This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Chulalongkorn University" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Chulalongkorn University
Former names
  • Royal Pages School
  • Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn
  • เกียรติภูมิจุฬาฯ คือเกียรติแห่งการรับใช้ประชาชน (unofficial)
  • เสาหลักแห่งแผ่นดิน (vision statement)
Motto in English
  • Honour of Chula is the Honour of Serving the Public (unofficial)
  • Pillar of the Kingdom (vision statement)
TypeAutonomous public university
Established26 March 1917; 106 years ago (1917-03-26)
FounderKing Vajiravudh of Siam
Academic affiliation
ASAIHL, AUN, APRU, Washington University in St. Louis McDonnell International Scholars Academy[1]
Budget5,535 million baht (FY2019)
PresidentBundhit Eua-arporn, PhD
(บัณฑิต เอื้ออาภรณ์)
13°44′18″N 100°31′56″E / 13.738359°N 100.532097°E / 13.738359; 100.532097
CampusDowntown 2.0944 km2 (0.8087 sq mi)
Anthem"Maha Chulalongkorn"
("Great Chulalongkorn")
Colours  Pink
MascotChamchuri (tree)
Pillar of the kingdom

Chulalongkorn University (CU, Thai: จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย, RTGSChulalongkon Mahawitthayalai), nicknamed Chula (Thai: จุฬาฯ), is a public autonomous research university in Bangkok, Thailand. The university was originally founded during King Chulalongkorn's reign as a school for training royal pages and civil servants in 1899 (B.E. 2442) at the Grand Palace of Thailand. It was later established as a national university in 1917, making it the oldest institute of higher education in Thailand.[3]

During the reign of Chulalongkorn's son, King Vajiravudh, the Royal Pages School became the Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn. The Rockefeller Foundation[4] was instrumental in helping the college form its academic foundation.[5][6] On 26 March 1917, King Vajiravudh renamed the college "Chulalongkorn University".[7]

Chulalongkorn University is one of the National Research Universities and supported by the Office of Nation Education Standards and Quality Assessment of Thailand. Moreover, CU is the only Thai university which is a member of Association of Pacific Rim Universities (APRU).[8]

Chulalongkorn University

CU is composed of nineteen faculties, a School of Agriculture, three colleges, ten institutes and two other schools. Its campus occupies a vast area in downtown Bangkok. Graduates customarily receive their diplomas from the King of Thailand, a tradition begun by King Prajadhipok (Rama VII).


The university was named after King Chulalongkorn
Statues of King Chulalongkorn and King Vajiravudh

King Chulalongkorn's reforms, aimed at transforming Thai society into a modern state demanded trained officials specialized in various fields. In 1899, the King founded the "Civil Service Training School"[9] near the north gate of the Royal Palace. Those who graduated from the school would become royal pages. As royal pages, they learned how to manage organizations by working closely with the king, which was a traditional way to enter the Siamese bureaucracy. After serving as royal pages, they would then serve in the Mahattai Ministry or other government ministries.

On 1 April 1902 the King renamed the school. It became the "Royal Pages School" (Thai: โรงเรียนมหาดเล็ก).[10] On 1 January 1911, King Vajiravudh changed the name to "Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn" (Thai: โรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนของพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) as a memorial to his father and moved the school to Windsor Palace (Thai: วังวินด์เซอร์ หรือวังใหม่) in the Pathumwan District.[11]

The King subsidized the construction of a university campus and organized various schools around the city into Chulalongkorn. The college offered eight majors taught by five schools including;

Chulalongkorn University Auditorium

King Rama VI realized that education should be provided not only to bureaucrats, but to all people. On 26 March 1917, the college was upgraded to "Chulalongkorn University" (Thai: จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย),[12] and the schools were transformed into four faculties: Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Faculty of Public Administration, Faculty of Engineering, and Faculty of Medicine.

The Rockefeller Foundation reorganized the curriculum of the Faculty of Medicine. In 1923, the Faculty of Medicine became the first faculty to accept secondary school (Mattayom) graduates. The remaining faculties then followed suit. After the 1932 Revolution, the People's Party wanted legal and political studies to be independent of "royalists" so they moved the Faculty of Law and Political Science to the new Thammasat University in 1933.

In 1938, Chulalongkorn University's Preparatory School was founded to provide pre-collegiate education to students. Those who managed to enter the university had to spend two years in the Preparatory School before going on to the Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The Preparatory School, however, ceased to be a university-owned preparatory school in 1947 and became the independent Triam Udom Suksa School. Later, the university established Chulalongkorn University Demonstration School (CUD) as a laboratory school for primary and secondary education for the Faculty of Education.

Chulalongkorn University


Phra Kiao

Main article: Phra Kiao

Pra Kiao model, CU Museum

Since the establishment of the Royal Pages School, the former name of the university, King Chulalongkorn authorized the use of his personal emblem as a school emblem.[13] The emblem is called Phra Kiao, a Thai coronet, royal headgear for young princes and princesses. As the school was transformed into the university, the King authorized the use of phra kiao. Today, phra kiao appears not only in formal letters and transcripts, but also on souvenirs made by the university as well as student uniforms.

Student uniform

Undergraduates are required to wear a uniform when studying, taking examinations, or contacting the university in person. Male graduate students wear a collared or polo shirt and dark trousers. Women wear a plain blouse with long skirt.

Originally, the university uniform was adapted from a uniform worn by Chulalongkorn's heirs.[14] The uniform was later updated, but the original is reserved as a formal uniform. The formal uniform is usually worn by student leaders and graduates.

Today, the ordinary uniform for male undergraduate students consists of a plain white shirt with long or short sleeves and black (or dark blue) trousers. Wearing a dark blue necktie with colored phra kiao engraved on its front is mandatory for first-year students but optional for higher years. However, a black tie with a silver phra kiao pin is usually used by upperclass student in some faculties. Female students are required to wear a short-sleeved blouse with a fold along the spine. The buttons must be made of metal, and a small phra kiao emblem must be pinned on the right breast. A dark blue or black pleated skirt with any black, white, or brown shoes are worn. For female first-year students, white leather shoes are mandatory.[15] Chulalongkorn University's uniforms have long been the template of many uniforms used in other universities in Thailand.

Academic dress

Main articles: khrui and Academic dress of Chulalongkorn University

The academic dress of Chulalongkorn University is based on ceremonial attire called khrui, a gown made from very fine mesh. The robe was originally reserved for pre-ordination monks, ministers and royal family members. Like dresses worn in the United Kingdom, the robe is open-fronted and calf-length. Cap and hood, however, are omitted. The gown is faced and lined with a felt strip dyed according to the status of the wearer and decorated with gold ribbons. The elbow and wrist portion of the gown is also wrapped with the same felt strip.

Bachelor's and master's gown is faced and bordered with a black felt strip, while a doctor's gown uses a scarlet felt strip. This colour scheme is similar to one used at the University of Oxford: Black for bachelors and masters (and doctors in undress); Scarlet for doctors (in full-dress).[16] The cord (bachelor) or ribbon (master and doctor) dyed with the faculty colour is attached to the centre of the felt strip longitudinally.[17] Officers' (lecturers, university council members, vice-chancellor and chancellor) gown is faced with a pink strip and centred with a gold thread, regardless of the faculty. The specially designed gown with a yellow facing is reserved for the king of Thailand, who is also Visitor to the University.[18]

VVajiravudh authorized the university to use the traditional Thai gown instead of the western one,[19] but the regulation on this matter was enacted in 1930 by Prajadhipok.[20]

Example of felt strips

Rain Trees

Rain Tree near CU Auditorium

Rain trees are common on the university campus. They are associated with the cycle of student life. Fresh green leaves at beginning of the term represent the freshmen's naivete. As the tree produces slimy pods and sheds leaves, the ground beneath it becomes slippery, thus alerting students to prepare for examinations. If they walk carefully, they will not slip (pass examinations). If they walk heedlessly, they will slip and fall (fail examinations).[21]

From 1937–1957, many rain trees were cut down to free space for new buildings. King Bhumibol Adulyadej noticed the dramatic decrease in the number of rain trees. On 15 January 1962, he brought five trees from Hua Hin and planted them in front of the university auditorium, proclaiming: "...I give these five trees as an eternal memorial." (Thai: จึงขอฝากต้นไม้ไว้ห้าต้นให้เป็นเครื่องเตือนใจตลอดกาล).


Main article: Faculties of Chulalongkorn University

Chulalongkorn Business School
Bundit Building
Chulalongkorn Business School in 2022
Faculty of Communication Arts

Chulalongkorn University consists of 19 faculties, three colleges, one school and many institutes which function as teaching and research units.[22][23]

In 1917, the university had four faculties: Arts and Sciences, Public Administration, Engineering, and Medicine. The Faculty of Law was established in 1933 as part of the Faculty of Law and Political Science.[24] From the 1930s to the 1950s it expanded to various fields including Pharmacy (1934), Veterinary Science (1935), Architecture (1939), Dentistry (1940), and Commerce and Accountancy (1943). In 1943, the regency government under General Phibun separated the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Veterinary Science to become the University of Medical Sciences, now Mahidol University. In 1948, the Faculty of Political Science was re-established. The Faculty of Education was established in 1957 from the School of Teacher Training at Baan Somdet Chao Phraya (Thai: โรงเรียนฝึกหัดครู บ้านสมเด็จเจ้าพระยา).[25] In 1967, the Faculty of Veterinary Science was returned from Kasetsart University and the Faculty of Medicine at Chulalongkorn Hospital was moved from University of Medical Sciences to Chulalongkorn University. In 1972, the Faculty of Dentistry and Faculty of Pharmacy were reinstated.

The Office of the Commission on Agricultural Resource Education (OCARE) was established in 2009.[26] It is not an administrative office, but a school in which teaching and research are carried out. It admits students from two groups: one from northern Thai provinces (Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Uttaradit) and another from the rest of country. It was upgraded to the School of Agricultural Resources with full degree-granting power on 5 March 2014.[23] In 2014 it became the School of Agriculture, Chulalongkorn University (SAR).

In 2019, aiming to address global industry changes and demand for relevant education, Chulalongkorn University launched Chulalongkorn School of Integrated Innovation (ScII) to offer the first in Asia interdisciplinary undergraduate degree in both arts and science - Bachelor of Arts and Science in Integrated Innovation (BAScii).[27]

CU central campus

Health sciences

Science and technology

Social science and humanities

Integrated Faculty

International programs

Inside Chulalongkorn University Auditorium

CU's international programs offers 99 international programs, including 17 Bachelor, 48 Master and 34 Doctoral programs. Admissions for international students are based on the guidelines issued by the Council of University Presidents of Thailand.

Bachelor's Degrees:

Graduate institutes

Research institutes

Associated institutes


Chulalongkorn University has research organizations in many fields of study.


University rankings
Global – Overall
ARWU World[29]501-600 (2022)
QS World[30]211 (2024)
THE World[31]801-1000 (2023)
USNWR Global[32]=547 (2023)



QS World University Rankings by Subject 2020: Chula ranked number one in Thailand in 20 disciplines.[48]

QS World University Ranking by Subject 2018[49][50]

World rank Subject
  • Mineral & Mining Engineering
51 – 100
  • Chemical Engineering
101 – 150
  • Accounting & Finance
  • Architecture / Built Environment
  • Environmental Sciences
  • Geography
  • Modern Languages
  • Pharmacy & Pharmacology
  • Politics & International Studies
151 – 200
  • Business & Management Studies
  • Chemistry
  • Civil & Structural Engineering
  • Electrical & Electronic Engineering
  • Linguistics
  • Materials Science
  • Mechanical, Aeronautical & Manufacturing Engineering
  • Medicine
  • Sociology
  • Law
201 – 250
  • Biological Sciences
  • Computer Science & Information Systems
  • Economics & Econometrics
301 – 350
  • Physics & Astronomy


Research scholarships

Education scholarships


Main article: Campus of Chulalongkorn University

Chulalongkorn University dormitory

The university campus occupies an area of 637 rai (101.9 ha; 252 acres) in the downtown Pathum Wan District. It accounts for just over half of the 1,153 rai (184.5 ha; 456 acres) of land owned by the university, the rest of which is commercially developed by the university's Property Management Office or used by other institutions.

Centenary Park

Main article: Chulalongkorn University Centenary Park

The west side of Chula's campus is the site of this innovative park. It has gradually sloping portions.[51] Its 28 rai expanse contains a water retention pond with a capacity of 3.8 million liters and a rain garden. Both help to ameliorate Bangkok's seasonal flooding. It was built to commemorate Chula's 100th anniversary in 2017.[52]


Chulalongkorn University International House (CU iHouse)[53] is a 26-storey, 846-unit, on campus residence for international students and lecturers. Rooms come fully furnished with air conditioning, modern conveniences, 24-hour security and safety systems. The residence is included in the university's shuttle bus services.

Honorary degrees

The university has bestowed honorary degrees on heads of state and other international dignitaries, including two U.S. presidents:


Chulalongkorn University student traditions include:

Student activities and clubs

The university is host to 40 student clubs, including the Buddhism and Traditions Club, the Religious Studies Club, the Mind Study Club, and the Thai Classical Music Club. Chulalongkorn also has a Morals Network, which actively campaigns to protect student activities from damaging the university's reputation. The university's Cheer Club annually organizes the Chula-Thammasat traditional football match.

Notable alumni

International reputation

Robocup competitions

The university RoboCup team, Plasma‐Z, got several prizes from the robotics competition as follow.[63]

Moreover, another university Robocup team, Plasma-RX has participated in Rescue robot league at World RoboCup 2008, Suzhou, China, and won the first prize and the best-in-class in mobility award.[64][65]

See also


  1. ^ "McDonnell International Scholars Academy".
  2. ^ a b c d Office of the Registrar, Chulalongkorn University. Statistics on Students in Different Level Archived December 1, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Last updated May 21, 2018
  3. ^ "CU History". Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2016.
  4. ^ Becker, William H. Innovative Partners The Rockefeller Foundation and Thailand. New York: The Rockefeller Foundation, 2013. William H. Becker. "Assets: Rockefeller Foundation" Rockefeller Foundation. 2013. Archived December 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (29 November 2106).
  5. ^ "CU History". Archived from the original on October 8, 2016. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  6. ^ "Thailand's 'Father of Modern Medicine'". News. January 23, 2014. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  7. ^ Chulalongkorn University official website. CU History Archived October 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  8. ^ "Association of Pacific Rim Universities - Member Universities". Archived from the original on September 4, 2017. Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  9. ^ Thai: โรงเรียนสำหรับฝึกหัดวิชาข้าราชการฝ่ายพลเรือน
  10. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระบรมราชโองการประกาศตั้งโรงเรียนมหาดเล็ก. เล่ม ๑๙, ตอน ๑, ๖ เมษายน พ.ศ.๒๔๔๕, หน้า ๑๖ (Royal Order to establish Royal Page School)
  11. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระบรมราชโองการประกาศตั้งโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนฯ , เล่ม ๒๗, ตอน ก, ๑๑ มกราคม พ.ศ.๒๔๕๔, หน้า ๑๒๓ (Royal Order to establish the Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn)
  12. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระบรมราชโองการ ประกาศประดิษฐานโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือนของพระบาทสมเด็จพระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัวขึ้นเป็นโรงเรียนข้าราชการพลเรือน, เล่ม ๒๗, ตอน ก, ๑๕ เมษายน พ.ศ.๒๔๖๐ (ประกาศเมื่อวันที่ ๒๖ มีนาคม พ.ศ.๒๔๖๐, หน้า ๑๒๓ (Royal Order to establish the Civil Service College of King Chulalongkorn.)
  13. ^ About Phra Kiao by Chulalongkorn Memorial Hall Archived June 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ History about CU uniform. Archived 20 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ข้อบังคับจุฬาฯ ว่าด้วยเครื่องแบบ เครื่องหมาย และเครื่องแต่งกายนิสิต พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓, เล่ม ๑๒๗, ตอนพิเศษ ๕๒ ง, ๒๖ เมษายน พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓ (The university regulation on uniform and dress codes, 2010)
  16. ^ Shaw, G. W. (1995) Academical Dress of British and Irish Universities, Chichester: Philmore & Co. Ltd, ISBN 0-85033-974-X
  17. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา.ข้อบังคับจุฬาฯ ว่าด้วยการกำหนดปริญญาในสาขาวิชา อักษรย่อสำหรับสาขาวิชา ครุยวิทยฐานะ เข็มวิทยฐานะ และครุยประจำตำแหน่ง พ.ศ.๒๕๕๓.เล่ม ๑๒๗ ตอนพิเศษ ๕๒ ง, ๒๖ เมษายน ๒๕๕๓. (University Regulation on Degrees Granted, Graduation and Faculty Gowns, 2010)
  18. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา.พระราชกำหนดเสื้อครุยบัณฑิตของจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย พ.ศ.๒๔๗๓. เล่ม ๔๗, ๖ กรกฎาคม ๒๔๗๓. (Regulation on Chulalongkorn University Graduation Gown, 1930)
  19. ^ Graduation Gown of Chulalongkorn University Archived May 10, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, พระราชกำหนดเสื้อครุยบัณฑิตของจุฬาลงกรณมหาวิทยาลัย พ.ศ.๒๔๗๓, เล่ม ๔๗ หน้า ๙๒-๙๖ (Academic dress act 1930)
  21. ^ Rain Tree-The Symbol of Chulalongkorn University Archived June 7, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย เรื่อง ส่วนงานของมหาวิทยาลัย พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๒, เล่ม ๑๒๗, ตอนพิเศษ ๑๖ ง, ๑ กุมภาพันธ์ พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๓, หน้า ๗๐ (University notification (rather command) on academic units, 2008)
  23. ^ a b ราชกิจจานุเบกษา, ประกาศจุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย เรื่อง ส่วนงานของมหาวิทยาลัย (ฉบับที่ ๒) พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๗, เล่ม ๑๓๑, ตอนพิเศษ ๔๙ ง, ๑๘ มีนาคม พ.ศ. ๒๕๕๗, หน้า ๓ (Amendment to 2008 regulation, ratified 2014)
  24. ^ Archived August 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University Archived September 4, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  26. ^ Principles and history of establishing OCARE. Archived March 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  27. ^ "Chula Opens School of Integrated Innovation (ScII)". Chulalongkorn University. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
  28. ^ "Chula Opens School of Integrated Innovation (ScII)". Chulalongkorn University. Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  29. ^ [Academic Ranking of World Universities 2019 Archived August 15, 2019, at the Wayback Machine]
  30. ^ [QS World University Rankings 2021]
  31. ^ "Chulalongkorn University". November 13, 2021.
  32. ^ [1]
  33. ^ "QS University Rankings: Asia 2016". June 8, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  34. ^ "QS World University Rankings 2016". August 25, 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  35. ^ "Chulalongkorn University". Top Universities. July 16, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
  36. ^ "CWUR 2017 | Top Universities in Thailand". Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  37. ^ "RANKINGS". Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  38. ^ (CWTS), Centre for Science and Technology Studies. "CWTS Leiden Ranking 2016". CWTS Leiden Ranking 2016. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  39. ^ "World University Rankings". September 30, 2015. Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  40. ^ "Reputation Rankings". Retrieved December 20, 2016.
  41. ^ "Scimago Institutions Rankings". Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  42. ^ "World University Rankings - 2017 | Thailand Universities in Top 500 universities | Academic Ranking of World Universities - 2017 | Shanghai Ranking - 2017". Archived from the original on January 24, 2021. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  43. ^ "2016 tables: Institutions | 2016 tables | Institutions | Nature Index". Retrieved September 16, 2016.
  44. ^ "Top World University Rankings | US News Best Global Universities". Archived from the original on August 19, 2013. Retrieved November 2, 2019.
  45. ^ "Chula falls to 126th in Times uni ranking". Bangkok Post. May 10, 2018. Retrieved November 5, 2018.
  46. ^ "Ranking By Campus Setting – City Center 2016 | Greenmetric UI". Archived from the original on April 21, 2017. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  47. ^ "Thailand | Ranking Web of Universities". Retrieved February 1, 2017.
  48. ^ "Chula bags top university prize". Bangkok Post. March 7, 2020. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
  49. ^ "CU Subjects Top Country's List in QS World University Ranking by Subject 2017". Retrieved March 16, 2017.
  50. ^ "Chulalongkorn University". Top Universities. December 6, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  51. ^ "A secret weapon from Thailand that can change the future of Mumbai - Sinking future".
  52. ^ Ocharoenchai, Nanticha (November 19, 2018). "Seeing green is believing". Bangkok Post. Retrieved November 20, 2018.
  53. ^ "CU iHOUSE". PMCU (in Thai). Retrieved February 9, 2020.
  54. ^ "President Johnson received an Honorary Doctorate in Political Science from Chulalongkorn University. | U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Thailand". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Thailand. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  55. ^ "William J. Clinton: Remarks at Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok". Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  56. ^ "Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory". Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  57. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Born to be Sup'tar หน้าใหม่ : นิว ฐิติภูมิ เตชะอภัยคุณ [ENG SUB]". YouTube.
  58. ^ a b จุฬาลงกรณ์มหาวิทยาลัย. "สองนิสิตจุฬาฯ นักกีฬาเทควันโดทีมชาติไทย คว้ามาได้ 2 เหรียญจากกีฬาโอลิมปิก 2016". สำนักบริหารกิจการนิสิต (in Thai). Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  59. ^ "Olympics: Tawin wins silver, Panipak wins bronze, Ariya tops day 1 golf". Bangkok Post. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  60. ^ "Games, Innovation and World Citizenship winners announced in Microsoft Imagine Cup, setting stage for Friday's World Championship - The Fire Hose". July 28, 2016. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
  61. ^ "Chulalongkorn University Concert Choir Won Gold Award in World-Class Musical Competition". Retrieved September 18, 2016.
  62. ^ "This Imagine Cup team gives you the power to manipulate time and see the future". Microsoft Imagine Blog. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
  63. ^ PlasmaZ Extended Team Description Paper[permanent dead link]
  64. ^ Chuengsatiansup, K.; Sajjapongse, K.; Kruapraditsiri, P.; Chanma, C.; Termthanasombat, N.; Suttasupa, Y.; Sattaratnamai, S.; Pongkaew, E.; Udsatid, P.; Hattha, B.; Wibulpolprasert, P.; Usaphapanus, P.; Tulyanon, N.; Wongsaisuwan, M.; Wannasuphoprasit, W.; Chongstitvatana, P. (2009). "Plasma-RX: Autonomous Rescue robots". 2008 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics. pp. 1986–1990. doi:10.1109/ROBIO.2009.4913305. ISBN 978-1-4244-2678-2. S2CID 15839311.
  65. ^ Plasma-RX: Autonomous Rescue Robots