|Royal Thai Police|
|Formed||1860 (163 years)|
|Headquarters||Pathum Wan, Bangkok, Thailand|
The Royal Thai Police (RTP) (Thai: สำนักงานตำรวจแห่งชาติ; RTGS: samnakngan tamruat haeng chat) is the national police force of Thailand. The RTP employs between 210,700 and 230,000 officers, roughly 17 percent of all civil servants (excluding the military and the employees of state-owned enterprises). The RTP is frequently recognized as the fourth armed force of Thailand since their tradition, concept, culture, skill, and training are relatively similar to the army and most of their officer cadets need to graduate from the Armed Forces Academies Preparatory School before entering the Royal Thai Police Cadet Academy. Officers also undergo paramilitary training similar to the army but with an additional focus on law enforcement.
Until the 19th century Royal Thai Armed Forces personnel, aside from their duties of national defence, also performed law enforcement duties alongside dedicated civil servants. Responsibility for law and order was divided into the six ministries led by chancellors of state (during the Ayutthaya and Thonburi eras); in time of war, police units were under royal command as part of the army. Only during the reigns of King Mongkut (Rama IV) and King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) did the nation see a huge reform and the Westernization of Thai law enforcement forces to adapt to the changing situation and needs of the country. By 1902, the Royal Police Cadet Academy (RPCA) was founded to train future police officers. In the same year, King Chulalongkorn granted the Police its own symbol using the Phra Saeng sword (พระแสงดาบ) and the all evil-warding Chaturmuk (จตุรมุข) shield. In 1915 the provincial and urban police forces were united as one national organization under the Ministry of Interior (established 1894).
Primary responsibility for the maintenance of public order through enforcement of the kingdom's laws was exercised by the Thailand National Police Department (TNPD), a subdivision of the Interior Ministry. Charged with performing police functions throughout the entire country, the TNPD was a unitary agency whose power and influence in Thai national life had at times rivaled that of the armed forces itself.
The formal functions of the TNPD included more than the enforcement of laws and apprehension of offenders. The department also played an important role in the government's efforts to suppress the remnants of the communist insurgency. In the event of an invasion by external forces, much of the police force would come under the control of the Ministry of Defense to serve with, but not be incorporated into, the military forces.
Originally modeled on the pre–World War II national police force of Japan, the TNPD was reorganized several times to meet changing public order and internal security needs. American advice, training, and equipment, which were provided from 1951 through the early 1970s, did much to introduce new law enforcement concepts and practices and to aid in the modernization of the TNPD. During this era the strength and effectiveness of the police grew steadily.
All components of the police system were administered by the TNPD headquarters in Bangkok, which also provided technical support for law enforcement activities throughout the kingdom. The major operational units of the force were the Provincial Police, the Border Patrol Police (BPP), the Metropolitan Police, and smaller specialized units supervised by the Central Investigation Bureau.
In mid-1987 the total strength of the TNPD, including administrative and support personnel, was estimated at roughly 110,000. Of this number, over one-half were assigned to the Provincial Police and some 40,000 to the BPP. More than 10,000 served in the Metropolitan Police. Quasi-military in character, the TNPD was headed by a director general, who held the rank of police general. He was assisted by three deputy directors general and five assistant directors general, all of whom held the rank of police lieutenant general. Throughout the TNPD system, all ranks except the lowest (constable) corresponded to those of the army. The proliferation of high ranks in the TNPD organizational structure, as in the military, indicated the political impact of the police on national life.
In 1998, TNPD was transferred from the Ministry of Interior of Thailand to be directly under the Office of the Prime Minister. It acquired a new name, in English, the "Royal Thai Police" (RTP). The title of its commander was changed from "Director-General of the TNPD" to "Commissioner-General of the Royal Thai Police".
Thailand's police forces number about 230,000 officers. About eight percent (18,400) are female. In the Philippines the percentage of female police officers is 20 percent, 18 percent in Malaysia, and 30 percent, the world's highest percentage of women, in Sweden. Of 8,000 investigators with the RTP, 400 are women.
Females were first admitted to the Royal Police Cadet Academy (RPCA), founded in 1901, in 2009. It has since graduated about 700 female officers. Starting with the class to be admitted for the 2019 academic year, the 280 places formerly reserved for females will be scrapped. Earlier in 2018, the RTP prohibited women from "inquiry official" roles. The rationale given was that women are hindered by domestic responsibilities, therefore less effective than male officers. Women will still be able to become police officers via other avenues. For example, women with law degrees will continue to be recruited.
National police chief Chakthip Chaijinda attributed the barring of women from the RPCA to a new Ministry of Defence ruling that all RPCA cadets must undergo an initial period of training at the male-only Armed Forces Academies Preparatory School (AFAPS). Critics say the new policy violates the 2015 Gender Equality Act, the constitution, Thailand's 20 year national strategy, as well as international conventions that prohibit gender discrimination.
The Thai police are subdivided into several regions and services, each wielding their own powers.
Main article: Border Patrol Police
A 40,000 person paramilitary force. The BPP and the PARU were largely creations of the US CIA. In the late-1950s and 1960s, "The BPP and PARU were integral in U.S. and Thai counterinsurgency efforts." The BPP, other than protecting the borders, countered "infiltration and subversion..." and operated "as guerrilla forces in enemy held areas" such as northeast and southern Thailand. The PARU was a small unit used on clandestine missions outside Thailand.: 51
The national coordinating headquarters has jurisdiction over the entire country. The CIB was organized to assist both provincial and metropolitan components of the Royal Thai Police in preventing and suppressing criminal activity and in minimizing threats to national security.
Narcotics Suppression Bureau is the lead agency for counter-narcotics investigations in Thailand.
Main article: Special Branch Bureau
Special Branch Bureau is a Special Branch — sometimes referred to by critics as the "political police", is responsible for controlling subversive activities and serves as the Thai Police's major intelligence organization, as well as the unit responsible for VIP protection.
The RTP operates 8 fixed wing and 54 rotary-wing aircraft:
The Provincial Police form the largest of the Royal Thai Police operational components in both personnel and geographic responsibility. It is headed by a commander who reported to the police commissioner-general, and administered through four police regions—geographic areas of responsibility similar to those of the army regional commands. This force provides police services to every town and village throughout the kingdom except metropolitan Bangkok and border areas. The Provincial Police thus handled law enforcement activities and in many cases was the principal representative of the central government's authority in much of the country.
During the 1960s and early-1970s, as the police assumed an increasing role in counterinsurgency operations, a lack of coordination among security forces operating in the rural areas became apparent. Observers noted that the overall police effort suffered because of conflicting organizational patterns and the highly centralized control system that required decisions on most matters to emanate from the various police bureaus of the (then) TNPD headquarters in Bangkok.
A reorganization of the TNPD in 1978 and 1979 gave more command authority to the four police lieutenant generals who served as regional commissioners of the Provincial Police. Thereafter, the senior officers of each region not only controlled all provincial police assigned to their respective geographic areas but also directed the railroad, highway, marine, and forestry police units operating there, without going through the chain of command to the Central Investigation Bureau in Bangkok. Although this change increased the workload of the regional headquarters, it resulted in greater efficiency and improved law enforcement.
The Provincial Police Division is divided into 10 regions covering the 76 provinces of Thailand except metropolitan Bangkok and the border areas:
The RTP Education Bureau is responsible for training police personnel in the latest methods of law enforcement and the use of modern weapons. It operates the Royal Police Cadet Academy in Sam Phran District, Nakhon Pathom Province, for the officer corps, the detective training school at Bang Kaen, the Metropolitan Police Training School at Bang Kaen, and the Provincial Police training centers at Nakhon Pathom, Lampang, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Yala. The bureau also supervises a number of sites established and staffed by the BPP to train its field platoons in counterinsurgency operations. These sites include a large national facility near Hua Hin and smaller facilities in Udon Thani, Ubon Ratchathani, Chiang Mai, and Songkhla.
Main article: Tourist Police (Thailand)
Tourist Police Bureau was elevated from the Tourist Police Division under Central Investigation Bureau in 2017. The creation of the Tourist Police is due to the fact that the tourism and entertainment industry in Thailand is growing every year, and the number of people arriving in the country is constantly increasing. The priorities of the Tourist Police include cooperation with foreign nationals and the promotion of their security.
According to Reuters correspondent, Andrew Marshall, "The country has a special force of Tourist Police, set up specifically so that foreigners have as little contact as possible with the ordinary police—the effect on the crucial tourism industry would be chilling."
According to one source, in 2017 there were 1,700 enlisted tourist police on the force. As of 2019[update] the agency has 2,000 officers and 70 tourist police cars for use nationwide.
The Immigration Bureau is responsible for issuing travel visas and managing entry and departure in Thailand. The Immigration Police are a frequent target of criticism from expatriates who decry slow service, inconsistent application of regulations, and excessive filing of paper forms. Referring to just one of scores of immigration forms, the TM6 Arrival-Departure Card, Kobsak Pootrakool, deputy secretary-general to the prime minister, admitted that, "The immigration police have to have a huge warehouse to store these papers," Kobsak said, adding that the police rarely look at the information in the forms, which are only stored "just in case". The government expects a 20 million visitors to Thailand this year, each required to complete a TM6 form. The form will be replaced by mobile phone app in 2019.
Main article: Metropolitan Police Bureau
Responsible for providing all law enforcement services for the capital city of Bangkok and its suburbs, the Metropolitan Police Bureau is probably the most visible and publicly recognizable of all Thai police components. This largely uniformed urban force operates under the command of a chief who holds the rank of police lieutenant general assisted by six deputy chiefs. Organizationally, the force consists of three divisions, each responsible for police services in one of the three urban areas: northern Bangkok, southern Bangkok, and Thonburi. As of 2019[update], there are 88 police stations across the capital, each with 30-200 police officers attached to it. In addition to covering the city with foot patrols, the Metropolitan Police maintains motorized units, a canine corps, building guards, traffic-control specialists, and law enforcement personnel trained to deal with juveniles. The Traffic Police Division also provides escorts and guards of honor for the king and visiting dignitaries and served as a riot-control force to prevent demonstrations and to disperse unruly crowds in Bangkok.
Responsible for medical and healthcare-related services for the police, including forensic science and autopsies. It is headquartered at Police General Hospital in Pathum Wan District, Bangkok and operates Dara Rasmi Hospital in Chiang Mai, Nawutti Somdet Ya Hospital in Bangkok and Yala Sirirattanarak Hospital in Yala. It also operates the Institute of Forensic Science which trains a number of residents in forensic science each year.
As of 2023[update], the RTP has a fleet of some 62 aircraft including a six passenger, 1.14 billion baht (US$37 million) police jet, a Dassault Falcon 2000S.
The Royal Thai Police, especially the provincial forces, extensively uses pickup trucks and SUVs. For traffic regulation and patrolling in cities, sedans and motorcycles are also used. Highway police vehicles generally also have equipment like speed radars, breath analyzers, and emergency first aid kits. They also use tuk-tuks, minivans, bicycles, all-terrain vehicles, boats, and helicopters. As of April 2020[update], the RTP operate seven leased electric patrol cars used to protect "VVIPs". "They will replace the Mercedes-Benz A Class and will be used in the government's VVIP's motorcade", a spokesman explained.
Royal Thai Police vehicle colors vary widely according to grade, region, and kind of duty performed. Bangkok metropolitan police vehicles are black and white. Provincial police vehicles are maroon and white while highway police are maroon and yellow.
Highway police Nissan Navara
Immigration police BMW 3 series
Mercedes-Benz S600P of Royal Protection
Thai Police vehicle in maroon and white
Highway Patrol Toyota Camry VVTi
Thai built Mercedes-Benz S600P police car, Bangkok
Crime Suppression Division logo on a police car
Tiger Boxer motorcycle
There are no standard-issue pistols carried by the Royal Thai Police. Policemen must buy their own pistol and he/she must buy what is available in Thailand and what he/she can afford. If the police officer cannot afford a pistol, he may purchase one by paying in installments through his police co-operative.
One of the most popular police pistols is the M1911A1 .45 ACP pistol which can be found readily and relatively cheaply in Thailand. The 9 mm Glock 19 Parabellum is another popular, albeit more expensive, choice.
In mid-2015, Pol Gen Somyot Phumphanmuang, Royal Thai Police Commissioner, initiated a program to allow officers to purchase US-made, 9 mm SIG Sauer P320 pistols for 18,000 baht each. The Thai market price for this gun is several times higher. The affordable price is made possible by a special police exemption from import quotas and import duties. In December 2017, 150,000 SIG Sauer P320SP pistols became available for purchase by police for 23,890 baht each. The RTP will, in addition, distribute 55,000 of the new pistols to police stations nationwide, each station receiving 60.
Although the RTP does not issue pistols, long guns are made available by the government. Common are the Heckler & Koch MP5 and FN P90 sub-machine guns, Remington 870 shotguns, the M4 carbine, and M16 rifles.
|M1911||Semi-automatic pistol||.45 ACP|| US
|Thai M1911A1 pistols produced under license; locally known as the Type 86 pistol (ปพ.86).|
|Heckler & Koch USP||Semi-automatic pistol||.45 ACP||Germany||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|HS2000||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19 mm Parabellum||Croatia||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|CZ 75||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19 mm Parabellum||Czech Republic|
|Beretta 92||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19 mm Parabellum||Italy||Mostly use by metropolitan police and police traffic|
|Beretta M1951||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19 mm Parabellum||Italy|
|Beretta Px4 Storm||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19 mm Parabellum||Italy||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|Browning Hi-Power||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19 mm Parabellum||Belgium|
|SIG Sauer P226||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19 mm Parabellum||Germany||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|SIG Sauer P320SP||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19 mm Parabellum||Germany||Standard service pistol|
|Smith & Wesson Model 60||Revolver||.38 Special||United States|
|Colt Python||Revolver||.357 Magnum||United States|
|Smith & Wesson Model 15||Revolver||.38 Special||United States|
|Smith & Wesson Model 19||Revolver||.357 Magnum||United States|
|Glock 17/Glock 19||Semi-automatic pistol||9×19 mm Parabellum||Austria||At least 2,238 G19|
|FN Five-seven||Semi-automatic pistol||FN 5.7×28 mm||Belgium|
|Remington Model 870||Shotgun||12 gauge||USA||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|Mossberg 500||Shotgun||12 gauge||USA|
|Franchi SPAS-12||Shotgun||12 gauge||Italy||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|Heckler & Koch MP5||Submachine gun||9×19 mm Parabellum||Germany||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|Heckler & Koch UMP||Submachine gun||9×19 mm Parabellum||Germany||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|Heckler & Koch MP7||Submachine gun||HK 4.6×30 mm||Germany||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|SIG Sauer MPX||Submachine gun||9×19 mm Parabellum||Germany||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|FN P90||Submachine gun||5.7x28 mm||Belgium||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|UZI||Submachine gun||9×19 mm Parabellum||Israel||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|KRISS Vector||Submachine gun||9×19 mm Parabellum||US||Used by Arintharat 26 Special Operation Unit and Naresuan 261 Special Operation Unit|
|CZ Scorpion Evo 3||Submachine gun||9×19 mm Parabellum||Czech Republic||Used by police units|
|M16||Assault rifle||5.56×45 mm NATO||US||To be replaced by M4 carbines|
|M4 Carbine||Assault rifle||5.56×45 mm NATO||US||M4, M4A1, M4A3|
|FN FAL||Battle Rifle||7.62×51 mm NATO||Belgium||To be replaced by M4 carbines|
Royal Thai Police uniforms vary widely according to rank, region, and kind of duty performed. Among the police, uniforms tend to resemble army dress rather than conventional police uniforms.
Considered part of the police "uniform", all male officers are required to shave the sides and back of their heads, leaving a short crop of hair on the top, hence its common name, (Thai: ขาวสามด้าน; RTGS: khao sam dan), or 'three white sides'. The models for the haircut are the royal guards who protect King Vajiralongkorn. They are known for their short haircuts, required by the monarch. "It's a royal practice," a retired police general said. "...we are all serving His Majesty the King...It looks beautiful...It doesn't hurt anyone."
A helmet for traffic police in Bangkok, Thailand August 31, 2010.
Police peaked caps of Royal Thai Police.
Royal Thai Police white full dress uniform
Royal Thai Police grey full dress uniform
Thai cadet Commander uniform
Royal Thai Police officer uniform
Border Patrol Police field uniform
Police EOD uniform
PCCD Riot Control uniform
|NATO Code||OF-10||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1||Student Officer|
|ร ๑ or ๒ or ๓ or ๔|
|RTGS||Phon Tam Ruad Ek||Phon Tam Ruad Tho||Phon Tam Ruad Tri||Phon Tam Ruad Jattawa||Phan Tam Ruad Ek||Phan Tam Ruad Tho||Phan Tam Ruad Tri||Roi Tam Ruad Ek||Roi Tam Ruad Tho||Roi Tam Ruad Tri||Nak Rian Nai Roi Tam Ruad|
|Anglicised version||Police General||Police Lieutenant General||Police Major General||Police Brigadier General
(no longer used)
(replaced by police senior colonel)
|Police Colonel||Police Lieutenant Colonel||Police Major||Police Captain||Police Lieutenant||Police Sub Lieutenant||Police Cadet Officer|
|UK equivalent (Military/Police)||General
|Constable ranks||No Insignia|
|Dahb Tam Ruad||Cha Sip Tam Ruad||Sip Tam Ruad Ek||Sip Tam Ruad Tho||Sip Tam Ruad Tri||Phon Tam Ruad|
|Police Sergeant Major||Police Staff Sergeant||Police Sergeant||Police Corporal||Police Lance Corporal||Police Constable|
|NATO Code||OR-9 or OR-8||OR-7 or OR-6||OR-5||OR-4||OR-3||OR-1|
Clashes between the police and army bureaucracies date back at least as far as 1936 and continue to the present day. The intensity of the infighting has waxed and waned over the years. Since 1947, according to academic Paul Chambers, "...the army has time and again attempted to rein in the police. In many cases, it has resorted to coups." In the 1950s, the rivalry took a comical turn as an arms race developed between the army—supplied by the US military—and the RTP—supplied by the US Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The vitriol intensified in 2016 when, following the 2014 Thai coup d'état, the junta moved to impose army control over the police for once and for all by giving soldiers power over police.
On 29 March 2016, in a move that the Bangkok Post said will "...will inflict serious and long-term damage...", the NCPO, under a Section 44 order (NCPO Order 13/2559) signed by junta chief Prayut Chan-o-cha, granted to commissioned officers of the Royal Thai Armed Forces broad police powers to suppress and arrest anyone they suspect of criminal activity without a warrant and detain them secretly at almost any location without charge for up to seven days. Bank accounts can be frozen, and documents and property can be seized. Travel can be banned. Automatic immunity for military personnel has been built into the order, and there is no independent oversight or recourse in the event of abuse. The decree basically deputises soldiers as police, but gives greater legal impunity to soldiers than to police. The order came into immediate effect and is still in force as of 2020. The net result is that the military will have more power than the police and less oversight.
The government has stated that the purpose of this order is to enable military officers to render their assistance in an effort to "...suppress organized crimes such as extortion, human trafficking, child and labor abuses, gambling, prostitution, illegal tour guide services, price collusion, and firearms. It neither aims to stifle nor intimidate dissenting voices. Defendants in such cases will go through normal judicial process, with police as the main investigator...trial[s] will be conducted in civilian courts, not military ones. Moreover, this order does not deprive the right of the defendants to file complaints against military officers who have abused their power."
The NCPO said that the reason for its latest order is that there are simply not enough police, in spite of the fact that there are about 230,000 officers in the Royal Thai Police force. They make up about 17 percent of all non-military public servants. This amounts to 344 cops for every 100,000 persons in Thailand, more than twice the ratio in Myanmar and the Philippines, one and a half times that of Japan and Indonesia, and roughly the same proportion as the United States.
In a joint statement released on 5 April 2016, six groups, including Human Rights Watch (HRW), Amnesty International, and the International Commission of Jurists (ICJ), condemned the move.
On the occasion of the festivities surrounding its 12th anniversary, the Office of the Ombudsman, Thailand reported on its activities since its inception. Chief Ombudsman Panit Nitithanprapas noted that her office had handled nearly 25,000 cases during the period and observed that the Royal Thai Police had been found to be "the most corrupt agency in Thailand". Curiously, Ms Panit's photo does not appear among those of other former ombudsmen on the organisation's website, nor is there any other mention of her.
In the words of Jomdet Trimek, a former police officer, now an academician, "In-depth studies of the causes of...corruption tend to be avoided." Jomdet attributes police corruption to two factors: a centralized police bureaucracy which gives too much power to a few; and very low police salaries. He divides police corruption into three main forms: embezzlement of government funds, coercing bribes from the public, and collection of protection money from illegal business operators and gives examples of each. At the level of constable, this petty thievery is driven by low wages: entry level salaries for police with no university education was 6,800 baht (2012). In June 2015, the Bangkok Post reported that, "Thai police officers are paid around 14,760 baht per month (6,800–8,340 baht for entry level) and have to buy their own guns and even office supplies." He posits that one reason salaries are so low is that the sheer number of officers is staggering, roughly 250,000. This means that an increase of 5,000 baht in every cop's monthly salary would cost the government a politically untenable 15 billion baht annually.: 51
Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha appointed no-nonsense Police-General Somyot Poompanmoung head of the RTP following the coup of May 2014. Somyot, whose declared assets exceed US$11.5 million, has vowed to transfer, arrest, or prosecute all corrupt officers. But, according to Chuwit Kamolvisit, a former massage parlour magnate turned legislator, "police reform" is a never-ending mantra which never produces results. The "cash-for-jobs" culture within the police is too deep to uproot, he says, alleging that low-ranking officers earning just US$460 a month tap the public for bribes, or solicit protection money from dodgy businesses to top up their salaries and buy promotions. "Rank and status is everything in Thailand... when you are a small policeman to go up [sic], you need to have the right boss, and preferably one at a 'golden police station'– near a casino or entertainment venue", he explained.
In a 2008 article, The Economist summed up their assessment succinctly: "In Thailand's most sensational crimes, the prime suspects are often the police."
In August 2015, a post was made on the Sakon Nakhon Police Facebook page, allegedly from a junior officer. Among other observations the post asked, "...Are our meagre salaries enough to support our families? The answer is no. We have to borrow money and get trapped in debt. "So what about the phuyai [bigwigs]? Are they in debt too? Definitely not. They are rich. Why? Because at the end of every month, money from gambling dens, entertainment venues, the sex trade, human trafficking, drugs and whatnot are routinely sent to them." The post was immediately deleted. Then the Facebook page was deleted altogether. The supervisor of the junior policeman in charge of the page said it was all a technical mistake. Someone had hacked into the page to write the message to taint the image of the police force.
In the view of Rangsit University's Associate Professor Police Lieutenant Colonel Krisanaphong Poothakool, "We hear that police reform is ongoing, but in practice, nothing is happening". He added that the country has had a couple of police reform committees, which did not amount to much when their recommendations were ignored.
On 5 August 2021, the police assaulted Jeerapong Thanapat, a 24-year-old drug suspect, during an interrogation to force him to reveal hidden methamphetamines and to pay a two million baht or US$60,000 bribe for his release. The video appears to show the director of the Muang Nakhon Sawan Province police station, Thitisan Utthanaphon widely known by the nickname "Jo Ferrari", and other police officers suffocating Thanapat with plastic bags until he collapsed and died. The police reportedly ordered doctors at Sawanpracharak Hospital to write in a medical report that the cause of Jeerapong’s death was methamphetamine overdose.
In 1976, Thai police, military personnel and others, were seen shooting at protesters at Thammasat University. Many were killed and many survivors were abused.