Metropolitan Police officers on crowd control to prevent Football hooliganism after England lost to Portugal, 1 July 2006

There are a number of agencies that participate in law enforcement in the United Kingdom which can be grouped into three general types:

Most law enforcement in the United Kingdom is carried out by territorial police forces that police the general public and their activities. The other types of agencies are concerned with policing of more specific matters.

Over the centuries there has been a wide variation in the number of police forces in the United Kingdom, with a large number now no longer in existence.

Territorial police forces

See also: List of police forces of the United Kingdom

Most policing in the United Kingdom is conducted by the 45 territorial police forces of the 4 nations in one of three legal criminal jurisdictions - England & Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. These forces are ultimately responsible for all law and order within their respective police area (a legal term which defines the geographic area of primary responsibility). This is not the same as legal jurisdiction, see below. Two nations of the United Kingdom, Scotland and Northern Ireland, have national police forces. The third legal jurisdiction, made up of the nations of England and Wales is split up into a number of police forces. The breakdown of all territorial police forces across the United Kingdom by jurisdiction is as follows:

England and Wales

  Police forces in England and Wales

Except in Greater London, each territorial police force covers one or more of the local government areas (counties) established in the 1974 local government reorganisations (although with subsequent modifications), in an area known in statute as a police area. These forces provide most of the policing services to the public of England and Wales. These forces have been known historically as "Home Office police forces" due to the central government department, the Home Office, being responsible for and providing most of the funding these police forces. Despite the implication of the term, all police forces are independent, with operational control resting solely with the chief officer of each force (the chief constable or with regard to the Metropolitan Police and City of London Police forces, their respective Commissioners); each force was overseen by a Police authority until these were replaced by police and crime commissioners in 2012.

The Police Act 1996 is the most recent piece of legislation, which outlines the areas of responsibility for the 43 territorial forces of England and Wales (found in Schedule 1 of the Act).

Constable is the lowest rank in the police service, but all officers, whatever their rank, are "constables" in terms of legal powers and jurisdiction. Police officers in territorial police forces in England and Wales derive their jurisdiction from Section 30 of the Police Act 1996. This section outlines that such officers have jurisdiction throughout England and Wales and also the adjacent United Kingdom waters. Special Constables, who are part-time, volunteer officers of these forces, used to have a more limited jurisdiction – limited solely to their own force areas and adjacent forces. Since 1 April 2007, however Special Constables of England & Wales have full police powers throughout those two countries. This means that, in contrast to most countries, all UK volunteer police officers now have exactly the same powers as their full-time colleagues. There are a number of situations in which the jurisdiction of a constable extends to one of the other countries, and constables of one jurisdiction do have reciprocal powers of arrest in each other's jurisdictions as a matter of course – see the main article for details.

England

  Police forces in England
  1. Avon and Somerset Police
  2. Bedfordshire Police
  3. Cambridgeshire Constabulary
  4. Cheshire Constabulary[1]
  5. City of London Police (not shown)
  6. Cleveland Police
  7. Cumbria Constabulary
  8. Derbyshire Constabulary
  9. Devon and Cornwall Police
  10. Dorset Police
  11. Durham Constabulary
  12. Essex Police
  13. Gloucestershire Constabulary
  14. Greater Manchester Police
  15. Hampshire Constabulary
  16. Hertfordshire Constabulary
  17. Humberside Police
  18. Kent Police
  19. Lancashire Constabulary[1]
  20. Leicestershire Police
  21. Lincolnshire Police
  22. Merseyside Police[1]
  23. Metropolitan Police
  24. Norfolk Constabulary
  25. Northamptonshire Police
  26. Northumbria Police
  27. North Yorkshire Police
  28. Nottinghamshire Police
  29. South Yorkshire Police
  30. Staffordshire Police[2]
  31. Suffolk Constabulary
  32. Surrey Police
  33. Sussex Police
  34. Thames Valley Police
  35. Warwickshire Police
  36. West Mercia Police[2]
  37. West Midlands Police[2]
  38. West Yorkshire Police
  39. Wiltshire Police

As of September 2020, the police forces in England have:[3]

Wales

  Police forces in Wales
  1. Dyfed-Powys Police (Heddlu Dyfed Powys)
  2. Gwent Police (Heddlu Gwent)
  3. North Wales Police (Heddlu Gogledd Cymru)
  4. South Wales Police (Heddlu De Cymru)

As of September 2020, the police forces in Wales have:[3]

Collaborative units

Scotland

  Police Scotland

Most police powers and functions have been inherited by the Scottish Government and Scottish Parliament from the Scottish Office. Areas for which legislative responsibility remains with the UK Government include national security, terrorism, firearms and drugs. The Police (Scotland) Act 1967, as amended, was the basis for the organisation and jurisdiction of the eight former territorial forces in Scotland that were formed in 1975. These forces covered one or more of the areas of the local government regions established in the 1975 local government reorganisation (and since abolished), with minor adjustments to align with the post-1996 council area borders. These forces provided most of the police services to the public of Scotland, although Scottish police officers also have limited jurisdiction throughout the rest of the United Kingdom as required (See above comments under English and Welsh forces).

In 2011, the Scottish Government announced that it planned to amalgamate the eight territorial forces in Scotland, along with the Scottish Crime and Drug Enforcement Agency, into a single agency. The Police and Fire Reform (Scotland) Act 2012, an Act of the Scottish Parliament, codified this amalgamation and brought about the new Police Service of Scotland (to be known as "Police Scotland"). The new force was established on 1 April 2013.

In 2017, plans were being debated in the Scottish Parliament to merge railway policing with Police Scotland.

As of December 2019, police numbers in Scotland were:[4]

Community Support Officers, commonly referred to as "Police Community Support Officers", were established by Section 38(2) of the Police Reform Act 2002, which applies only to England and Wales. There are therefore no Community Support Officers in Scotland.

Northern Ireland

  Police Service of Northern Ireland

County and borough based police forces were not formed in Ireland as they were in Great Britain, with instead a single Royal Irish Constabulary covering most of Ireland (the exceptions being the Dublin Metropolitan Police, which was responsible for policing in Dublin, and the Londonderry Borough Police and Belfast Town Police, both replaced by the RIC in the late Victorian period). The Royal Ulster Constabulary was formed in 1922 after the establishment of the Irish Free State, and served until the reforms of the police under the terms established initially by the Good Friday Agreement of 1998 undertaken by the Patten Commission, which led to dissolution of the RUC in 2001. The Police (Northern Ireland) Act 2000 sets out the basis for the organisation and function of the police force in the province. Until 2010, police powers were not transferred to the devolved Northern Ireland Executive, unlike Scotland, instead remaining with the Northern Ireland Office. However, in January 2010 agreement was reached between the two largest parties in the Assembly, the DUP and Sinn Féin, over a course that would see them assume responsibility for policing and justice from April.[5]

As of April 2007 police numbers in Northern Ireland were:[6]

Police in Northern Ireland do not employ Police Community Support Officers

National Collaborative Units

Bodies hosted by the National Police Chiefs' Council (NPCC)

Bodies hosted by territorial police forces

Special police forces

The following three government agencies are defined in legislation as "special police forces". As these forces are responsible to specific areas of infrastructure, they do not answer to the Home Office, but instead to the government department responsible for the area they police. All three forces do voluntarily submit themselves to HMIC inspection:

The Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001 gave the British Transport Police and Ministry of Defence Police a limited, conditional authority to act outside of their primary jurisdiction, if the situation requires urgent police action and the local force are not readily available, or if they believe that there is risk to life or limb, or where they are assisting the local force.

Non-police force law enforcement

Uniformed and/or investigative

Bodies with limited executive powers

Bodies with solely investigatory powers

Main article: Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000

The use of investigatory powers is controlled by the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000. Up to 792 public authorities have powers that are restricted by RIPA.[17]

Miscellaneous police forces

These police forces generally come under the control of a local authority, public trusts or even private companies; examples include some ports police and the Mersey Tunnels Police. They could have been established by individual acts of Parliament or under common law powers. Jurisdiction is generally limited to the relevant area of private property alone and in some cases (e.g. docks and harbours) the surrounding area. This, together with the small size of the police forces, means they are often reliant on the territorial force for the area under whose jurisdiction they fall to assist with any serious matter. The statutory responsibility for law and order sits with the territorial police forces even if there is a specialist police force in the locality. These police forces do not have independent police authorities and their founding statutes (if any) do not generally prescribe their structure and formation.

Ports police

There are two types of port police in the United Kingdom — most are sworn in under the 1847 act, but a few have acts specific to their port.

Ports police operating under the Harbours, Docks, and Piers Clauses Act 1847

For every port/harbour, an individual act of Parliament (or, more recently, a Harbour (Revision) Order) can incorporate parts of the Harbours, Docks, and Piers Clauses Act 1847 (HDPCA) and apply them to that specific port/harbour. Officers of port police forces are sworn in as "special constables" under section 79 of the 1847 Act, as incorporated by the individual local Act. As a result, officers have the full powers of a constable on any land owned by the harbour, dock, or port and at any place within one mile of any owned land.

The Marine Navigation Act 2013 has potentially enabled ports constables in England & Wales to act as constables beyond this one mile limit, in relation to policing purposes connected with the port only, in a police area where consent has been obtained from the relevant chief constable.[18] This act does not however give general police powers to ports constables beyond their core jurisdiction as set out in the 1847 act, merely in relation to policing purposes connected to the port as set out in the Act. As of 2014, three ports police forces (Dover, Teesport and Bristol) have sought and received consent from the local chief constable, with a fourth (Liverpool) in the process of applying for it. This has enabled these three ports forces to act as constables, in relation to policing purposes connected to the port, throughout the police area in which they are geographically located.[19] There are 224 constables sworn in under the 1847 act.[20] Serious or major incidents or crime generally become the responsibility of the local territorial police force.

Other ports police

Parks police

Parks not controlled by local authorities

These small constabularies are responsible for policing specific land and parks. Officers of these forces have the powers of a constable within their limited jurisdiction. They are not constables as dealt with in the general Police Acts.

The Parks Regulation Act 1872 provides for the attestation of parks constables.

Parks controlled by local authorities

A photograph of officers of the Birmingham Parks Police, taken between c. 1900 and 1910.

Over history, a number of local authorities outside London have maintained their own parks police forces, the most notable being Liverpool (Liverpool Parks Police) and Birmingham (Birmingham Parks Police). No local authority parks police forces currently exist outside London, although the legal powers for them to do so (granted by various local Acts of Parliament) survive in a limited number of cases.

There are some remnant organisations of the old Parks Constabularies/Parks Police, such as the Birmingham Parks Ranger Patrol.

In London, these constabularies are responsible for enforcing byelaws within the parks and open spaces of their respective local authorities. Members of the constabularies are sworn as constables under article 18 of the Greater London Parks and Open Spaces Order 1967.[a] Members of the constabularies are constables only in relation to the enforcement of the parks byelaws (which, by definition, apply only in the parks).[25]

Some of these constables have (or have had) a shared role as security staff for their own local authority's buildings and housing estates with appropriate changes of badges and/or uniform being made when changing to/from park duties.

Cathedral constables

Canterbury Cathedral Constable (Inspector) in beat uniform

Cathedrals that have their own Constabularies consisting of attested constables that keep the peace at each Cathedral.

Market police

Traditionally, markets would employ constables to look after markets. Most no longer exist, or exist in a form without attested constables (see below).

Other

Military and service police

Service (Military) Police

Main article: Military police of the United Kingdom

Each branch of the military has its own service police, though the powers of a service policeman are identical and reciprocal across all three services. The service police is made up of the:

In the UK, the service police exercise jurisdiction over those serving in the military in any capacity and those civilians subject to service discipline as defined by the Armed Forces Act 2006.[27] They are not 'constables' and do not have any policing powers in relation to the general public in normal circumstances.[28] In British Forces Germany, under the Status Of Forces Act, military police have jurisdiction over British Forces personnel, their families, MOD contractors, and NAAFI staff.

Service Police are Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) trained and all investigations are PACE compliant. They make regular use of civilian police facilities often conducting joint investigations where necessary. The Service Police are able to investigate all crime within their jurisdiction, up to and including Murder, however within the UK, offences of murder and sudden deaths are passed to the local police force as per national jurisdiction agreements.

Whilst operating in conflict zones, the military police will conduct the full range of policing including murder investigations as evidenced by the Sgt Blackman investigation.[29]

Defence security organisations

Other agencies exist to provide security to MOD and military bases in the UK and abroad.

Bodies with limited enforcement powers

There are also non-police (of any type) organisations who have been given certain powers to enforce rules, regulations and laws.

  1. Under the community safety accreditation scheme (CSAS) and the similar railway safety accreditation scheme (RSAS),[31] police forces in England and Wales have the power to grant limited powers to official persons (such as council wardens and private security staff), for example, the power to confiscate alcohol from under 18s.
  2. Under the national railway byelaws, any 'authorised person' may ensure all persons on the railway are abiding by the byelaws.[32] Generally, railway train operating companies (TOCs) leave this to dedicated enforcement officers. Sometimes these officers will have powers under the Railway safety accreditation scheme and as they are working for the railway, they also have powers under the railway byelaws.

Under the community safety accreditation scheme (CSAS), there are many different people involved, such as council staff, park rangers[33] or private security staff that work for councils and local authorities and many different titles are used:

Community based
Railway based

(Officers with powers under both national byelaws and RSAS)

Crown Dependencies

The Crown Dependencies[b] are three offshore island territories that are self-governing possessions of the British Crown. Although not sovereign British territory, their administration is similar to the British Overseas Territories.[34]

Isle of Man

Defunct
Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
Isle of Man Constabulary
(Meoiryn-Shee Ellan Vannin)
Isle of Man Civilian main police force for the Crown Dependency
Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
Isle of Man Customs and Excise Division Isle of Man Administers all Customs and Excise duties
Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
Isle of Man Prison and Probation Service Isle of Man Administers HM Prison and probation on the Isle

Bailiwick of Jersey

A recruiting banner for the Honorary Police showing the arms of each parish: (from left to right) Grouville, St Brelade, St John, Trinity, St Saviour, St Ouen, St Helier, St Mary, St Lawrence, St Clement, St Peter, St Martin
Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
States of Jersey Police
(Police d'États de Jersey)
Jersey Main civilian police force for the Crown Dependency
Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
States of Jersey Customs and Immigration Service Jersey Administers all Customs and Immigration duties
Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
Honorary Police (French: Police Honorifique) Jersey maintain law and order in their parish
Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
Jersey Prison Service HM Prison La Moye run HM Prison

Bailiwick of Guernsey

Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
Flag of Guernsey States of Guernsey Police Service (États de Guernesey Service de police) Guernsey Main civilian police force for the Crown Dependency
Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
Flag of Guernsey Guernsey Border Agency Guernsey Administers all Customs and Immigration duties
Flag Logo Service/Force Name Location Information
Flag of Guernsey Honorary Police (French: Police Honorifique) Jersey maintain law and order in their parish

Overseas Territories

Police Sergeant Thomas James Powell of the Bermuda Police Force, c. 1890

The British Overseas Territories (BOTs) are generally speaking British sovereign territory, mostly islands, within most of which most competencies (aspects of governance) are delegated to local administrations, but for which the Government of the United Kingdom is ultimately responsible and retains responsibility for serious matters, such as defence and security,[35] with police forces directly under the control of the Governor.[36]

Consequently, law enforcement in these territories closely mirrors the UK, with some influence from other nations. Some of these agencies are very old and were setup centuries ago.

Civil Police

Almost all BOTs have a civil police force. Some forces may serve more than one island or territory. See below for details.

Name of Territory Flag of Territory Arms of Territory Civilian Police force/service Military or Defence Police Location Motto Information
Sovereign Base Areas, Cyprus
SBA police patch Civilian Sovereign Base Areas Police (SBA Police) Military Cyprus Joint Police Unit (CJPU) (includes RMP TRF RN Police, RMP TRF RMP and RMP TRF RAF Police) Cyprus, Mediterranean Sea Civilian defence police and British service police police the SBAs
Anguilla
Royal Anguilla Police Force (RAPF) Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean
Bermuda
Bermuda Police Force cap badge Bermuda Police Service (BPS)

Airport Security Police insignia Airport Security Police of Bermuda

Royal Bermuda Regiment badge Regimental Police of the Royal Bermuda Regiment North Atlantic Ocean between Cape Hatteras, Cape Sable Island, the Caribbean, and the Azores "Making Bermuda Safer"
British Antarctic Territory
None None Antarctica N/A
British Indian Ocean Territory
RMP TRF British Indian Ocean Territory Police (BIOT Police) (service police) All BIOT Police are serving military police of the British Armed Forces Indian Ocean BIOT police are serving military police NCOs and officers from the British Armed Forces
British Virgin Islands
Royal Virgin Islands Police Force (RVIPF) None Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean "Service with courage, knowledge and integrity"
Cayman Islands
Royal Cayman Islands Police Service (RCIP) None Caribbean
Falkland Islands
Royal Falkland Islands Police (RFIP) RMP TRF Joint Service Police & Security Unit (JSPSU) of British Forces South Atlantic South Atlantic Ocean "Integrity, Fairness and Respect" JSPSU on the island are sworn in as RFIP reserve constables, so that they have full civil police powers during their tour of duty.[37]
Gibraltar
Royal Gibraltar Police (RGP) Gibraltar Defence Police (GDP),

RMP TRF Joint Provost and Security Unit (JPSU) (military police)

Iberian Peninsula, Continental Europe "Delivering a Safer Gibraltar through Excellence in Policing" (RGP)
Montserrat
Royal Montserrat Police Service (RMPS) None Caribbean, North Atlantic Ocean
Pitcairn Islands
see Law enforcement in the Pitcairn Islands (seconded officers from New Zealand Police)[38] None Pacific Ocean Serious sexual abuse history. New Zealand police and prison officers carry out services on the Island(s).
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Royal Saint Helena Police Service (RSHPS) police all three islands None South Atlantic Ocean "Protecting and serving our community" (SHPS)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
See Information box JSPSU of British Forces South Atlantic would carry out any MP functions needed South Atlantic Ocean Reserve police officers. Chief of Police is the Chief of Royal Falkland Islands Police (RFIP), any full-time officer needed is also RFIP
Turks and Caicos Islands
Royal Turks and Caicos Islands Police Force (RTCIPF) None Lucayan Archipelago, North Atlantic Ocean, West Indies "To make the Turks and Caicos Islands a safe and secure country in which to visit, invest, work, and live" One of the oldest forces - founded in 1799

List

Ministry of Defence overseas police

Overseas service (military) police

Prison service and corrections

Customs, immigration and border

N.B. "His Majesty's" is often shortened to HM.

Overseas law enforcement in the UK

Main article: Law enforcement in the United Kingdom § Overseas police forces in the UK

Chinese police overseas service station, Hendon, London

There are certain instances where police forces of other nations operate in a limited degree in the United Kingdom:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The 1967 order is scheduled to the Ministry of Housing and Local Government Provisional Order Confirmation (Greater London Parks and Open Spaces) Act 1967.[24]
  2. ^ French: Dépendances de la Couronne; Manx: Croghaneyn-crooin; Jèrriais: Dépendances d'la Couronne

References

  1. ^ a b c Cheshire, Lancashire and Merseyside participate in a partnership called the North West Motorway Police Group
  2. ^ a b c Staffordshire, West Mercia and West Midlands participate in a partnership called the Central Motorway Police Group
  3. ^ a b "Data tables for 'Police workforce, England and Wales: 30 September 2020'". Home Office. 28 January 2021. Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  4. ^ "Police Scotland Officer Numbers". Police Scotland. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  5. ^ What will happen when policing and justice is devolved? Archived 8 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine – BBC News, 05/02/10
  6. ^ a b APA Police Service Strength Map Update Archived 7 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Association of Police Authorities, 28 August 2010.
  7. ^ "Ministry of Defence Police and Guarding Agency Annual Report 2005-2006" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 September 2007.
  8. ^ CNPA/CNC Annual Review 2006–07 Archived 26 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "What we do - Regulation - Licensing scheme - Board - GLAA". www.gla.gov.uk. Retrieved 19 July 2020.
  10. ^ https://www.gla.gov.uk/media/3120/gla-powers-under-pace.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  11. ^ "About us". GOV.UK. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  12. ^ "Fisheries Enforcement – Fisheries Management Scotland". Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  13. ^ "Prison Act 1952 (Section 8)". Retrieved 9 April 2021.
  14. ^ "Independent Police Complaints Commission : Directgov - Directories". Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
  15. ^ "What we investigate and next steps". Independent Office for Police Conduct. Archived from the original on 29 June 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2020.
  16. ^ "Police Reform Act 2002 (c. 30)". Opsi.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  17. ^ Rayner, Gordon (12 April 2008). "Council spy cases hit 1,000 a month". Telegraph. Archived from the original on 9 August 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  18. ^ "Marine Navigation Act 2013". www.legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 17 December 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  19. ^ "Police: Ports:Written question - 203891". UK Parliament. Archived from the original on 16 December 2017. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  20. ^ "Accountability and Standards of the Port Police Forces". Dft.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 6 April 2009. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
  21. ^ section 5, Belfast Harbour Act 1847.
  22. ^ "Port of Felixstowe :: Page Not Found". www.portoffelixstowe.co.uk. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. ((cite web)): Cite uses generic title (help)
  23. ^ section 3(d), Falmouth Docks Act 1959.
  24. ^ "Ministry of Housing and Local Government Provisional Order Confirmation (Greater London Parks and Open Spaces) Act 1967". Archived from the original on 12 November 2016.
  25. ^ Kelly, Amanda. "The Management and Operation of the Response Branch of the Council's Crime and Anti-Social Behaviour Service" (PDF). Website of London Borough of Newham Council. London Borough of Newham Council. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 February 2012. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  26. ^ "Article 19 of the Airports (Northern Ireland) Order 1994".
  27. ^ "Armed Forces Act 2006". www.legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 20 December 2017.
  28. ^ "A protocol between police forces and the Ministry of Defence police | Home Office". webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 January 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2017.((cite web)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  29. ^ "Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984". www.legislation.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 May 2012.
  30. ^ "Northern Ireland Security Guard Service - PoliceSpecials.com Forum". Archived from the original on 4 January 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2012.
  31. ^ "Railway Safety Accreditation Scheme".
  32. ^ "Railway byelaws".
  33. ^ "Dartmoor rangers have just been given police powers". March 2019.
  34. ^ "Fact sheet on the UK's relationship with the Crown Dependencies". www.gov.uk. British Government. 31 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2024. The Crown Dependencies are not part of the UK but are self-governing dependencies of the Crown. This means they have their own directly elected legislative assemblies, administrative, fiscal and legal systems and their own courts of law. The Crown Dependencies are not represented in the UK Parliament. The Crown Dependencies have never been colonies of the UK. Nor are they Overseas Territories, like Gibraltar, which have a different relationship with the UK. The constitutional relationship of the Islands with the UK is maintained through the Crown and is not enshrined in a formal constitutional document. HM Government is responsible for the defence and international relations of the Islands. The Crown, acting through the Privy Council, is ultimately responsible for ensuring their good government.
  35. ^ Leonard, Tom (11 June 2009). "British anger over Bermuda decision to take Guantanamo detainees". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 22 April 2017. We've underlined to the Bermuda Government that they should have consulted with the United Kingdom as to whether this falls within their competence or is a security issue, for which the Bermuda Government do not have delegated responsibility. We have made clear to the Bermuda Government the need for a security assessment, which we are now helping them to carry out, and we will decide on further steps as appropriate.
  36. ^ "Representing the Overseas Territories in the UK Parliament and Government". UK Parliament (House of Commons Library). UK Government. 7 February 2023. Retrieved 14 January 2024. All the Territories have a UK-appointed Governor, who generally holds responsibility for managing the Territory's external affairs, defence and internal security like the police, and often the power to make or veto laws.......As a matter of constitutional law, the UK Parliament has unlimited power to legislate for the Territories. However, passing legislation for the Territories is rare.
  37. ^ "About us".
  38. ^ News, Northern. "Isolated island calls Kaikohe cop". Northern News /www.stuff.co.nz/auckland/local-news/northland/northern-news/. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 14 June 2022. ((cite web)): |last1= has generic name (help)
  39. ^ https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/472445/Gibhandbook2013-archived.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  40. ^ John GormleyMinister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government (2 April 2008). "Nuclear Plants". Parliamentary Debates (Hansard). Republic of Ireland: Dáil Éireann.
  41. ^ Roe, David (3 December 2001). "Government will 'vigorously' monitor Sellafield". Irish Times. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  42. ^ "Overseas Chinese Police Stations in UK: Legal Status".

Further reading