Police Service of Northern Ireland
The Service Emblem
The Service Emblem
MottoKeeping People Safe
Agency overview
Formed4 November 2001; 22 years ago (2001-11-04)
Preceding agency
Annual budget£836.7M (FY 2014/15)[1]
Legal personalityPolice service
Jurisdictional structure
National agencyNorthern Ireland
Operations jurisdictionNorthern Ireland
Police Service of Northern Ireland area
Size14,130 km2 (5,460 sq mi)[2]
Population1,903,175 [3]
Governing bodyNorthern Ireland Executive
Constituting instrument
General nature
Operational structure
Overseen byNorthern Ireland Policing Board
Police officers6422
Police staffs2,297
Agency executives
  • Jon Boutcher, Chief Constable
  • Mark Hamilton, Deputy Chief Constable
  • Pamela McCreedy, Chief Operating Officer
  • Crime Operations Department
  • Criminal Justice Department
  • Human Resources Department
  • Department of Media and Public Relations
  • Professional Standards Department
  • Search and Rescue Team
  • Crime Support Department
  • Finance and Support Services
  • Legal Services Department
  • Operational Support Department
  • Rural Region
  • Urban Region
Regions8 (11 District)
Aircraft3 helicopters
1 fixed-wing
www.psni.police.uk Edit this at Wikidata

The Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI; Irish: Seirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart Éireann;[7] Ulster-Scots: Polis Service o Norlin Airlan), officially the Police Service of Northern Ireland (incorporating the Royal Ulster Constabulary), is the police service responsible for law enforcement and the prevention of crime within Northern Ireland.

It is the successor to the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) after it was reformed and renamed in 2001 on the recommendation of the Patten Report.[8][9][10][11]

The PSNI is the third largest police service in the United Kingdom in terms of officer numbers (after the Metropolitan Police and Police Scotland) and the second largest in terms of geographic area of responsibility, after Police Scotland. The PSNI is approximately half the size of Garda Síochána in terms of officer numbers.


As part of the Good Friday Agreement, there was an agreement to introduce a new police service initially based on the body of constables of the RUC.[12][13] As part of the reform, an Independent Commission on Policing for Northern Ireland (the Patten Commission) was set up, and the RUC was replaced by the PSNI on 4 November 2001.[14][15] The Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000 named the new police service as the Police Service of Northern Ireland (incorporating the Royal Ulster Constabulary); shortened to Police Service of Northern Ireland for operational purposes.[13][16]

Although the majority of PSNI officers are Ulster Protestants, this dominance is not as pronounced as it was in the RUC because of positive action policies. The RUC was a militarised police force[17][18][19] and played a key role in policing the violent conflict known as the Troubles.

Initially, Sinn Féin, which represented about a quarter of Northern Ireland voters at the time, refused to endorse the PSNI until the Patten Commission's recommendations were implemented in full. However, as part of the St Andrews Agreement, Sinn Féin announced its full acceptance of the PSNI in January 2007.[20] All major political parties in Northern Ireland now support the PSNI.


The senior officer in charge of the PSNI is its chief constable. The chief constable is appointed by the Northern Ireland Policing Board, subject to the approval of the Minister of Justice for Northern Ireland. The Chief Constable of Northern Ireland is the third-highest paid police officer in the UK (after the Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police).[21] The current chief constable is Jon Boutcher, who was appointed on an interim basis after the resignation of Simon Bryne in September 2023 and successful in being officially confirmed as chief constable on 7 November 2023.[22]

The police area is divided into eight districts, each headed by a chief superintendent. Districts are divided into areas, commanded by a chief inspector; these in turn are divided into sectors, commanded by inspectors. In recent years, under new structural reforms, some chief inspectors command more than one area as the PSNI strives to make savings.

In 2001 the old police divisions and sub-divisions were replaced with 29 district command units (DCUs), broadly coterminous with local council areas. In 2007 the DCUs were replaced by eight districts ('A' to 'H') in anticipation of local government restructuring under the Review of Public Administration. Responsibility for policing and justice was devolved to the Northern Ireland Assembly on 9 March 2010, although direction and control of the PSNI remains under the chief constable.

In addition to the PSNI, there are other agencies which have responsibility for specific parts of Northern Ireland's transport infrastructure:


PSNI officers have full powers of a constable throughout Northern Ireland and the adjacent United Kingdom waters. Other than in mutual aid circumstances they have more limited powers of a constable in the other two legal jurisdictions of the United Kingdom—England and Wales, and Scotland. Police staff, although non-warranted members of the service, contribute to both back-office, operational support and front-line services, sometimes operating alongside warranted colleagues.

Co-operation with Garda Síochána

The Patten Report recommended that a programme of long-term personnel exchanges should be established between the PSNI and the Garda Síochána, the national police force of Ireland. This recommendation was enacted in 2002 by an Inter-Governmental Agreement on Policing Cooperation, which set the basis for the exchange of officers between the two services.[23] There are three levels of exchanges:

The protocols for these movements of personnel were signed by both the Chief Constable of the PSNI and the Garda Commissioner on 21 February 2005.[24]


The PSNI is supervised by the Northern Ireland Policing Board.

The Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland deals with any complaints regarding the PSNI, and investigates any allegations of misconduct by police officers. Police staff do not fall under the ombudsman's jurisdiction. The current Police Ombudsman is former Oversight Commissioner Michael Maguire, who took over from Al Hutchinson in July 2012. The Oversight Commissioner was appointed to ensure that the Patten recommendations were implemented 'comprehensively and faithfully', and attempted to assure the community that all aspects of the report were being implemented and being seen to be implemented. The oversight role ended on 31 May 2007, with the final report indicating that of Patten's 175 recommendations, 140 had been completed with a further 16 "substantially completed".[25]

The PSNI is also internally regulated by its Professional Standards Department, who can direct local "professional standards champions" (superintendents at district level) to investigate relatively minor matters, while a "misconduct panel" will consider more serious misconduct issues. Outcomes from misconduct hearings include dismissal, a requirement to resign, reduction in rank, monetary fines and cautions.


Saintfield police station
Moira police station

The PSNI was initially legally obliged to operate an affirmative action policy of recruiting 50% of its trainee officers from a Catholic background and 50% from a non-Catholic background, as recommended by the Patten Report, in order to address the under-representation of Catholics that had existed for many decades in policing; in 2001 the RUC was almost 92% Protestant. Many unionist politicians said the "50:50" policy was unfair, and when the Bill to set up the PSNI was going through Parliament, Minister of State Adam Ingram stated: "Dominic Grieve referred to positive discrimination and we hold our hands up. Clause 43 refers to discrimination and appointments and there is no point in saying that that is anything other than positive discrimination."[26] However, the Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission cited international human rights law to show that special measures to secure minority participation were in accordance with human rights standards and did not in law constitute 'discrimination'.[27]

By February 2011, 29.7% of the 7,200 officers were from a Catholic background, but among the 2,500 police staff (non-warranted members), where the 50:50 rule operated only for larger recruitment drives, the proportion of Catholics was just 18%.[28] The British Government nevertheless proposed to end the 50:50 measure, and provisions for 'lateral entry' of Catholic officers from other police forces, with effect from the end of March 2011.[29] Following a public consultation the special measures were ended in respect of police officers and police staff in April 2011.

Deloitte conducted recruitment exercises on behalf of the PSNI, and was the dominant firm in the Consensia Partnership which existed from 2001 to 2009.

As of 2017, the PSNI have announced that it will be introducing new schemes to increase the number of Catholics in the force. The PSNI is focusing on tackling the fear factor of joining the service as violent dissident Republicans are discouraging Catholics from joining and continue to attack Catholic officers.[30]


In September 2006 it was confirmed that Assistant Chief Constable Judith Gillespie approved the PSNI policy of using children as informants including in exceptional circumstances to inform on their own family but not their parents. The document added safeguards including having a parent or "appropriate adult" present at meetings between juveniles and their handler. It also stressed a child's welfare should be paramount when considering the controversial tactics and required that any risk had been properly explained to them and a risk assessment completed.[31]


As of April 2023, the PSNI is structured with the following departments:

Crime Department[32]
  • Organised Crime Branch
  • Serious Crime Branch
  • Intelligence Branch
  • Specialist Operations Branch
  • Crime Support Branch
  • Public Protection Branch
Justice Department[33]
  • Legacy and Disclosure Branch
  • Criminal Justice Branch
  • Contact Management
  • Custody
Local Policing[34]
Operational Support[35]
  • Armed Response Unit
  • Close Protection Unit
  • Dog Section
  • Emergency Planning Unit
  • Firearms and Explosives Branch
  • Information Security Unit
  • Operational Planning Hub
  • Operational Policy Unit
  • Police Search Advisor
  • Operational and Tactical Development Unit
  • Tactical Support Group
  • Road Policing Unit
  • Scientific Support
People and Organisational Development[36]
Strategic Planning and Transformation[37]
Professional Standards Department[38]
  • Discipline Branch
  • Anti-Corruption Unit
  • Service Vetting Unit
Corporate Services[39]

Specialist units

Armed Response Unit

Specially-trained Armed Response Unit (ARU) officers support other parts of PSNI when faced with people who are carrying weapons such as knives and firearms.

Headquarters Mobile Support Unit

Headquarters Mobile Support Unit (HMSU) is the tactical unit of the PSNI. HMSU officers are trained to Specialist Firearms Officer (SFO) and Counter Terrorist Specialist Firearms Officer (CTSFO) standards. They undergo a 26-week training program including firearms, unarmed combat, roping, driving and photography.

Tactical Support Group

Tactical Support Group (TSG) officers provide a range of core and specialist services to district policing teams.[40]

Core TSG functions include public order, counter terrorism and crime reduction, community safety, crime scene response, and surveillance capability.

Specialist TSG skills include:


Male and female PSNI officers on a pier in Bangor, County Down

See also: Police uniforms and equipment in the United Kingdom

The colour of the PSNI uniform is bottle green. Pre-1970s RUC uniforms retained a dark green called rifle green, which was often mistaken as black. A lighter shade of green was introduced following the Hunt Report in the early 1970s, although Hunt recommended that British blue should be introduced. The Patten report, however, recommended the retention of the green uniform (Recommendation No. 154).[41] The RUC officially described this as 'rifle green'. When the six new versions of the PSNI uniform were introduced, in March 2002, the term 'bottle green' was used for basically the same colour to convey a less militaristic theme. In 2018 a formal review was launched about the current uniform after officers gave feedback on it.

On 31 January 2022, a new uniform was introduced for frontline officers.[42] This change replaced the white shirt and tie that was worn since 2001 with a green wicking material t-shirt. This new style shirt is embroidered with the PSNI crest on the left breast and the word Police on the left collar and both sleeves. The new shirt also facilitates the wearing of epaulettes to display rank and numerals. This modern workwear is similar to that of Police Scotland aside from colour and to uniforms of some police services in England and Wales. Officer headwear has remained the same and traditionally consists of peaked caps for males and kepi style hats for females. Baseball style caps are worn by tactical units.

Badge and flag

The PSNI badge features the St. Patrick's saltire, and six symbols representing different and shared traditions:

The flag of the PSNI is the badge in the centre of a dark green field. Under the Police Emblems and Flags Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2002 no other flag can be used by the PSNI and it is the only one permitted to be flown on any PSNI building, vehicle, aircraft or vessel.[43]


Body armour

St. Patricks Day, Downpatrick, 2011. The constable on the left is wearing a bulletproof vest while the sergeant on the right is wearing a stab vest
PSNI officers in riot gear armed with a Heckler & Koch grenade launcher for baton rounds during a riot in Belfast, 2011

PSNI officers wear overt body armour vests featuring RF1 standard ballistic plates, designed to stop high-velocity rifle rounds.

Beginning in December 2007 body armour was required for PSNI officers operating in the Greater Belfast and Greater Derry City areas owing to the threat from dissident republicans.[44]

As of 2020, all officers are issued with ballistic body armour, however in some lower-risk areas officers are permitted, on an optional basis, to wear stab vests, such as those worn by most UK police officers and the Gardaí.

In 2019 the PSNI introduced a new integrated body armour system similar to the Osprey body armour used by the British Army, intended to be lighter and more comfortable to wear.[45]


Due to the elevated threat posed by armed paramilitary groups, and in contrast to the majority of police services in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland, all PSNI officers are routinely armed while on duty, with officers also permitted to carry firearms while off-duty.[46][47][48]

Historically, RUC officers were issued with the Ruger Speed-Six revolver and had access to the Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun and the Heckler & Koch G3 and Heckler & Koch HK33[49] rifles (which replaced the earlier Sterling submachine guns and Ruger AC-556 select-fire rifles between 1992 and 1995), with the PSNI inheriting these weapons upon formation.

The PSNI's standard issue firearm is the Glock 17 pistol, which is carried by every operational officer on the ground. The Glock 17 began superseding the Ruger Speed-Six revolvers from 2002 onwards, with only fifteen revolvers remaining in service by 2012.[50][51]

The primary long-arm used in the service is the Heckler & Koch G36K carbine, which was procured to supplement and eventually replace the MP5, G3, and HK33.[52][53]

L104 riot guns are available for crowd control purposes.[54]

Long arms are still routinely carried in areas of higher threat such as Derry, Belfast (particularly north and west), and various border areas.


The Mk3.5 Škoda Octavia Estate constitutes a sizeable percentage of the service's liveried fleet. It is currently being replaced by newer models.
A PANGOLIN armoured Land Rover in Belfast.

The best known PSNI vehicle is the Land Rover Tangi, used extensively during the volatile period of the Troubles.

In 2011 it was announced that some of the aging Tangi fleet were to be replaced, due to the ongoing security threat, and all but a handful have now been retired. This led to the creation of the PANGOLIN – Armoured Public Order Vehicle – designed and built by OVIK Special Vehicles (part of the OVIK Group), 60 Mk1 and 90 Mk2 variants have been delivered and are currently in service.[55] Also a number of Public Order Land Rovers made by Penman are currently in service.[56]

In addition to other cars, vans and motorcycles, the PSNI also have a fleet of 242 bicycles which are used for city centres and walkway patrols.[57]

Air support

In 2014 the Air Support Unit responded to over 4,000 callouts, 12 were Casualty evacuations and participated in over 250 missing people searches.[58] All aircraft are used for investigations, anti-crime operations, traffic management, search and rescue, public order situations, crime reduction initiatives and tackling terrorism.


G-PSNO, one of the two Eurocopter EC 145 helicopters operated by the PSNI

In May 2005, the PSNI took delivery of its first helicopter, a Eurocopter EC 135, registration G-PSNI and callsign Police 44. In 2010, the PSNI took delivery of its second aircraft, a Eurocopter EC 145 registration G-PSNO and callsign Police 45 at a cost of £7 million. In July 2013, a third helicopter entered service, Eurocopter EC 145, registration G-PSNR and callsign Police 46.[59][60]

Fixed wing aircraft

The PSNI operates two fixed wing aircraft for aerial surveillance.[61] In August 1992, a Britten-Norman BN-2T Islander entered service with registration G-BSWR and callsign Scout 1.[62] In July 2011, the aircraft sustained damage during a crash-landing at Aldergrove.[63] In June 2013, prior to the G8 summit, a Britten-Norman Defender 4000 entered service with registration G-CGTC and callsign Scout 2.[64]

Until 2019 when NPAS purchased four planes, the PSNI was for many years the only UK police service operating fixed-wing aircraft.

Other items

Other items of equipment include:

The PSNI previously issued BlackBerry devices to officers,[65] which have now been replaced by various models of Android smartphones.

As of 2019 the service began replacing the previously-issued CS spray with PAVA spray.


The service's headquarters are located in Knock, an area in east Belfast.

Chief constables

No. Name From To Notes
1 Sir Ronnie Flanagan November 2001 March 2002 Incumbent Chief constable (since 1996) of the service during its change from the Royal Ulster Constabulary to the PSNI in November 2001.
Colin Cramphorn March 2002 September 2002 Acting Chief constable
2 Sir Hugh Orde September 2002 August 2009
Judith Gillespie August 2009 August 2009 Acting Chief constable
3 Sir Matt Baggott August 2009 June 2014
4 Sir George Hamilton June 2014 June 2019
5 Simon Byrne June 2019 September 2023 Resigned following a number of controversies.
Mark Hamilton September 2023 October 2023 Acting Chief constable
Jon Boutcher October 2023 November 2023 Interim Chief constable
6 Jon Boutcher November 2023 Incumbent


See also: Police ranks of the United Kingdom

Police Service of Northern Ireland ranks
Rank Chief constable Deputy chief constable Assistant chief constable Chief superintendent Superintendent Chief inspector Inspector Sergeant Constable
Epaulette insignia PSNI chief inspector

In the PSNI there are also part-time Special constables known as a Reserve Constable. In contrast to most Special constables elsewhere in the UK, this is a paid position.

The ranks and their insignia correspond to those of other UK police services, with a few modifications: Sergeants' chevrons are worn point-up as is done in the United States, rather than point-down as is done in other police and military services of the United Kingdom. The six-pointed star & saltire device from the PSNI badge is used in place of the Crown in the insignia of superintendents, chief superintendents and the chief constable.

The rank insignia of the chief constable, unlike those in other parts of the UK, are similar to those of the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis and the Commissioner of the City of London Police.


Officer misconduct

In 2021 the BBC reported on news of 39 internal investigations into sexual misconduct or domestic abuse by PSNI officers over the past five years.[66]

In January 2023 9 PSNI officers were fired in for sexual misconduct or domestic abuse.[67]

In 2023 the Northern Ireland Public Prosecution Service (PPSNI) charged two PSNI officers for taking pictures of dead bodies.[68] This was first reported on in 2022 by the BBC news program Spotlight, after they spoke with family members of a man who committed suicide in 2017. The family of the man was concerned about the behaviour of officers on the scene.[69]

This 2023 disciplinary decision came about as a result of an internal investigation titled "Operation Warwick", by the Police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland. For these charges, one officer was dismissed, and one was suspended.[69]

2023 Data breaches

Main article: PSNI data breaches

The PSNI suffered two data breaches in 2023, in which personal details of thousands of PSNI officers and staff was inadvertedly published on a public website.[70][71]

Following the 2023 data breaches, a LucidTalk opinion poll revealed that 38% of people in Northern Ireland had "no" or "mostly no" confidence in the PSNI. The poll also found that unionist voters were more likely to have confidence in the police service than nationalists, though support for the PSNI was highest amongst "other" voters.[72]

See also



  1. ^ "Funding in focus as Board approves PSNI Budget". NI Policing Board. Archived from the original on 19 October 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  2. ^ ONS Geography (8 January 2016). "The Countries of the UK". Office for National Statistics. Office for National Statistics (United Kingdom). Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  3. ^ "Mid-Year Population Estimates". Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  4. ^ "Police Service of Northern Ireland". nidirect. 13 October 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  5. ^ Police Service of Northern Ireland (December 2021). Locations of Police Stations (Report). Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  6. ^ "Freedom of Information Request : Police Dogs Owned and/or Used by PSNI" (PDF). Psni.police.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  7. ^ "Faisnéis as Gaeilge faoi Sheirbhís Póilíneachta Thuaisceart Éireann" (PDF). Police Service of Northern Ireland (in Irish). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved 2 March 2009.
  8. ^ Russell, Deacon (2012). Devolution in the United Kingdom. Edinburgh University Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-0748669738.
  9. ^ "PSNI rehiring must be transparent". 3 October 2012. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  10. ^ "Management of An Garda Síochána". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  11. ^ Gillespie, Gordon (2009). The A to the Z of the Northern Ireland Conflict. Scarecrow Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0810870451. Archived from the original on 13 September 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  12. ^ "A New Beginning : Policing in Northern Ireland" (PDF). Cain.ulst.ac.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  13. ^ a b "Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000". Statutelaw.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  14. ^ McGoldrick, Stacey and McArdle, Andrea (2006). Uniform Behavior: Police Localism and National Politics. Palgrave Macmillan, p. 116. ISBN 1403983313
  15. ^ Morrison, John F. (2013). Origins and Rise of Dissident Irish Republicanism: The Role and Impact of Organizational Splits. A&C Black, p. 189. ISBN 1623566770
  16. ^ s.1, Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000
  17. ^ McGoldrick, S.; McArdle, A. (23 July 2006). Uniform Behavior: Police Localism and National Politics. Springer. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-4039-8331-2. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  18. ^ Dingley, James (13 October 2008). Combating Terrorism in Northern Ireland. Routledge. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-134-21046-6. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  19. ^ Mulcahy, Aogan (17 June 2013). Policing Northern Ireland. Routledge. p. 111. ISBN 978-1-134-01995-3. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  20. ^ "SF delegates vote to support policing". RTÉ News. RTÉ.ie. 28 January 2007. Archived from the original on 5 February 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007. The Sinn Féin decision in favour of supporting policing in Northern Ireland for the first time ever has been welcomed in Dublin, London and Belfast.
  21. ^ "Police Pay Review". Police-information.co.uk. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  22. ^ "PSNI: Jon Boutcher picked as interim chief constable". BBC News. 4 October 2023. Retrieved 7 October 2023.
  23. ^ "Committee A (Sovereign Matters) on Cross Border Cooperation between Police Forces" (PDF). British-Irish Parliamentary Assembly. July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2013.
  24. ^ "Freedom of Information Request : Human Resources" (PDF). Psni.police.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  25. ^ Hutchinson, Alan (31 May 2007). "Oversight Commissioner's final report notes continuing progress in policing change, but adds caution on future challenges" (Press release). Office of the Oversight Commissioner. Archived from the original on 1 March 2009.
  26. ^ House of Commons Department of the Official Report (Hansard) (27 June 2000). "House of Commons Standing Committee B (pt 4)". Publications.parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  27. ^ "Response on the Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000: Review of Temporary Recruitment Provisions" (PDF). Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission. January 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2010.
  28. ^ "Workforce Composition Figures | Police Service of Northern Ireland". Psni.police.uk. 1 October 2008. Archived from the original on 24 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  29. ^ "Consultation Paper: Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000 –review of temporary recruitment provisions" (PDF). Northern Ireland Office. 30 October 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 December 2010.
  30. ^ "Timeline of Irish dissident activity". BBC News. 20 April 2019. Archived from the original on 28 April 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  31. ^ "PSNI allowed to use child informers". UTV News. u.tv. 1 September 2006. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007. The Police Service of Northern Ireland policy, 'Children as Covert Human Intelligence Sources' was approved by Assistant Chief Constable Judith Gillespie in February 2005 as part of its child protection policy. In June 2009, Judith Gillespie was promoted to the rank of Deputy Chief Constable, the high rank obtained by a female.
  32. ^ https://www.psni.police.uk/about-us/our-departments/crime
  33. ^ https://www.psni.police.uk/about-us/our-departments/justice
  34. ^ https://www.psni.police.uk/about-us/our-departments/local-policing
  35. ^ https://www.psni.police.uk/about-us/our-departments/operational-support
  36. ^ https://www.psni.police.uk/about-us/our-departments/people-and-organisational-development
  37. ^ https://www.psni.police.uk/about-us/our-departments/strategic-planning-and-transformation
  38. ^ https://www.psni.police.uk/about-us/our-departments/professional-standards-department
  39. ^ https://www.psni.police.uk/about-us/our-departments/corporate-services
  40. ^ "Tactical Support Group". www.psni.police.uk. Archived from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  41. ^ "CAIN: The Patten Report on Policing: Summary of Recommendations, 9 September 1999". Cain.ulst.ac.uk. 9 September 1999. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 27 May 2017.
  42. ^ Campbell, Niamh (31 January 2022). "PSNI officers wear brand new uniform for first time in 20 years". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  43. ^ "Police Emblems and Flags Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2002". Opsi.gov.uk. 5 July 2011. Archived from the original on 9 December 2009. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  44. ^ McDonald, Henry (13 December 2007). "Belfast police forced back into flak jackets". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 12 September 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2009.
  45. ^ "Police chief Byrne shows off officers' new light weight body armour". Belfast Telegraph. 10 October 2019. Retrieved 22 November 2023.
  46. ^ "Northern Ireland". Encarta. msn. Archived from the original on 27 August 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007. Unlike police forces in the rest of the United Kingdom, the PSNI is an armed force.
  47. ^ "Freedom Of Information Request: F-2008-05034. Firearms held by PSNI" (PDF). PSNI. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  48. ^ "Top Cover issue 12". 12 May 2017. Archived from the original on 23 September 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  49. ^ "Freedom Of Information Request: F-2015-02781. Missing PSNI Firearms and Ammuniton" (PDF). PSNI. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  50. ^ "Freedom Of Information Request: F-2015-02038. Weapons" (PDF). PSNI. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  51. ^ "Freedom of Information Request F-2012-00171 PSNI Issue weapons" (PDF). Police Service of Northern Ireland. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 April 2020. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  52. ^ Jane's Police Review, 4 March 2007
  53. ^ "Freedom Of Information Request: F-2017-00426 Negligent Discharges" (PDF). PSNI. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2019. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  54. ^ Omega Foundation (March 2003). Baton Rounds - A review of the human rights implications of the introduction and use of the L21A1 baton round in Northern Ireland and proposed alternatives to the baton round (PDF). Northern Ireland Human Rights Commission. ISBN 978-1903681336. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 June 2021. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  55. ^ "OVIK: CROSSWAY Armoured and Special Role Vehicles and Chassis". Oviks.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  56. ^ "Penman" (PDF). Penman.co.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  57. ^ "Freedom of Information Request : Use of Bicycles by PSNI" (PDF). Psni.police.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  58. ^ PSNI (2015). April 2015, Keeping People Safe PSNI, Belfast.
  59. ^ "Northern Ireland police service orders EC145 helicopter – CJI Main Site". Corporatejetinvestor.com. 14 March 2013. Archived from the original on 11 June 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  60. ^ "Civil Aviation authority : Mark G-PSNR". Caa.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  61. ^ "Keeping People Safe in Causeway Coast and Glens District" (PDF). PSNI. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 August 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2020.
  62. ^ "G-INFO G-BSWR". Civil Aviation Authority. Archived from the original on 21 April 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  63. ^ "£200k bill for 12th crash PSNI plane". Londonderry Sentinel. 30 May 2012. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018.
  64. ^ "G-INFO G-CGTC". Civil Aviation Authority. Archived from the original on 21 April 2019. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  65. ^ "Freedom of Information Request : Blackberry Mobile Phones=Psni.police.uk" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  66. ^ "PSNI: Almost 40 officers investigated over sex complaints". 5 October 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  67. ^ "Nine PSNI officers sacked over sexual or domestic abuse". 18 January 2023. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  68. ^ Donaghy, Gerard. "PSNI officers to be prosecuted for sharing images from scenes of sudden deaths". The Irish Post. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  69. ^ a b Carroll, Rory; correspondent, Rory Carroll Ireland (18 April 2023). "NI police officers to be prosecuted for allegedly sharing images of dead bodies". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  70. ^ "PSNI confirms major data breach as Assistant Chief Constable apologises". TheJournal.ie. Press Association. 8 August 2023. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  71. ^ Edwards, Christian; Hauser, Jennifer (9 August 2023). "'Monumental' data breach exposes names of entire Northern Ireland police force". CNN. Retrieved 11 August 2023.
  72. ^ "Do you have confidence in (a) the PSNI?, and (b) the Chief Constable: Simon Byrne?". Twitter. Retrieved 22 August 2023.