Indonesian National Police
Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia
Crest of Indonesian National Police
MottoSanskrit: Rastra Sewakottama
(Serving the Nation)
Agency overview
Formed1 July 1946; 75 years ago (1946-07-01)
Employees590,000+[citation needed]
Jurisdictional structure
National agency
(Operations jurisdiction)
Operations jurisdictionIndonesia
Legal jurisdictionNational
Constituting instrument
  • Act No. 2 of 2002 on State Police[1]
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersKebayoran Baru, South Jakarta
Agency executives
  • 1 July
Indonesian National Police headquarters (Mabes Polri) in Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta
Indonesian National Police headquarters (Mabes Polri) in Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta

The Indonesian National Police (Indonesian: Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia, literally The State Police of the Republic of Indonesia, abbreviated as POLRI) is the national law enforcement and police force of Indonesia. Founded on 1 July 1946, it was formerly a part of the country's military since 1962. The police were formally separated from the armed forces on 1 April 1999 in a process which was formally completed on 1 July 2000.[2]

The organisation is now independent and is under the direct auspices of the President of Indonesia. The Indonesian National Police is responsible for law enforcement and policing duties all over Indonesia. The organisation is widely known for its corruption, violence and incompetence.[3]

The Indonesian National Police also takes part in international United Nations missions, and after special training, provided security for the UNAMID mission to protect internally-displaced people in Darfur.[4]

In total, per 2020 the total personnel that the Indonesian National Police possesses is 440.000,[5] and the number is increasing every year, it includes 14.000 Brimob personnel,[6] with up-to 7.000 water and aviation police personnel.[7] Polri is also assisted by an estimated 1 million members of Senkom Mitra Polri volunteers throughout the country which are civilians that assist the police.[8]

The headquarters of the Indonesian National Police is located in Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta and the Indonesian National Police hotline-emergency number is 110 which serves all over Indonesia 24 hours.[9]


The veldpolitie in Malang, East Java (c. 1930)
The veldpolitie in Malang, East Java (c. 1930)

While Indonesia was under Dutch colonial rule, police duties were performed either by military establishments or the colonial police known as the veldpolitie, or field police.[10] Japanese occupation during WW II brought changes when the Japanese formed various armed organisations to support their war effort. This led to militarily trained youths being armed with confiscated Dutch arms to perform police duties.

After the Japanese occupation, the national police became an armed organisation.[citation needed] The Indonesian police was established on 19 August 1945 (under the title of the National Police Agency (Badan Kepolisian Negara)) and its units fought in the Indonesian National Revolution against the invading Dutch forces. The police also participated in suppressing the 1948 communist revolt in Madiun. In 1962, the police was brought under the control of the Commander of the National Armed Forces and the Ministry of Defence, becoming the Indonesian Police Forces (Angkatan Kepolisian). Following the proclamation of independence, the police played a vital role when they actively supported the people's movement to dismantle the Japanese army, and to strengthen the defence of the newly created Republic of Indonesia. The police were not combatants who were required to surrender their weapons to the Allied Forces. During the revolution of independence, the police gradually formed into what is now known as Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia (Polri) or the Indonesian National Police. In April 1999, the police force officially regained its independence and now is separate from the armed forces proper.

1 July, which is marked as National Police Day (Hari Bhayangkara), honours the anniversary of the 1946 Cabinet resolution placing the INP as a national agency subordinated directly to the government of the Republic and thus responsible to the President (formerly the Prime Minister).

Duties and tasks

Indonesian police personnel in Jakarta
Indonesian police personnel in Jakarta
Armed Indonesian police officers and personnel line-up in Jakarta
Armed Indonesian police officers and personnel line-up in Jakarta

The key tasks of the Indonesian National Police are to:

In carrying out these basic tasks, Police are to:


The organisation of the Indonesian National Police is hierarchical, culminating on the general headquarters in Kebayoran Baru. Below are the hierarchical police headquarters throughout Indonesia:

Leadership element

The head of the National Police Headquarters is the Chief of the Indonesian National Police (Indonesian: Kepala Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia, KAPOLRI). The Chief of Police is appointed by and is responsible to the President of Indonesia. He is assisted by the Vice Chief of Police.

Auxiliary elements of leadership

Central Executive Agencies

Supporting elements

Regional Police

polda metro jaya logo
Polda Metro Jaya Regional Police Logo
polda metro jaya HQ
Polda Metro Jaya Headquarters
Polda Metro Jaya is the police headquarters of the Greater Jakarta Region covering the metropolitan area

Each Regional Police headquarters (Polda) which covers a province oversees the following directorates:


Special units

Units Abbreviation Explanation
Mobile Brigade Corps Brimob The Mobile Brigade Corps (Brimob) is the elite/special forces unit of the Indonesian National Police. As a paramilitary and SWAT force, it takes the duties to handle high-threat law enforcement operations under the command of the regional police office (Polda). Brimob is also responsible to carry out riot control duties during high-level civil unrest situations to back up the regular units (Sabhara). Personnel of this unit are identifiable by their dark blue berets and they usually wear black uniforms during operational duty, during low-intensity law enforcement operations they usually wear the greyish-brown uniform such as the regular police units (but worn un-tucked). As a paramilitary organization, its training and equipment is almost identical to the Indonesian Army’s ("TNI"), and it conventionally operates under joint military command in conflict areas such as Papua and, until 2005, Aceh.[11]
Gegana - Gegana is a unit within Brimob. It specializes in the field of counter-terrorism, bomb disposal, intelligence, anti-anarchist, and CBRN defence.[12] It also conducts hostage rescue operations.[13]
Detachment 88 Densus 88 (Detasemen Khusus 88), Delta 88, or Densus 88, is an Indonesian Special Forces counter-terrorism squad, and part of the Indonesian Police Force. Formed on 30 June 2003, after the 2002 Bali bombings, it is funded, equipped, and trained by the United States[14] and Australia.[15]

Public units

The following fall under the Departamental police headquarters (Polres) of cities and regencies:

Units Abbreviation Indonesian Explanation
Centre of integrated police services SPKT Sentra Pelayanan Kepolisian Terpadu The SPKT is responsible for providing police services to the public, in the form of first receipt and handling of reports / complaints, police assistance / assistance services, and other related functions to carry out security and crime identification/prevention activities in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.
Intelligence and Security Unit Sat-Intelkam Satuan Intelijensi dan Keamanan This unit is in charge of organizing / fostering the functions of Intelligence Security, including encryption, and service providers in the form of Licenses / Explanation concerning Foreigners, Firearms & Explosives, social activities / Political Communities and Police Record Certificates (SKCK) to citizens in need and conduct supervision / security and its implementation.
Criminal Detective Unit Sat-Reskrim Satuan Reserse Kriminal This unit is in charge of fostering Functions and conducting criminal investigation and investigation activities, including the function of identification in the framework of law enforcement, coordination and supervision of operations and administration of investigation in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Officers of this unit wear civilian attire on duty
Drug Detective Unit Sat-Resnarkoba Satuan Reserse Narkoba This unit is responsible for conducting investigations of criminal acts of drug abuse, including counseling and guidance in the prevention and rehabilitation of drug abuse victims.
Community and Society Development Unit Sat-Binmas Satuan Bina Masyarakat This unit is in charge to carry out community guidance, including community empowerment activities, public order and coordination activities with other forms of security, as well as cooperative activities in maintaining security and public order.
Patrol Unit Sat-Sabhara Satuan Samapta Bhayangkara The Sabhara is the versatile "public alert unit" of the Indonesian police which has the tasks to supervise and maintain the public order and security of an area. It conducts patroling and acts as first-responding law enforcement officers to calls and crime scenes. This unit is also tasked to assist security in public areas such as Banks and sometimes assist the Traffic police if needed. Under the command of the Regional Police (Polda), this unit is the first unit dispatched to secure and control protests and also perform Riot control duties if necessary. Their patrol vehicles are colored grey and Sabhara personnel wear dark brown berets
Traffic Unit Sat-Lantas Satuan Lalu Lintas This unit is in charge for Traffic law enforcement, control, management, and patrolling affairs. Their patrol vehicles are colored white and blue and officers of this unit wear white peaked caps with reflective vests on duty
Vital Object Protection Unit Sat-Pamobvit Satuan Pengamanan Obyek Vital This unit serves the security activities of VIP and important facilities, such as government official, diplomatic missions, industrial complex and tourism Area.[16] Their patrol vehicles are colored orange and officers of this unit wear neckties on their uniform
Water unit Sat-Polair Satuan Polisi Perairan This unit is responsible for carrying out the functions of aquatic police, which include water patrols, waters law enforcement, coastal community development and other waters, as well as search and rescue accidents in marine areas (SAR)
Detainees and evidence unit Sat-Tahti Satuan Tahanan dan Barang Bukti This internal unit is in charge to organize prisoners' care includes the health care of the detainee, the guardianship of the prisoners and the receiving, storing and securing of evidence and their administration within the regional police headquarters, reporting the number and condition of the detainees in accordance with the provisions of the law.
Information technology unit Si-Tipol Seksi Teknologi Informasi Polri This unit is responsible for Computer and IT system management and development for policing duties
Internal Security and Profession unit Si-Propam Seksi Profesi dan Pengamanan This unit is responsible to carry out internal investigation towards police personnel suspected of misconduct and also to enforce discipline towards police personnel. Officers of this unit are identifiable by their light blue berets and wear white belts with white aiguillettes

Rank structure

In the early years, the Indonesian Police used European police style ranks like "inspector" and "commissioner". When the police were amalgamated with the military structure during the 1960s, the ranks changed to a military style such as "Captain", "Major" and "Colonel". In the year 2000, when the Indonesian Police conducted the transition to a fully independent force out of the armed forces, they used British style police ranks like "Inspector" and "Superintendent". In 2001, the Indonesian Police have returned to Dutch style ranks like "Brigadier" and "Inspecteur" just like in the early years with some Indonesianized elements within the ranking system. The ranks are comparable with the armed forces' rank system.[17]

Worn on: General Officers Field Officers Subaltern Officers
Ceremonial Dress Uniform (PDU)
Service Uniform (PDH)
Field Uniform (PDL)
on collar
in Indonesian:
Jenderal Polisi

(Jenderal Pol)

Komisaris Jenderal Polisi
(Komjen Pol)
Inspektur Jenderal Polisi
(Irjen Pol)
Brigadir Jenderal Polisi
(Brigjen Pol)
Komisaris Besar Polisi
(Kombes Pol)
Ajun Komisaris Besar Polisi
Komisaris Polisi
Ajun Komisaris Polisi
Inspektur Polisi Satu
Inspektur Polisi Dua
in English:
Police General Police Commissioner General Police Inspector General Police Brigadier General Police Grand Commissioner Police Grand Commissioner Attendant Police Commissioner Police Commissioner Attendant Police Inspector
1st Class
Police Inspector
2nd Class
Office or duty Chief of National Police Vice Chief, chief of national police organs chief of regional police, vice chief of national police organs, chief of national police divisions, commandant Mobile Brigade (SWAT) corps director of national police general directorates, vice chief of regional police chief of departamental police, director of regional police directorates, regional police spokesperson vice chief of departmental police chief of sectoral police chief of sectoral police
Worn on: Sub-inspectors of Police
Ceremonial Dress Uniform (PDU)
Service Uniform (PDH)
Field Uniform (PDL)
on collar
in Indonesian:
Ajun Inspektur Polisi Satu (Aiptu) Ajun Inspektur Polisi Dua (Aipda) Brigadir Polisi Kepala (Bripka) Brigadir Polisi (Brigpol) Brigadir Polisi Satu (Briptu) Brigadir Polisi Dua (Bripda)
in English:
Police Sub-Inspector
1st Class
Police Sub-Inspector
2nd Class
Chief Brigadier
Police Brigadier Police Brigadier
1st Class
Police Brigadier
2nd Class

The following ranks are only used by personnel serving in the Mobile Brigade Corps and Water police units:

Worn on: Enlisted
Ceremonial Dress Uniform (PDU)
Service Uniform (PDH)
Field Uniform (PDL)
on collar
Rank in Indonesian: Ajun Brigadir Polisi (Abrigpol) Ajun Brigadir Polisi Satu (Abriptu) Ajun Brigadir Polisi Dua (Abripda) Bhayangkara Kepala (Bharaka) Bhayangkara Satu (Bharatu) Bhayangkara Dua (Bharada)
Rank in English: Police Brigadier Attendant Police Brigadier Attendant
1st class
Police Brigadier Attendant
2nd class
Master Patrolman Patrolman
1st class
2nd class



In the eyes of the people, the National Police force is "corrupt, brutal, and inept".[3] Even becoming a police officer can be expensive, with applicants having to pay up to Rp90 million, according to Indonesia Police Watch head, Neta Saputra Pane.[18]

In April 2009, angry that the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) had tapped his phone while investigating a corruption case, Indonesian Police chief detective Susno Duadji compared the KPK to a gecko (Indonesian: cicak) fighting a crocodile (Indonesian: buaya) meaning the police. Susno's comment, as it turned out, quickly backfired because the image of a cicak standing up to a buaya (similar to David and Goliath imagery) immediately had wide appeal in Indonesia. A noisy popular movement in support of the cicak quickly emerged. Students staged pro-cicak demonstrations, many newspapers ran cartoons with cicaks lining up against an ugly buaya, and numerous TV talk shows took up the cicak versus buaya topic with enthusiasm. As a result, references to cicaks fighting a buaya have become a well-known part of the political imagery of Indonesia.[19]

In June 2010, the Indonesian news magazine Tempo published a report on "fat bank accounts" held by senior police officers containing billions of rupiah. When the magazine went on sale in the evening groups of men said by witnesses to be police officers, went to newsstands with piles of cash to try to buy all the copies before they could be sold.[20][21]

When KPK investigators tried to search Polri headquarters in 2010 as part of an investigation into Djoko Susilo, then the head of Korlantas (police corps of traffic), they were detained, and only released following the intervention of the president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. Following a trial, Djoko was jailed for 18 years. Two years later, the KPK began investigating another senior police officer, Budi Gunawan, who was subsequently nominated for the post of National Police Chief. The KPK then named Budi a suspect and his nomination was withdrawn. However, he was later sworn in as deputy police chief. The police subsequently took revenge by charging three KPK commissioners with criminal offenses.[22][23]

Violence and human rights abuses

Amnesty International has accused Polri of "widespread" torture and other abuses of arrested individuals.[24] According to the organization, "Police in Indonesia shoot, beat and even kill people without fear of prosecution, leaving their victims with little hope of justice".[25]

Main article: Virginity testing in Indonesia

In 2014 the Human Rights Watch reported that a physical virginity test is routinely performed on female applicants to the police force.[26] Human Rights Watch decried the practice as unscientific and degrading.[26]

An official admission of violence by police officers came in 2016 when Chief Gen. Badrodin Haiti admitted that officers of the Detachment 88 anti-terror unit were responsible for the death in custody of terrorist suspect Siyono, who died of heart failure after being kicked hard enough in the chest to fracture his ribs. The Indonesian National Commission on Human Rights stated in March 2016 that at least 121 terror suspects had died in custody since 2007[27]

Amnesty International called in June 2019 for an investigation of "credible evidence" of a range of grave violations by police, who it alleged were responsible for 10 unlawful killings in the aftermath of the re-election of president Joko Widodo.[28]

In July 2020, the Indonesian Commission for Missing Persons and Victims of Violence (KontraS) issued a report detailing police brutality over the preceding year that resulted in 304 deaths and 1,627 injuries in 921 violent incidents. The report also mentioned arbitrary arrests of people demonstrating legally, and acts of discrimination towards ethnic Papuans.[29]



An Indonesian Armed BRIMOB special Police personnel with a Pindad SS1 assault rifle guarding outside the Jakarta Cathedral
An Indonesian Armed BRIMOB special Police personnel with a Pindad SS1 assault rifle guarding outside the Jakarta Cathedral

Main article: Equipment of Indonesian National Police

The standard issue sidearm to all Indonesian National Police officers is the Taurus Model 82 revolver in. 38 Special. While police personnel attached to special units such as Detachment 88, Gegana and BRIMOB are issued with the Glock 17 semi-automatic pistol.

Heavy arms are always available to Indonesian police personnel, such as the Heckler & Koch MP5 sub-machine gun, Remington 870 shotgun, Steyr AUG assault rifle, M4 carbine, M1 Carbine. and other weapons. The standard rifle for the Indonesian National Police are the Pindad SS1 and the M16 rifle. Units are also issued the "Sabhara"/Police V1-V2 Pindad SS1 special law enforcement assault rifle.

Police Vehicles

The police vehicles that are usually operated by the Indonesian Police ("Polri") for patrol and law enforcement activities are mainly Ford Focus sedan, Mitsubishi Lancer, Hyundai Elantra (for some police regions), Mitsubishi Strada/Triton, Isuzu D-Max, Nissan Almera and Ford Ranger. Such vehicles are usually operated by the "Sabhara" police unit and other units which the vehicles are mainly colored dark-grey. In some areas, usually in rural places, the vehicles are not up-to date compared to the ones in the major urban areas in the country, so some police vehicles still use older versions such as the Toyota Kijang and Mitsubishi Kuda.

Special Investigation units usually operate in black Toyota Avanzas and some are unmarked vehicles. Police laboratory and forensics ("Puslabfor") units are issued dark-grey police Suzuki APV, Isuzu D-Max, Ford Ranger, Toyota Fortuner or Mitsubishi Fuso Canter vehicles.

The Traffic Police Corps ("Korlantas") usually uses vehicles such as the Mazda 6, Mitsubishi Lancer, Mitsubishi Galant, Toyota Vios, Ford Focus sedan, Hyundai Elantra, Tesla Model 3 (mostly in Jakarta), Ford Ranger and Hino Dutro coloured white and blue. Some vehicles for traffic patrol are also used such as the Toyota Rush and Daihatsu Terios. Sedan types are usually used for highway and road patrolling and escort. Double-Cab types are usually used for Traffic incidents and traffic management law enforcement activities.

Police vehicles coloured orange usually Ford Focus and Mitsubishi Lancer sedans and white-orange Chevrolet Captivas are operated by the Vital Object Protection unit ("Pam Obvit") and usually parked outside and operated for international embassies, airports, and other special specified locations. It is also used by the Tourist police for patrol.

For the special police, counter-terrorism and anti-riot units such as the Mobile Brigade or "Brimob", Detachment 88 and "Gegana" units usually use special costumed vehicles for special operations such as the Pindad Komodo, Barracuda APC, and modified armored Mitsubishi Stradas, 2002 Nissan Terrano Spirits' and other special double-cabin and SUV vehicle types. Vehicles are coloured dark-grey with the bumper coloured orange identifying vehicles of the special police units. Some special operational "Gegana" and "Densus 88" vehicles are coloured black also with orange bumpers.

Other customised vehicles used for mobilisation of police personnel are usually modified Suzuki Mega Carrys, Isuzu Elfs and Toyota Dynas with horizontal side sitting facilities inside of the trunk covered by dark colored canvas for canopy. Costumed patrol pick-ups with mounted sitting facilities on the trunk covered with canopy are also operated by the police to carry police personnel during patrol, the pick-ups are usually Isuzu Panther pick-ups and usually operate in rural areas.

For high-ranking officers (usually generals), issued cars are usually grey (some black) full to compact sedans and Mid to Full-sized SUVs. Such cars are mainly chauffeured Toyota Camry, Hyundai Sonata, Toyota Land Cruiser, Suzuki Grand Vitara and Toyota Prado. Some use black Toyota Innova.


Indonesian 1980s Police uniform sample
Indonesian 1980s Police uniform sample

The National Police Force of Indonesia had changes for uniform colours about 3 times, the periods are:

Based on the regulation of the Chief of the Indonesian National Police [1], there are four types of uniform worn by police personnel which are:

Ceremonial and service uniform are equipped with gorget paches (officially called "Monogram"). Higher officers (Brigadier General above) wear red while the rest wear dark brown.

Field and service uniform are equipped with office badge on left sleeve, and corps badge on the right sleeve. Officer with command held wears his/her office badge (Lencana Tanda Jabatan) on the right pocket and usually carries baton (called tongkat komando) while others don't.

Headgears and beret colors:

National Police Pledge (Tribrata)

The National Police Pledge is a pledge of loyalty and fidelity of all sworn personnel and constables to the government and people of Indonesia, the principles of nationhood and the Constitution.[30][31]

Original Indonesian English
Kami, Polisi Indonesia: We, (policemen and women) of Indonesia:
1. Berbakti kepada nusa dan bangsa dengan penuh ketakwaan terhadap Tuhan yang Maha Esa. Swear therefore our loyalty to serve the people and nation with full reverence to the One True God,
2. Menjunjung tinggi kebenaran, keadilan dan kemanusiaan dalam menegakkan hukum negara kesatuan Republik Indonesia yang berdasarkan Pancasila dan undang-undang dasar 1945. to uphold the values of truth, justice and humanity in our duties in the protection of the laws of the unitary Republic of Indonesia, based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution,
3. Senantiasa melindungi, mengayomi dan melayani masyarakat dengan keikhlasan untuk mewujudkan keamanan dan ketertiban. and to always protect, preserve and serve to the community with sincerity in order to develop public order and security.


List of Chiefs of Police (Kapolri)

Main article: Chief of the Indonesian National Police

In popular culture



See also


  1. ^ "Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 2 Tahun 2002".
  2. ^ Indonesian police split from military, CNN, Reuters, 1 April 2009, retrieved 18 September 2009
  3. ^ a b Davies, Sharyn Graham; Meliala, Adrianus; Buttle, John, Indonesia's secret police weapon (Jan-Mar 2013 ed.), Inside Indonesia, retrieved 8 December 2015
  4. ^ "Sudan Focus: United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) introduces Community Policing in Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps in Khartoum" (PDF), UN Police Magazine (5 ed.), United Nations, p. 16, July 2010, retrieved 30 April 2019
  5. ^ "Polisi Terbanyak dan Terbaik".
  6. ^ Taylor & Francis Group; The International Institute for Strategic Studies (2021). The Military Balance 2021. Routledge. p. 268. ISBN 9781032012278.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ "Kapolri ingatkan jajaran Polairud jaga kesehatan".
  8. ^ "Senkom Mitra Polri Gelar Rakernas".
  9. ^
  10. ^ "Website Resmi Polri". Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  11. ^ "Background on Kopassus and Brimob", etan.,, 2008, retrieved 6 March 2016
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Detachment 88, Kopassus Get Covert US Aid: US Intelligence Personnel Tap Indonesian Phones. Retrieved on July 16, 2008.
  15. ^ "The eastern fringe of the Muslim world worries about Islamic State's influence". The Economist. 23 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  16. ^ "Pam Obvit Metro Jaya – Website Resmi Direktorat Pengamanan Objek Vital Polda Metro Jaya" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  17. ^ Indonesia Company Laws and Regulations Handbook : Volume 1 Strategic Information and Basic Laws. International Business Publications USA. June 2015. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-5145-0900-5.
  18. ^ Allard, Tom (10 May 2010), Indonesia pays a high price for its corrupt heart, Sydney Morning Herald, retrieved 8 December 2015
  19. ^ Antagonism between the KPK and the police, with memories of the cicak versus buaya clash, remained deeply embedded in the relationship between the KPK and the police after the clash. See, for example, references to the clash in 2012 in Ina Parlina, 'Doubts over KPK inquiry into police bank accounts', The Jakarta Post, 18 May 2012.
  20. ^ Fat Bank Accounts of POLRI Chief Candidates, Tempo, 26 July 2013, retrieved 8 December 2015
  21. ^ Deutsch, Anthony (29 June 2010), The disappearing magazine and Indonesian media freedom, Financial Times, retrieved 8 December 2015
  22. ^ Butt, Simon; Lindsey, Tim (11 April 2015), Joko Widodo's support wanes as Indonesia's anti-corruption agency KPK rendered toothless, The Age, retrieved 8 December 2015
  23. ^ Budi Gunawan sworn in as deputy police chief, The Jakarta Post, 22 April 2015, retrieved 8 December 2015
  24. ^ Cop Killers, The Economist, 4 November 2010, retrieved 8 December 2015
  25. ^ Indonesia must end impunity for police violence, Amnesty International, 25 April 2012, retrieved 8 December 2015
  26. ^ a b Human Rights Watch (18 November 2014). "Indonesia: 'Virginity Tests' for Female Police". Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  27. ^ Eko Prasetyo (22 April 2016), Police Negligence Admission only Tip of the Iceberg: Amnesty International, The Jakarta Globe, archived from the original on 23 April 2016, retrieved 22 April 2016
  28. ^ AP (26 June 2019), Amnesty wants impartial probe of Indonesia police violence,, retrieved 13 September 2019
  29. ^ Alya Nurbaiti; Tri Indah Oktavianti (1 July 2020), Rights groups highlight cases of police brutality on National Police's 74th anniversary, The Jakarta Post, retrieved 5 July 2020
  30. ^
  31. ^
  32. ^ "film-cleansing-kalijodo--cerita-tentang-krishna-murti-yang-berhasil-buru-daeng-aziz".
  33. ^ "film-cleansing-kalijodo-memoar-penggusuran-lokalisasi-kalijodo".

Further reading