the culture of speech to Japan, which Japan had never had before. It built Japan's earliest speech house Mita Speech House in 1875 as well.[15] Keio is regarded as Japan's first university to accept international students.[16] Keio accepted 2 Korean students in 1881 as its (and also Japan's) first international students. 60 Korean students entered in 1883 and 130 Korean students in 1895.

Keio put "Independence and self-respect (独立自尊, Dokuritsu Jison)" as a foundation of its education. This is meant to be physically and mentally independent, and respect yourself for keeping your virtue.[17] Independence and self-respect are also regarded as Fukuzawa's nature and essence of his education.[18]

Learning half and teaching half (半学半教, Hangaku Hankyo) is the other unique culture at Keio.[19] During the late Edo period and the early Meiji period, several private prep schools often used students as assistant teachers and it was called "Learning half and teaching half". Keio also had initially used this system. In the early period of such schools of Western studies, there had been many things to learn not only for students but also professors themselves. Hence there had been occasions when students who had learned in advance had taught other students and even professors. After the proper legal systems for education had been set up, those situations disappeared. However, Fukuzawa thought the essence of academia was and is a continuous learning process, and that more knowledge provided more learning opportunities. Keio respects his thought and established the rule "Rules in Keio Gijuku (慶應義塾社中之約束, Keio Gijuku Shachu no Yakusoku)", which states that there shouldn't be any hierarchy between teachers and learners and that all of the people in Keio Gijuku are in the same company. For this reason, there is still a culture at Keio that all professors and lecturers are officially called with the honorific of "Kun" but never "Teacher" or "Professor".[20][21]

Collaboration in a company (社中の協力, Shachu no Kyoryoku) is also a uniqueness of Keio.[22] Fukuzawa stated in 1879 that the Keio's success today is because of the collaboration in its company, and "Collaboration in a company" originally came from this article. People in Keio often think that all of the people related to Keio (e.g. professors, students, alumni and their family members) are part of their company, thus they should try to help each other like brothers and sisters. This culture has been often seen especially in the alumni organization called Mita-Kai.[23]


Keio Gijuku in Tsukiji in 1869
Keio Gijuku in Tsukiji in 1869
Keio University in May 1912
Keio University in May 1912

Keio University (慶應義塾大学, Keiō Gijuku Daigaku) was established in 1858 as a School of Western studies located in one of the mansion houses in Tsukiji by the founder Fukuzawa Yukichi.[24] Its root is considered as the Han school for Kokugaku studies named Shinshu Kan established in 1796.[25] Keio changed its name to "Keio Gijuku" in 1868, which came from the era name "Keio"[26] and "Gijuku" as the translation of Private school.[27] It moved to the current location in 1871, established the Medical school in 1873, and the official university department with Economics, Law and Literacy study in 1890.[28]

Year University Development
1858 Establishment of Keio Gijuku
1879 Keio rejected an offer to become a national university.[29]
Instead of that, it became a vocational school funded by daimyōs including Shimazu clan.
1890 Departments of Economics, Law, and Letters established
1906 Graduate studies programs established
1917 School of Medicine established
1920 Keio authorized as a university in the prewar system
1944 School of Technology established
1949 Keio authorized as a university in the post-war system
1957 School of Business and Commerce established
1962 Graduate School of Business Administration established
1981 Department of Science and Technology established
1990 School of Environmental and Information Studies and School of Policy Management established
2001 School of Nursing and Medical Care established
2004 School of Law established
2008 School of Pharmacy established
2008 Graduate School of Media Design established

In 1886, Keio named Hiromoto Watanabe as the first chancellor of the Imperial University (University of Tokyo). He was the first chancellor of an officially authorized university in Japan. In 1899, Keio sent 6 students to study abroad. In the same year, it accepted three international students from India, Qing-dynasty China, and Thailand. Eight international students entered from Taiwan (which had technically been a territory of the Japanese Empire since 1895) in the following year. Keio was visited by Bengali poet Rabindranath Tagore in 1916. In 1922, Keio was visited by Albert Einstein, who presented a special lecture on the theory of relativity.[30] In 1946, Keio began accepting female students. In 2006, a paper with a Keio undergraduate student as its first listed author was published in the research journal Science.[31][32] In 2008, Keio was visited by Prince Charles.


Since the president system was established in 1881, Keio has had 20 presidents.[33]

President Tenure President Tenure President Tenure President Tenure
1. Sadashiro Hamano 1881–1887 7. Shinzo Koizumi 1933–1947 13. Saku Sato 1969–1973 19. Akira Haseyama 2017-
2. Nobukichi Koizumi 1887–1890 8. Seiichiro Takahashi 1946–1947 14. Hiroshi Kuno 1973–1977 20. Kohei Itoh 2021-
3. Tokujiro Obata 1890–1897 9. Kouji Ushioda 1947–1956 15. Tadao Ishikawa 1977–1993
4. Eikichi Kamata 1898–1922 10. Fukutaro Okui 1956–1960 16. Yasuhiko Torii 1993–2001
5. Ichitaro Fukuzawa 1922–1923 11. Shohei Takamura 1960–1965 17. Yuichiro Anzai 2001–2009
6. Kiroku Hayashi 1923–1933 12. Kunio Nagasawa 1965–1969 18. Atsushi Seike 2009– 2017

Student body

In 2021, there are 33,469 students at Keio University, with 28,667 undergraduate students and 4,802 graduate students. Although two-thirds of the student body are males, this ratio highly depends on the major (56% of students are female in the Faculty of Letters, for instance. On the other hand, in the School of Medicine, three-quarters of students are men.).[5]

Demographics of student body in 2021[5][34]
Undergraduate Graduate (Master) Graduate (Doctor) Professional Total
Total 28,667 3,034 1,408 360 33,469
Male 18,346 2,044 985 228 21,603
Female 10,321 990 423 132 11,866
International 874 861 1,735

There are 1,908 international students on May 1, 2021, with 874 undergraduate students (3.1% of total undergraduate students (=28,667) ), 861 graduate students (18.0% of total graduate students (=4,802) ) and 173 other students.[34] China is the country which provides the most international students with 1,016, followed by South Korea (436), France (66), Taiwan (51), the United States (36), Indonesia (34), and Germany (29).[34]

Student life

Mita Sai
Mita Sai


In Japanese universities, there are student societies called "circles". Although the exact number is not clear, there are over 410 circles in Keio.[35]


Keio holds school festivals every year on each campus. The main festival is called "Mita Sai" and is usually held on the Mita campus in late November.[36] Mita Sai includes various academic and recreational activities and also serves as a research workshop for students on the Mita campus.[37] Approximately 200,000 people visit Mita Sai every year.[38]


Edward Bramwell Clarke and Tanaka Ginnosuke first introduced Rugby union to Japanese students at Keio University. The game had been played in the treaty ports of Yokohama and Kobe before that, but not between Japanese teams.

The interest of Keio's students in baseball stretches back to the early years of the 20th century. In 1913, an American touring team of players from the New York Giants and the Chicago White Sox played an exhibition game against the Keio team.[39] In a 1932 exhibition game, the Keio team beat the University of Michigan team, which was then touring Japan.[40] Keio's baseball team plays in the Tokyo Big6 Baseball League (six prominent universities in the Tokyo area).

Association football

Keio University's association football (soccer) team is the most successful team in the history of the Emperor's Cup, although their last triumph was in 1956. They have won nine times, a number no professional team has ever achieved in the tournament.

Kei-So rivalry

Kei-So Sen
Kei-So Sen

Traditionally, there has been a strong rivalry between Keio and Waseda University. There are annually many matches between the two universities in several sports, such as baseball, rowing, rugby, lacrosse, track and field, American football, association football, aikido, karate, basketball, tennis, swimming, fencing, figure skating, ice hockey, and field hockey. These games are called "Kei–So Sen (慶早戦)" or, more generally, "So–Kei Sen (早慶戦)".

The Kei-So baseball rivalry, which dates back more than a century, is especially famous because of its importance in Japanese baseball history. The most famous Kei-So baseball game, which was played on October 16, 1943, was made into a movie titled "The Last Game – the Final So-Kei Sen -" in 2008.

There are two Kei-So baseball games every year, and they are usually broadcast by NHK. There is no lecture on all campuses in Keio on the game day because of the students who want to watch this match. Kei-So baseball games were even visited by Japanese emperors in 1929, 1950 and 1994.

Keio University is one of the most prestigious universities in Japan. Times Higher Education estimates that Keio is in 351–400th place in general academic rankings among world universities.

American football

Main article: Keio Unicorns football


In October 2016, six male students from Keio Advertisement Society, a long-standing student club famous for its organisation of the Miss Keio pageant contest, were investigated for gang rape during a club activity.[41] An out-of-court settlement was reached and the students were not prosecuted.[42] In May 2018, another three students were arrested for sexual assaults.[43]

In March 2017, a student tennis club was disbanded after a student died of alcohol poisoning during a club activity. Two other Keio students died due to over-drinking in 2012 and 2013.[44]

In June 2017, the school's election committee unconventionally selected Haseyama Akira, a legal history professor who only won second place at the general election among teachers and staff, to be the school's new president, breaking a 50-year convention.[45]

In late 2019, both the American football team and the cheerleading club suspended club activities for "inappropriate behaviours".[46][47]

In January 2020, it was reported that a former member of the school president's secretarial staff had installed a camera in a female toilet stall on the Mita campus, filming over a thousand videos over 3 months.[48][49]

Academic rankings

University rankings
T. Reuters National[50] Research 13
WE [ja] National[51] Employment 3
NBP Greater Tokyo[52][53] Reputation 3
Shimano National[54] Selectivity SA
QS Asia
(Asian Ranking version)[55]
General 41
THE World[56] General 600-800
QS World[57] General 191
ARWU World[58] Research 301-400
ENSMP World[59] Alumni 3
Program rankings
Social Sciences & Humanities


Asahi National[60]Research 2
Natural Sciences & Technology


QS World[61]General 179

Keio ranks 53rd in the world in the Times Higher Education's Alma Mater Index.[62] It ranks 34th globally in the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) and 3rd in Asia.[63] Keio is ranked at 58th of the Reuters Top 100 innovative universities worldwide.[64] British Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) company estimates that Keio is ranked the 192nd in QS World University Rankings 2017/18.[65] It is ranked the 45th in QS World University Ranking 2017/18 for Graduate Employability Ranking. In the Asian University Ranking (2015), Quacquarelli Symonds also ranked Keio as 37th in Asia.[65] The Academic Ranking of World Universities (2015), which is compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, ranks Keio 151-175 in the world and 37 in Asia.[66] Keio, with Waseda University, is one of the prominent private universities within Japan. The difficulty level of entrance exams at Keio University is one of the highest among private universities in Japan.[67]

Research performance

According to Thomson Reuters, Keio is the 10th best research university in Japan, and it is the only private university within the Top 15.[50] In addition, Weekly Diamond reported that Keio has the 8th highest research standard in Japan in terms of research fundings per researchers in COE Program, and it is also the only private university within Top 10.[68] The Asahi Shimbun summarized the number of academic papers in Japanese major legal journals by the university, and Keio was ranked 2nd during 2005–2009.[60] Accordingly, Keio is a prominent research university in Japan.

In economics, according to The Asahi Shimbun, Keio's been ranked 7th in Japan in the economic research ranking during 2005–2009.[69] More recently, Repec in January 2011 ranked Keio's Economic department as Japan's 6th best economic research university.[70] Keio has provided 3 presidents of Japanese Economic Association in its 42-year history, and this number is 5th largest.[71]

In addition, Nikkei Shimbun on 2004/2/16 surveyed about the research standards in Engineering studies based on Thomson Reuters, Grants in Aid for Scientific Research and questionnaires to heads of 93 leading Japanese Research Centers, and Keio was placed 8th (research planning ability 4th/informative ability of research outcome 3rd) in this ranking.[72]


Keio ranks second in Japan, for the number of alumni holding CEO positions in Fortune Global 500 companies, according to Mines ParisTech: Professional Ranking of World Universities.[59] Keio is also ranked 1st in Japan for the number of alumni generally holding executive positions (when positions like COO, CFO, CIO etc. are included along with the CEO position) in listed companies of Japan, and this number per student (probability of becoming an executive) is also top.[73][74]

Keio Business School is Japan's first business school and one of four Japanese schools holding The Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) accreditation.[75] Keio was ranked No. 1 in Japan by Nikkei Shimbun.[76] Eduniversal also ranked Keio as the top in Japan (75th in the world).[77] In Eduniversal Keio is one of only 3 Japanese schools categorized in "Universal Business schools with major international influence". In 2012, the Keio Business School became a founding member of the university alliance Council on Business & Society that consists of Tuck School of Business from the USA, the University of Mannheim Business School from Germany, ESSEC Business School from France, Fudan University from China, Fundação Getúlio Vargas from Brazil and Keio Business School.

According to the Weekly Economist's 2010 rankings and the PRESIDENT's article on 16 October 2006, graduates from Keio University have the 3rd best employment rate in 400 major companies, and the alumni's average salary is the 3rd best in Japan.[78][79]


As an extension of Keio's strong business focus, for over 30 years, Keio graduates have been ranked first in Japan in the number of successful national CPA exam applicants.[12]


Keio has been influential in Japanese medical societies as well. In fact, there have been 4 presidents of Japan Medical Association related to this university (2 Alumni and 2 professors).[note 4] This number is the 2nd largest among Japanese medical schools.[80] Keio is one of 2 Japanese universities which provided a president of World Medical Association.[81]


Keio's law faculty is typically ranked among the best in all of Japan along with the University of Tokyo, University of Kyoto, Chuo University, and Hitotsubashi University. In 2010 and 2015, Keio University Law School ranked highest among all Japanese universities for the Bar Exam passage rate.[82] Furthermore, the number of Members of Parliament who graduated Keio has been 3rd in Japan.[69][83]

Popularity and selectivity

Keio is a popular university in Japan, often considered one of Japan's top two private universities alongside their rival, Waseda University. The number of applicants per place was 11.7 (48260/4098) in 2011 undergraduate admissions.[84] Its entrance difficulty is usually considered as the top with Waseda among 730 private universities.[note 5][note 6][note 7]

Nikkei BP has been publishing a ranking system called "Brand rankings of Japanese universities" every year, composed of the various indications related to the power of the brand, in which Keio was the top in 2014, and ranked second in 2015 and 2016 in Greater Tokyo Area.[85] Webometrics (2008) also ranks Keio University as 3rd in Japan, 11th in Asia, and 208th in the world for quantity and quality of web presence and link visibility.[86]

In a unique ranking, TBS ranked Japanese universities by the questionnaire "Which university student do you want to have as your boyfriend?" to 300 girls in Shibuya, and Keio was ranked 1st in this ranking.[note 8]

Evaluation from Business World

The university ranking of the ratio of "president and chief executive officer of listed company" in Japan
all universities in Japan 3rd[87] out of all the 744[88] universities which existed as of 2006
Source 2006 Survey[87] by Weekly Diamond 〈ja〉 on the ranking of the universities which produced the high ratio of the graduates who hold the position of "president and chief executive officer of listed company" to all the graduates of each university
The university ranking according to the ratio of the number of officers & managers produced by each university to the number of graduates
all universities in Japan 26th[89] out of all the 778[90] universities which existed as of 2010
Source 2010 Survey by Weekly Economist 〈ja〉 on the ranking of universities according to the ratio of the number of the officers & managers produced by each university to the number of graduates
The university ranking according to the order of the evaluation by Personnel Departments of Leading Companies in Japan
Japan 15th[91] (out of 781[92] universities in Japan as of 2020)
Source 2020 Nikkei Survey[93] to all listed (3,714[94]) and leading unlisted (1,100), totally 4,814 companies[93]


Operating revenues/expenses in 2010[95]
Revenues (yen in millions) ratio Expenses (yen in millions) ratio
Tuition and fees 49,204 24.97% Compensation and benefits 65,270 33.12%
Investment return 4,170 2.12% Education & Research 52,148 26.46%
Capital gain 20,817 10.56% Investment 32,923 16.71%
National appropriation/Grants (Direct) 17,082 8.67% Repayment of debt 13,236 6.72%
Medical care 48,274 24.50%
Debt loan 11,680 5.93%
Endowments 5,475 2.78%
Total 197,061 100.00% Total 197,061 100.00%

According to Keio's financial report, there was an operating revenue of 197 billion yen in 2010.[95] The top three largest incomes were from "tuition and fees", "medical care" and "capital gain", with 49 billion yen, 48 billion yen and 21 billion yen respectively. The number of endowments in 2010 was about 5 billion yen. Keio is known for having one of the largest financial endowments of any Japanese university.[96]

On the other hand, the top 3 largest expenses in 2010 were "Compensation and benefits", "Education & Research" and "Investment", with 65 billion yen, 52 billion yen and 33 billion yen respectively. The total asset value in 2010 was about 364 billion yen with an increase of 5 billion yen. In addition, the total amount of assets under management was approximately 109 billion yen in 2010, composed mainly of cash, deposits with banks and marketable securities.[95]

Tuition fees

Tuition fees[97][98]
Undergraduate 4 years in Total (yen) Per year (yen)
Social Science & Humanities 4,440,000 1,110,000
Natural Science & Engineering 6,280,000 1,570,000
SFC 5,320,000 1,330,000
School of Medicine 14,440,000 3,610,000
Graduate 2 years in Total (yen) Per year (yen)
Social Science & Humanities 1,380,000 690,000
Natural Science & Engineering 1,965,000 983,000
SFC 2,071,000 1,035,000
School of Medicine 2,625,000 1,313,000

The university tuition fee system in Japan is different from other countries and very complicated. In most Japanese universities, more payments are required in the first year, such as "entrance fees", and less in subsequent years. There are several types of fees (some of which must be paid only once and some of which must be paid once or twice every year) and the so-called "course fee" is officially only one of those fees.

At Keio University, tuition fees vary and depend on the course. Social Science & Humanity studies have the lowest fees at approximately 1,110,000 yen per year, and the School of Medicine is the most expensive fee at about 3,610,000 yen per year.[97] The tuition fees for the various graduate schools are much less than those for undergraduate studies, e.g. 690,000 yen per year for Social Science & Humanities and 1,313,000 yen per year for School of Medicine.[98]

Although it is acceptable to pay twice with half in spring and half in autumn, the "entrance fee" must be paid before enrollment. The entrance fee for undergraduate study is 200,000 yen and the one for graduate study is 310,000 yen.[97][98]


2008 the number of students ratio average amount (yen)
Total using scholarship/loan 9,764 30.25%
Total of using scholarship funded by Keio 3,000 9.30% 300,000
International students (undergraduate) 397 appx. 100% 259,942
International students (graduate) 359 appx. 75% 517,473

Many students receive additional financial support. For example, in 2008, there were 9,764 students (about 30% of all students) who used either scholarships or loans.[99] Additionally, Keio funds over 3,000 students who receive, on average, scholarships of 300,000 yen.[99]


New South building on Mita Campus
New South building on Mita Campus
Jukukankyoku on Mita Campus
Jukukankyoku on Mita Campus
Mita speech house on Mita Campus
Mita speech house on Mita Campus
Hiyoshi Campus
Hiyoshi Campus
Yagami Campus
Yagami Campus
Kitasato Memorial Medical Library on Shinanomachi campus
Kitasato Memorial Medical Library on Shinanomachi campus
3rd Building on Shiba Kyoritsu campus
3rd Building on Shiba Kyoritsu campus


Keio has ten undergraduate faculties, which cover a wide range of academic fields, with each operating independently and offering broad educational and research activities. The faculties, with a planned annual number of enrolled first-year students in parentheses, are:

Graduate schools

In addition to the ten undergraduate faculties listed above, Keio has fourteen graduate schools. Many professors are associated with both an undergraduate faculty and a graduate school.

Media centers

Main article: Keio Media Centers (Libraries)

Keio's Media Centers, with combined holdings of over 4.58 million books and publications, are one of the largest academic information storehouses in the country.[100]

Information technology centers

Affiliated schools

Elementary education

Secondary education

Language education



Keio University Hospital is one of the largest and most well-known general hospitals in Japan,[citation needed] the number of surgeries for carcinoma uteri in 2007 was top and the one for lung cancer was third among all university hospitals.[101] and is also a famous teaching hospital. The number of trainee doctors who selected Keio as their first choice training hospital was 30 (33rd) among all Japanese teaching hospitals in 2010.[102] Established in 1920, it has over 1,000 beds, a leading laboratory, and research and medical information divisions.[12]


There are eleven campuses.

Alumni and professors

Some of the prominent Keio alumni include Japanese Prime Ministers Junichiro Koizumi (2001–2006), Ryutaro Hashimoto (1996–1998), and Tsuyoshi Inukai (1931–1932). Dozens of other alumni have been cabinet members and governors in the post-war period.[103] Its alumni include 230 CEOs of major companies and 97 CEOs of foreign-affiliated companies (both highest in Japan).[12] Keio has over 320,000 alumni in 866 alumni associations.[12][104]


Former (1931–1932) Japanese prime minister Tsuyoshi Inukai
Former (1931–1932) Japanese prime minister Tsuyoshi Inukai
Former (1996–1998) Japanese prime minister Ryutaro Hashimoto
Former (1996–1998) Japanese prime minister Ryutaro Hashimoto
Former (2001–2006) Japanese prime minister Junichiro Koizumi
Former (2001–2006) Japanese prime minister Junichiro Koizumi

Public servants, international organizations

Central Bank Governors




American sociologist Ted Nelson
American sociologist Ted Nelson

Other business people


Dozens of alumni and professors have been elected as academy members or in important positions.[117]

JAXA astronaut Chiaki Mukai
JAXA astronaut Chiaki Mukai



Gutenberg Bible

The only copy of the Gutenberg Bible held outside Europe or North America is the first volume of the Hubay 45 copy at Keio University. It was purchased by the university in 1996 from Maruzen booksellers, who originally purchased the copy at auction in 1987 for US$5.4 million.[181][182]

The Humanities Media Interface Project (HUMI) at Keio University is known for its high-quality digital images of Gutenberg Bibles and other rare books.[181] Under the direction of Professor Toshiyuki Takamiya, the HUMI team has made digital reproductions of eleven sets of the bible in nine institutions, including in 2000, both full-text facsimiles held in the collection of the British Library.[183]



  1. ^ excluding master course students as students in "Doctorate (prior)"
  2. ^ In 2021, research students and auditors were not recruited due to the global epidemic of COVID‐19 (coronavirus disease).
  3. ^ In the Edo period, private schools normally collected money or properties with Noshi irregularly from students, but those fees highly depended on each student's economic circumstances. Fukuzawa thought such an unstable financial system prevented the modernization of educational institutions as well as professors' professionalism. Then he designed a rudimentary management system for the school's finances.[1] Archived 2010-03-23 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Kitasato Shibasaburō, Taichi Kitajima, Taro Takemi and Toshiro Murase
  5. ^ National and Public universities apply a different kind of exams, so it is only comparable between universities in a same category.
  6. ^ e.g. Yoyogi seminar published Hensachi (the indicator showing the entrance difficulties by prep schools) rankings "「大学ブランド・イメージ調査2016-2017」ランキング". Archived from the original on 2011-04-22. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
  7. ^ Japanese journalist Kiyoshi Shimano ranks its entrance difficulty as SA (most selective/out of 10 scales) in Japan. 危ない大学・消える大学 2012年版 (in Japanese). YELL books. 2011. ASIN 4753930181.
  8. ^ TV program "Rank Okoku" on 2010/2/6 http://blogs.yahoo.co.jp/jterasaka/40927577.html


  1. ^ "Keio Logos". Keio University. Archived from the original on 2021-10-10. Retrieved 2021-10-29. Today, the phrase "the pen is mightier than the sword" also stands as the motto of Keio
  2. ^ "McDonnell International Scholars Academy". Washington University in St. Louis.
  3. ^ "Academic Staff (As of May 1, 2021)" (PDF). Keio University. 2021-05-01.
  4. ^ "Administrative Staff (As of May 1, 2021)" (PDF). Keio University. 2021-05-01.
  5. ^ a b c d e f "Student Enrollment (As of May 1, 2022)" (PDF). Keio University. 2022-05-01.
  6. ^ "Member University List". Global 30. Archived from the original on 2016-08-21. Retrieved 2021-01-19.
  7. ^ "Research University 11".
  8. ^ "Global University Leaders Forum (GULF) Members" (PDF). Retrieved 16 Jan 2020.
  9. ^ a b c "数字で見る慶應義塾:[慶應義塾]" [Keio University in numbers] (in Japanese). Keio University.
  10. ^ 『大学ランキング2020年版』. 東京: 朝日新聞出版. 2019. p. 386. ISBN 978-4-02-279224-2.
  11. ^ "Where do the world's top CEOs go to university? | Times Higher Education (THE)". www.timeshighereducation.com. Archived from the original on 27 November 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2022.
  12. ^ a b c d e http://www.ogi.keio.ac.jp/english/Keio-University-pamphlet.pdf Archived 2007-07-30 at the Wayback Machine (This link no longer exists. The paper-based pamphlet is only available. October 10, 2011)
  13. ^ Abramatic, Jean-Francois; Vezza, Albert (September 9, 1996). "Keio University joins MIT and INRIA in hosting W3C". Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  14. ^ "慶應義塾の目的" [Purpose of Keio University] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on May 4, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  15. ^ Before the Meiji Period, Japanese people had thought the oral statement is not reliable enough for decision-making, thus every time people had needed to state their opinions on paper when they had needed to decide something. Fukuzawa thought this culture would seriously prevent the introduction of the modern parliamentary regime and the fair court system. Then he developed the art of speech by the arrangement of Western speech. [2] Archived 2016-04-22 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "留学生受け入れのはじめ" [Beginning of accepting international students] (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved 2021-01-19.
  17. ^ "Dokuritsujison" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on May 26, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  18. ^ In fact, this phrase was also used for his Dharma name, which is a given name when people are dead, representing their nature.
  19. ^ "Hangaku Hankyo" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  20. ^ Japanese people usually use "Kun" only between friends. This is normally considered to be an informal expression and is not used by professors.
  21. ^ Keio officially uses the honorific of "Teacher" or "Professor" only when referring to Fukuzawa himself.
  22. ^ "Shachu no Kyoryoku" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  23. ^ Hiromi Shimada (October 2007). Keio Mitakai (in Japanese). Sanshusha. ASIN 4384039417.
  24. ^ "Dictionary of Keio No.4 The origin of Keio" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on March 19, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  25. ^ Although Shinshu Kan did not have a direct relation to Keio, Many people who studied or managed there were involved with Keio later. In fact, all students from Nakatsu Domain moved to Keio when it was closed.
  26. ^ 1868 is 4th year of Keio
  27. ^ "Dictionary of Keio No.7 The root of the school name" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on June 8, 2010. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  28. ^ Although Keio had been already involved in higher education, it had not had a university system before 1890. It was authorized as a university by the Japanese government in 1920.
  29. ^ At the beginning of Meiji period, there was an ethical sense that Samurai should not work for more than one master. Keio was established by the fund of Tokugawa shogunate, so it was hard to work for the new government in this sense. Fukuzawa in fact criticized severely Kaishū Katsu and Takeaki Enomoto who worked for both Tokugawa and the new government (see Fukuzawa Yukichi). His strict viewpoint prevented Keio to set up a political department and kept many Keio graduate away from politics for a long time. It is also one of the clear differences from Waseda which has been positively involved in politics for a long time.
  30. ^ "Vol1. Famous Visitors to Keio University". Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  31. ^ "A paper written by the 4th year student of the Faculty of Science and Technology was placed in "Science": Keio University Science and Technology". Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  32. ^ "A paper written by the 4th year student of the Faculty of Science and Technology was placed in "Science": Keio University Science and Technology" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  33. ^ "Presidents in Keio" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  34. ^ a b c "留学生数(Number of International Student): May 1, 2021" (in Japanese). 慶應義塾大学国際センター. Archived from the original on 2021-10-30. Retrieved 2021-10-30.
  35. ^ "Keio Campus city" (in Japanese). Campus city. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  36. ^ "Sai" means festival
  37. ^ See Mita Sai
  38. ^ "47th Mita sai" (in Japanese). Keio Journal. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  39. ^ McGraw, John J. (December 8, 1913). "Americans Defeat Great Jap Pitcher; Sugase, Idolized at Keio University, Easy for Giants and White Sox". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  40. ^ "Michigan Nine, Touring Japan, Loses to Keio University, 2-1". The New York Times. September 11, 1932. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  41. ^ "Police investigate students at Tokyo's Keio University over gang rape allegation". The Japan Times Online. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  42. ^ "Prosecutors drop rape case against 6 Keio University students". Japan Today. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  43. ^ "3 Keio University students arrested for sexually assaulting, robbing unconscious woman". Japan Today. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  44. ^ "慶応男子学生がサークル合宿の飲酒後に死亡 また今年も…". 産経ニュース. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  45. ^ "慶応大塾長選、50年の歴史覆す落選を喫した教授". 日経ビジネス電子版 (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  46. ^ "慶大アメフット部を事実上の降格処分 関東学生連盟 部員の不適切行為で". 毎日新聞 (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  47. ^ "慶応大、今度は応援指導部が「活動自粛」 「盗撮」報道との関係は?広報に聞いた". J-CASTニュース (in Japanese). 4 December 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  48. ^ "慶大元塾長秘書課長を逮捕 女子トイレ盗撮容疑―警視庁:時事ドットコム". 時事ドットコム (in Japanese). Retrieved 20 January 2020.
  49. ^ "Keio University racks up 4th voyeur arrest in as many months". Japan Today. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  50. ^ a b "Thomson Reuters 20 Top research institutions in Japan". Thomson Reuters. 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2022. (this raking includes 5 non-educational institutions)
  51. ^ "Employment rate in 400 major companies rankings" (in Japanese). Weekly Economist. 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
  52. ^ "Nikkei BP Brand rankings of Japanese universities" (in Japanese). Nikkei Business Publications. 2010. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
  53. ^ "Nikkei BP Brand rankings of Japanese universities" (in Japanese). Nikkei Business Publications. 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
  54. ^ "GBUDU University Rankings" (in Japanese). YELL books. 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
  55. ^ "QS Asian University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2016. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  56. ^ "THE World University Rankings". Times Higher Education. 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  57. ^ "QS World University Rankings". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  58. ^ "Academic Ranking of World Universities". Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University. 2017. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  59. ^ a b "ENSMP World University Rankings" (PDF). École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris. 2011. Retrieved April 29, 2011.
  60. ^ a b Asahi Shimbun University rankings 2010 "Publification rankings in Law (Page 4)" (PDF) (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun. 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2011.
  61. ^ "QS topuniversities world rankings in Engineering field". Topuniversities. 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
  62. ^ "THE Alma Mater Index(2017". timeshighereducation.co.uk. Retrieved Sep 9, 2020.
  63. ^ "Keio University Ranking | CWUR 2014". Archived from the original on 2015-09-20. Retrieved 2015-08-05.
  64. ^ Ewalt, David (9 March 2016). "Reuters Top 100 The World's Most Innovative Universities". reuters.com.
  65. ^ a b "Keio University". Top Universities. Retrieved 2017-06-24.
  66. ^ "慶応義塾大学 | 世界大学学術ランキング - 2015 | World University Rankings - 2015 | Shanghai Ranking - 2015". www.shanghairanking.com. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
  67. ^ "慶應義塾大学の偏差値". Archived from the original on 2021-07-09. Retrieved 2022-01-01.
  68. ^ "週刊ダイヤモンド" ダイヤモンド社 2010/2/27 http://web.sapmed.ac.jp/kikaku/infomation/0227daiyamondokiji.pdf
  69. ^ a b "University rankings 2011" The Asahi Shimbun
  70. ^ "Within Country and State Rankings at IDEAS: Japan". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  71. ^ "Japanese Economic Association". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  72. ^ "wHw͒i04.2.22j". Archived from the original on 7 May 2015. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  73. ^ 出身大学別上場企業役員数ランキング (in Japanese). 大学ranking.net. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
  74. ^ 出身大学別上場企業役員数ランキング (in Japanese). 大学ranking.net.
  75. ^ "List of AACSB-Accredited Business Schools 2019". www.mba.today.
  76. ^ "Recent News - Hitotsubashi University ICS - MBA Japan". Archived from the original on 29 May 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  77. ^ "University and business school ranking in Japan". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  78. ^ 図録▽大企業就職率大学ランキング (in Japanese). Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  79. ^ "年収偏差値・給料偏差値ランキング(2006・10・16):稼げる大学はどれ?". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  80. ^ "Japan Medical Association report" (PDF) (in Japanese). Japan Medical Association.
  81. ^ "世界医師会" [World Medical Association] (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2017-07-04. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  82. ^ 2010年(平成22年)新司法試験法科大学院別合格率ランキング -法科大学院seek. Laws.shikakuseek.com. Retrieved on 2014-06-17.
  83. ^ "閣僚経験者出身大学ランキング―有名人の出身大学ランキング". Archived from the original on 2017-08-28. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  84. ^ "入学案内:[慶應義塾]". www.keio.ac.jp. Archived from the original on March 6, 2009.
  85. ^ "「大学ブランド・イメージ調査2016-2017」ランキング | 情報活用塾|日経メディアマーケティング". Archived from the original on 2016-12-03. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  86. ^ "Ranking Web of World universities: Top Asia". Archived from the original on October 4, 2009.
  87. ^ a b "週刊ダイヤモンド 出世できる大学ランキング" [Weekly Diamond University Rankings]. Business Hacks (in Japanese). Retrieved April 2, 2021.
  88. ^ The number of universities and students|National Universities Association Archived 2020-11-01 at the Wayback Machine(in Japanese)
  89. ^ "「有名大学卒ほど出世しやすい」はもはや昔の話?小樽商科、滋賀、大阪市立――地方の意外な実力校". R. Agent. Recruit Agent. January 5, 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2021.
  90. ^ University reform reference materials / Cabinet Secretariat(in Japanese)
  91. ^ Survey on the image seen from human resources personnel:Ranking of the ability to get jobs|Nikkei HR 2020.06.03 release
  92. ^ The number of universities in Japan is 781 as of April 1, 2020. About 80% are private universities.|Ōbun Sha
  93. ^ a b Image held by human resources personnel of companies of Japan / Yokohama National University ranked 1st in Kantō & Kōshin'etsu region / Valuation from the ex-students already employed / The Nikkei・Nikkei HR Survey 2020-06-04 17:27
  94. ^ Number of listed companies & listed shares of stock|JPX
  95. ^ a b c "Financial report: 2010" (PDF) (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
  96. ^ e.g. Keio was top in 2007 and 2008 in terms of the number of endowments.[3]
  97. ^ a b c "Tuition Fees(undergraduate): May 2011" (in Japanese). Keio University. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
  98. ^ a b c "Tuition Fees(graduate): May 2011" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on September 20, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
  99. ^ a b c "Scholarship/loan: 2008" (in Japanese). Keio University. Archived from the original on August 11, 2011. Retrieved September 9, 2011.
  100. ^ "LO". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  101. ^ "病院.com". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  102. ^ "2010年度 初期臨床研修人気病院ランキング(大学病院編) - 病院情報局". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  103. ^ "Alumni on the World Stage". Keio University Shonan Fujisawa Campus. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  104. ^ "Encouragement of Learning Keio University, Japan". Keio University. Archived from the original on October 1, 2011. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  105. ^ "所属弁護士一覧 | 浜四津法律事務所". hamayotsu.jp.
  106. ^ Ozaki, Yukio. (2001). The Autobiography of Ozaki Yukio: The Struggle for Constitutional Government in Japan, pp. 21-26; Encyclopædia Britannica: Ozaki Yukio.
  107. ^ "鎌田栄吉|福澤諭吉をめぐる人々|三田評論Online". Archived from the original on 2019-04-30.
  108. ^ "Conferment of Honorary Degree of Doctor: Keio University". www.keio.ac.jp.
  109. ^ a b "葛西健:Who西太平洋地域事務局長に就任|話題の人|三田評論Online". Archived from the original on 2019-04-14.
  110. ^ a b "Regional Director". www.who.int.
  111. ^ "Bio" (PDF). www.keio.ac.jp. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  112. ^ "『張公権:義塾を訪れた外国人』". 三田評論. Retrieved 2020-03-23.
  113. ^ a b "春の叙勲4024人 小島三菱商事前会長ら旭日大綬章". 日本経済新聞 電子版. 29 April 2016.
  114. ^ "Katsuaki WATANABE" (PDF). OECD. Retrieved October 10, 2011.
  115. ^ "小林陽太郎|NHK人物録". NHK人物録 | NHKアーカイブス.
  116. ^ Parkin, Simon (31 March 2015). "Bloodborne creator Hidetaka Miyazaki: 'I didn't have a dream. I wasn't ambitious'". The Guardian. Archived from the original on June 3, 2015. Retrieved May 8, 2015.
  117. ^ a b "日本学士院". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  118. ^ "Bio". collections.royalsociety.org. Retrieved 2020-06-29.
  119. ^ a b c "Nomination Archive". NobelPrize.org.
  120. ^ "Bibliographical Database of Keio Economists - 年表表示". bdke.econ.keio.ac.jp.
  121. ^ 池田幸弘・小室正紀 (2015). 『近代日本と経済学 慶應義塾の経済学者たち. 東京: 慶應義塾大学出版会. ISBN 978-4-7664-2244-3.
  122. ^ "メンバー | suzuki-ohmori research group". 27 October 2016.
  123. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). ecommons.cornell.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2016. Retrieved 14 January 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  124. ^ "メンバー │ 中部大学創発学術院".
  125. ^ "会員個人情報 | 日本学士院". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  126. ^ 速水, 融 (2020). 『歴史人口学事始めー記録と記憶の九十年』. 東京: 筑摩書房. pp. 324–332. ISBN 978-4-480-07299-3.
  127. ^ "Bibliographical Database of Keio Economists - 人物詳細". bdke.econ.keio.ac.jp.
  128. ^ "Junzaburo Nishiwaki". American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
  129. ^ "冨田 恒男(トミタ ツネオ)とは". コトバンク.
  130. ^ "物故会員一覧 (50音順) タ行 | 日本学士院". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  131. ^ "Tsuneo Tomita". American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
  132. ^ "恩賜賞・日本学士院賞・日本学士院エジンバラ公賞授賞一覧 | 日本学士院". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  133. ^ "Osamu Saito". American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
  134. ^ 『経済学博士斎藤 修氏の『比較経済発展論ー歴史的アプローチ』に対する授賞審査要旨』. 東京: 日本学士院. 2011.
  135. ^ "Tanimura's home page". theochem.kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp.
  136. ^ "Deceased Members: K, L | The Japan Academy". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  137. ^ "Ryogo Kubo". American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
  138. ^ 日本人名大辞典+Plus, デジタル版. "宮島幹之助(みやじま みきのすけ)とは". コトバンク (in Japanese). Retrieved 2020-01-14.
  139. ^ "慶應義塾大学サイバー文明研究センター開設 David Farber博士を共同センター長に招聘:[慶應義塾]". www.keio.ac.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  140. ^ a b "冊子「東京大学の概要」". 東京大学.
  141. ^ "Deceased Members: H | The Japan Academy". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  142. ^ "プロフィール:教員・研究者:研究:慶應義塾大学医学部・医学研究科". www.med.keio.ac.jp.
  143. ^ "日本微小循環学会 Japanese Society for Microcirculation - 土屋雅春先生について". www.jsmicrocirc.com.
  144. ^ "事業推進担当者 北島 政樹 - 慶應義塾大学COEプログラム 低侵襲・新治療開発による個別化癌医療確立". www.coe-cancer.keio.ac.jp.
  145. ^ "List of Imperial Prizes, Japan Academy Prize, Japan Academy Edinburgh Public Award". The Japan Aacademy.
  146. ^ "世界を人間の目だけで見るのはもう止めよう―言語生態学者鈴木孝夫講演集". 紀伊國屋書店ウェブストア.
  147. ^ 日本人名大辞典+Plus, デジタル版. "伊東俊夫(いとう としお)とは". コトバンク.
  148. ^ "恩賜賞・日本学士院賞・日本学士院エジンバラ公賞授賞一覧 | 日本学士院". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  149. ^ "マーモセット | Search Results | 岡野研 Weblog".
  150. ^ "Japan approves world-first trial using iPS cells to treat spinal cord injuries". The Japan Times. 18 February 2019. Archived from the original on 2019-02-18.
  151. ^ "秦 藤樹". www6.plala.or.jp.
  152. ^ "恩賜賞・日本学士院賞・日本学士院エジンバラ公賞授賞一覧 | 日本学士院". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  153. ^ "階層型運動方程式". theochem.kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp.
  154. ^ "Honorary Doctors at Karolinska Institutet | Karolinska Institutet". ki.se.
  155. ^ "恩賜賞・日本学士院賞・日本学士院エジンバラ公賞授賞一覧 | 日本学士院". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  156. ^ "日本学士院第99回授賞式の挙行について | 日本学士院". www.japan-acad.go.jp.
  157. ^ "Prof. Tatsuta". www.appchem.waseda.ac.jp.
  158. ^ "Ernest Guenther Award in the Chemistry of Natural Products". American Chemical Society.
  159. ^ 金子, 彦二郎 (1946). CiNii 博士論文 - 平安時代文学と白氏文集 (PhD Thesis). 慶應義塾大学.
  160. ^ "坂本 達哉 (Sakamoto Tatsuya) - マイポータル - researchmap".
  161. ^ "Yoshio Nishi". NAE Website. Retrieved October 3, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  162. ^ "シリーズ第1弾". 神戸慶應倶楽部. October 25, 2017.
  163. ^ "野村達次先生の略歴と歩み - 慶應医学会". www.keiomedsoc.org. Retrieved 2020-01-06.
  164. ^ 『2020年度米沢富美子奨学金(仮称)募集要項(大学院ダブルディグリー派遣生対象』. 慶應義塾大学理工学部. 2020.
  165. ^ 片岡, 洋右 (2006). "『能勢修一さんの足跡をたどる』". 日本化学会情報化学部会誌. 24–1: 6 – via JSTAGE.
  166. ^ "村井純教授が、フランス政府よりレジオン・ドヌール勲章シュヴァリエを受章:[慶應義塾]". www.keio.ac.jp.
  167. ^ "Physics News". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  168. ^ Asai, Makoto; Hirose, Ryoma; Kondo, Atsushi; Koike, Yasuhiro (October 2007). "OSA - High-Bandwidth Graded-Index Plastic Optical Fiber by the Dopant Diffusion Coextrusion Process". Journal of Lightwave Technology. 25 (10): 3062–3067. Bibcode:2007JLwT...25.3062A. doi:10.1109/JLT.2007.904931. S2CID 23471887. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  169. ^ "NHKアーカイブス保存番組検索結果詳細". Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 2011-05-23.
  170. ^ "Bio" (PDF). kpri.keio.ac.jp. Retrieved 2020-06-29.
  171. ^ 野呂, 栄太郎 (1930). 『初版 日本資本主義発達史(上). 東京: 岩波書店. ISBN 4-00-331361-5.
  172. ^ "Honoring Shūsaku Endō | Georgetown University Library". www.library.georgetown.edu.
  173. ^ "慶應義塾機関誌|三田評論". www.keio-up.co.jp.
  174. ^ Miller, J. Scott (John Scott) (2010). The A to Z of modern Japanese literature and theater. Miller, J. Scott (John Scott). Lanham: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-1-4617-3188-7. OCLC 828424705.
  175. ^ "谷口 吉生 - 高松宮殿下記念世界文化賞". www.praemiumimperiale.org.
  176. ^ "Maki and Associates". www.maki-and-associates.co.jp.
  177. ^ "Fumihiko Maki". American Academy of Arts & Sciences.
  178. ^ "ニュース:[慶應義塾]". www.keio.ac.jp.
  179. ^ "『輪華ネーション』HARUCAによる主題歌のPV公開! 9/30のイベントでライブも" (in Japanese). Kadokawa Corporation. September 29, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  180. ^ 小林亮子 (2020-07-30). "【J+PLUSインタビュー/現場読解】YouTuber /ウェブサイト 「シンガポールと熱狂」編集長 Ghib Ojisan" [[J + PLUS Interview / Reading Comprehension] YouTuber / Editor-in-Chief of Website "Singapore and Enthusiasm" Ghib Ojisan]. J+PLUS (in Japanese). Archived from the original on 2021-06-29. Retrieved 2021-06-29.
  181. ^ a b "Gutenberg Bible: The HUMI Project". The Morgan Library and Museum. The Morgan Library and Museum. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
  182. ^ "Ellensburg Daily Record - Google News Archive Search". google.com.
  183. ^ Pearson, David (2006). Bowman, J (ed.). British Librarianship and Information Work 1991-2000: Rare book librarianship and historical bibliography. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-7546-4779-9.

See also

Coordinates: 35°38′57″N 139°44′34″E / 35.64917°N 139.74278°E / 35.64917; 139.74278