Indonesian National Police
Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia
Insignia of POLRI
Insignia of POLRI
Insignia of the Police Headquarters
Insignia of the Police Headquarters
Flag of POLRI
Flag of POLRI
MottoSanskrit: Rastra Sewakottama
(Serving the Nation)
Agency overview
Formed1 July 1946; 77 years ago (1946-07-01)
Employees440,000 (2020)
Legal personalityPolice force
Jurisdictional structure
National agency
(Operations jurisdiction)
Operations jurisdictionIndonesia
Legal jurisdictionNational
Constituting instrument
  • Act No. 2 of 2002 on State Police[1]
General nature
Operational structure
HeadquartersKebayoran Baru, South Jakarta
Agency executives
  • 1 July
Indonesian National Police headquarters (Mabes Polri) in Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta

The Indonesian National Police (Indonesian: Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia, lit.'The State Police of the Republic of Indonesia', abbreviated as POLRI) is the national law enforcement and police force of the Republic of Indonesia. Founded on 1 July 1946, it was formerly a part of the country's military since 1962. The police were formally separated from the armed forces on 1 April 1999 in a process which was formally completed on 1 July 1999.[2]

The organization is now independent and is under the direct auspices of the President of Indonesia. The Indonesian National Police is responsible for law enforcement and policing duties all over Indonesia. The organization is widely known for its corruption, violence/brutality and incompetence.[3][4]

The Indonesian National Police also takes part in international United Nations missions, and, after special training, provided security for the UNAMID mission to protect internally-displaced people in Darfur.[5]

In total, per 2020 the total personnel that the Indonesian National Police possesses is 440,000,[6] and the number is increasing every year, it includes 34,000 Brimob personnel,[7] with up-to 7,000 water and aviation police personnel.[8] Polri is also assisted by an estimated 1 million members of Senkom Mitra Polri volunteers throughout the country which are civilians that assist the police.[9]

The headquarters of the Indonesian National Police is located in Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta and the Indonesian National Police hotline-emergency number is 110 which serves all over Indonesia 24 hours.[10]


The Veldpolitie in Malang (c. 1930)

While Indonesia was under Dutch colonial rule, police duties were performed either by military establishments or the colonial police, known as the Veldpolitie or field police.[11] Japanese occupation during World War II brought changes when the Japanese formed various armed organisations to support their war effort. This led to militarily-trained youths being armed with confiscated Dutch arms to perform police duties.

After the Japanese occupation, the national police became an armed organization.[citation needed] The Indonesian police was established on 19 August 1945 (under the title of the National Police Agency (Badan Kepolisian Negara)) and its units fought in the Indonesian National Revolution against the invading Dutch forces. The police also participated in suppressing the 1948 communist revolt in Madiun. In 1962, the police was brought under the control of the Commander of the National Armed Forces and the Ministry of Defence, becoming the Indonesian Police Forces (Angkatan Kepolisian). Following the proclamation of independence, the police played a vital role when they actively supported the people's movement to dismantle the Japanese army, and to strengthen the defence of the newly created Republic of Indonesia. The police were one of the non-combatants who were required to surrender their weapons to the Allied forces. During the Indonesian National Revolution, the police gradually formed into what is now known as Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia (Polri) or the Indonesian National Police. On 21 June 1962, the National Police was integrated under the Armed Forces (ABRI) and changed its name to Angkatan Kepolisian (Police Force), and its commander maintained the concurrent status of Minister of Defense and Security, reporting to the President, who is commander in chief. The commanding generals (later chiefs of staff) and the Chief of the National Police then all held ministerial status as members of the cabinet of the republic, while a number of higher-ranking officers were appointed to other cabinet posts. On 1 July 1969, the Police Force's name was reverted to "Polri". In April 1999, the police force officially regained its independence and since then has been a separate force from the armed forces proper.

1 July, which became National Police Day (Hari Bhayangkara), honours the anniversary of the 1946 Cabinet resolution placing the INP as a national agency subordinated directly to the government of the Republic and thus responsible to the President (formerly the Prime Minister).

Duties and tasks

Indonesian police personnel in Jakarta
Armed Indonesian police officers and personnel line-up in Jakarta

The key tasks of the Indonesian National Police are to:

In carrying out these basic tasks, police are to:


The organization of the Indonesian National Police is hierarchical, headed by the POLRI general headquarters in Kebayoran Baru. There is no differentiation between the central organization with its regional components.

Until 2010, there was also a police force division called Territorial Police Force (Kepolisian Wilayah, Polwil, formerly Komando Wilayah Kepolisian, Komwik) positioned between Polda and Polres. Polwils' divisions were based on Dutch East Indian residencies. The legacy of Polwils remain on the vehicle code on Indonesian vehicle registration plates.


Leadership elements

The leadership elements headed not only the Police Force General Headquarters (Markas Besar Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia, abbreviated Mabes Polri) in Jakarta, but also the entire Indonesian National Police Force.

Leadership support elements


Assistants to the Chief of Police


Advisory Staff

The Advisory Staff to the Chief of Police (Staf Ahli Kapolri) advises the Chief of Police regarding strategic matters. The advisory staff consists of:

Headquarters elements

Central executive agencies

Supporting elements

Regional Police

polda metro jaya logo
Emblem of the Metro Jaya Region
polda metro jaya HQ
Polda Metro Jaya Headquarters
Polda Metro Jaya is the police headquarters of the Greater Jakarta Region covering the metropolitan area

Each Regional Police headquarters (Polda) which covers a province oversees the following directorates:


Special units

Units Abbreviation Explanation
Mobile Brigade Corps Brimob The Mobile Brigade Corps (Brimob) is the elite/special forces unit of the Indonesian National Police. As a paramilitary and SWAT force, it takes the duties to handle high-threat law enforcement operations under the command of the regional police office (Polda). Brimob is also responsible to carry out riot control duties during high-level civil unrest situations to back up the regular units (Sabhara). Personnel of this unit are identifiable by their dark blue berets and they usually wear black uniforms during operational duty, during low-intensity law enforcement operations they usually wear the greyish-brown uniform such as the regular police units (but worn un-tucked). As a paramilitary organization, its training and equipment is almost identical to the Indonesian Army’s ("TNI"), and it conventionally operates under joint military command in conflict areas such as Papua and, until 2005, Aceh.[12]
Gegana - Gegana is a unit within Brimob. It specializes in the field of counter-terrorism, bomb disposal, intelligence, anti-anarchist, and CBRN defence.[13] It also conducts hostage rescue operations.[14]
Detachment 88 Densus 88 Detasemen Khusus 88, Delta 88, or Densus 88 is the counter-terrorism squad of the Indonesian Police Force. Formed on 30 June 2003 after the 2002 Bali bombings, it is funded, equipped, and trained by the United States[15] and Australia.[16]

Public units

The following fall under department police headquarters (Polres) of cities and regencies:

Units Abbreviation Indonesian Explanation
Centre of Integrated Police Services SPKT Sentra Pelayanan Kepolisian Terpadu The SPKT is responsible for providing police services to the public, in the form of first receipt and handling of reports/complaints, police assistance services, and other related functions to carry out security and crime identification/prevention activities in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.
Intelligence and Security Unit Sat-Intelkam Satuan Intelijensi dan Keamanan This unit is in charge of organizing / fostering the functions of Intelligence Security, including encryption, and service providers in the form of licenses / explanations concerning Foreigners, Firearms & Explosives, Sociopolitical Communities and Police Record Certificates (SKCK) to citizens in need and conduct supervision / security and its implementation.
Criminal Detective Unit Sat-Reskrim Satuan Reserse Kriminal This unit is in charge of fostering Functions and conducting criminal investigation and detection activities, including the function of identification in the framework of law enforcement, coordination and supervision of operations and administration of investigation in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. Officers of this unit wear civilian attire on duty
Drug Detective Unit Sat-Resnarkoba Satuan Reserse Narkoba This unit is responsible for conducting investigations of criminal acts of drug abuse, including counseling and guidance in the prevention and rehabilitation of drug abuse victims.
Community and Society Development Unit Sat-Binmas Satuan Bina Masyarakat This unit is in charge to carry out community guidance, including community empowerment activities, public order and coordination activities with other forms of security, as well as cooperative activities in maintaining security and public order.
Patrol Unit Sat-Sabhara Satuan Samapta Bhayangkara The Sabhara is the versatile "public alert unit" of the Indonesian police which has the tasks to supervise and maintain the public order and security of an area. It conducts patrolling and acts as first-responding law enforcement officers to calls and crime scenes. This unit is also tasked to assist security in public areas such as banks and sometimes assist the traffic police if needed. Under the command of the Regional Police (Polda), this unit is the first unit dispatched to secure and control protests and also perform riot control duties if necessary. Their patrol vehicles are colored grey and their personnel wear dark brown berets.
Traffic Unit Sat-Lantas Satuan Lalu Lintas This unit is in charge for Traffic law enforcement, control, management, and patrolling affairs. Their patrol vehicles are colored white and blue and officers of this unit wear white peaked caps with reflective vests on duty.
Vital Object Protection Unit Sat-Pamobvit Satuan Pengamanan Obyek Vital This unit serves the security activities of VIPs and important facilities, such as government officials, diplomatic missions, industrial complex and tourism areas.[17] Their patrol vehicles are colored orange and officers of this unit wear neckties on their uniform.
Marine and Air Police Unit Sat-Polairud Satuan Polisi Perairan dan Udara This unit is responsible for carrying out the functions of aquatic police, which include water patrols, waters law enforcement, coastal community development and other waters, as well as search and rescue accidents in marine areas (SAR). They also provide air support to local area operations or in support of national level INP units. They wear light blue berets and light blue service uniforms/flight suits.
Detainees and Evidence Unit Sat-Tahti Satuan Tahanan dan Barang Bukti This internal unit is in charge to organize prisoners' care, including prisoners' health care, guardianship and the receiving, storing and securing of evidence and their administration within the regional police headquarters, reporting the number and condition of the detainees in accordance with provisions of the law.
Information Technology Unit Si-Tipol Seksi Teknologi Informasi Polri This unit is responsible for computer and IT system management and development for policing duties
Internal Security and Profession Unit Si-Propam Seksi Profesi dan Pengamanan This unit is responsible to carry out internal investigation towards police personnel suspected of misconduct and also to enforce discipline towards police personnel. Officers of this unit are identifiable by their light blue berets and wear white belts with aiguillettes.

Rank structure

In the early years, the Indonesian Police used European style police ranks, like "Brigadier", "Inspector", and "Commissioner". When the police were amalgamated with the military structure during the 1960s, the armed forces' ranking system was brought in, using ranks such as "Captain", "Major", and "Colonel". In the year 2000, when the Indonesian Police transitioned into a fully independent force, they used British style ranks like "Constable" and "Superintendent", but returned to their original ranking system a year later, albeit with some Indonesianized elements to help bolster national pride.[18]

Worn on: General Officers Senior Officers Junior Officers
Ceremonial Dress Uniform (PDU)
Service Uniform (PDH)
Field Uniform (PDL)
on collar
in Indonesian:
Jenderal Polisi

(Jenderal Pol)

Komisaris Jenderal Polisi
(Komjen Pol)
Inspektur Jenderal Polisi
(Irjen Pol)
Brigadir Jenderal Polisi
(Brigjen Pol)
Komisaris Besar Polisi
(Kombes Pol)
Ajun Komisaris Besar Polisi
Komisaris Polisi
Ajun Komisaris Polisi
Inspektur Polisi Satu
Inspektur Polisi Dua
in English:
Police General Police Commissioner General Police Inspector General Police Brigadier General Police Chief Commissioner Police Adjunct Chief Commissioner Police Commissioner Police Adjunct Commissioner Police 1st Inspector Police 2nd Inspector
Office or duty Chief of National Police Vice Chief, chief of national police organs chief of regional police, vice chief of national police organs, chief of national police divisions, commandant Mobile Brigade (SWAT) corps director of national police general directorates, vice chief of regional police chief of departamental police, director of regional police directorates, regional police spokesperson vice chief of departmental police chief of sectoral police chief of sectoral police
Worn on: Sub-inspectors of Police
Ceremonial Dress Uniform (PDU)
Service Uniform (PDH)
Field Uniform (PDL)
on collar
in Indonesian:
Ajun Inspektur Polisi Satu (Aiptu) Ajun Inspektur Polisi Dua (Aipda) Brigadir Polisi Kepala (Bripka) Brigadir Polisi (Brigpol) Brigadir Polisi Satu (Briptu) Brigadir Polisi Dua (Bripda)
in English:
Police 1st Sub-Inspector Police 2nd Sub-Inspector Police
Chief Brigadier
Police Brigadier Police 1st Brigadier Police 2nd Brigadier

The following ranks are only used by personnel serving in the Mobile Brigade Corps and Water police units:

Worn on: Enlisted
Ceremonial Dress Uniform (PDU)
Service Uniform (PDH)
Field Uniform (PDL)
on collar
Rank in Indonesian: Ajun Brigadir Polisi (Abrigpol) Ajun Brigadir Polisi Satu (Abriptu) Ajun Brigadir Polisi Dua (Abripda) Bhayangkara Kepala (Bharaka) Bhayangkara Satu (Bharatu) Bhayangkara Dua (Bharada)
Rank in English: Police Sub-Brigadier Police 1st Sub-Brigadier Police 2nd Sub-Brigadier Senior Patrolman 1st Patrolman 2nd Patrolman



In the eyes of the people, the National Police force is "corrupt, brutal, and inept".[3] Even becoming a police officer can be expensive, with applicants having to pay up to Rp 90 million, according to Indonesia Police Watch head, Neta Saputra Pane.[19]

In April 2009, angry that the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) had tapped his phone while investigating a corruption case, Indonesian Police chief detective Susno Duadji compared the KPK to a gecko (cicak) fighting a crocodile (buaya) meaning the police. Susno's comment, as it turned out, quickly backfired because the image of a cicak standing up to a buaya (similar to David and Goliath imagery) immediately had wide appeal in Indonesia. A noisy popular movement in support of the cicak quickly emerged. Students staged pro-cicak demonstrations, many newspapers ran cartoons with cicaks lining up against an ugly buaya, and numerous TV talk shows took up the cicak versus buaya topic with enthusiasm. As a result, references to cicaks fighting a buaya have become a well-known part of the political imagery of Indonesia.[20]

In June 2010, the Indonesian news magazine Tempo published a report on "fat bank accounts" held by senior police officers containing billions of rupiah. When the magazine went on sale in the evening groups of men said by witnesses to be police officers, went to newsstands with piles of cash to try to buy all the copies before they could be sold.[21][22]

When KPK investigators tried to search Polri headquarters in 2010 as part of an investigation into Djoko Susilo, then the head of Korlantas (police corps of traffic), they were detained, and only released following the intervention of the president, Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. Following a trial, Djoko was jailed for 18 years. Two years later, the KPK began investigating another senior police officer, Budi Gunawan, who was subsequently nominated for the post of National Police Chief. The KPK then named Budi a suspect and his nomination was withdrawn. However, he was later sworn in as deputy police chief. The police subsequently took revenge by charging three KPK commissioners with criminal offenses.[23][24]

Violence and human rights abuses

Amnesty International has accused Polri of "widespread" torture and other abuses of arrested individuals.[25] According to the organization, "Police in Indonesia shoot, beat and even kill people without fear of prosecution, leaving their victims with little hope of justice".[26]

Main article: Virginity testing in Indonesia

In 2014 the Human Rights Watch reported that a physical virginity test is routinely performed on female applicants to the police force.[27][28]

An official admission of violence by police officers came in 2016 when Chief Gen. Badrodin Haiti admitted that officers of the Detachment 88 anti-terror unit were responsible for the death in custody of terrorist suspect Siyono, who died of heart failure after being kicked hard enough in the chest to fracture his ribs. The Indonesian National Commission on Human Rights stated in March 2016 that at least 121 terror suspects had died in custody since 2007[29]

Amnesty International called in June 2019 for an investigation of "credible evidence" of a range of grave violations by police, who it alleged were responsible for 10 unlawful killings in the aftermath of the re-election of president Joko Widodo.[30]

In July 2020, the Indonesian Commission for Missing Persons and Victims of Violence (KontraS) issued a report detailing police brutality over the preceding year that resulted in 304 deaths and 1,627 injuries in 921 violent incidents. The report also mentioned arbitrary arrests of people demonstrating legally, and acts of discrimination towards ethnic Papuans.[31] The following year, the same organization reported 651 acts of violence against civilians resulting in 13 deaths and 98 injuries. Most of the deaths were caused by excessive violence and arbitrary shootings.[32]

In the summer of 2022, an investigation into the murder of Nofriansyah Yosua Hutabarat, an Indonesian police officer, overcame an alleged cover-up by police generals to conceal an alleged premeditated murder committed by Inspector General Ferdy Sambo, head of internal affairs of the Indonesian National Police, and four others,[33] including Sambo's wife.[34] The chair of Indonesia Police Watch called the affair "the worst scandal in the police's history".[35] Ferdy Sambo was later sentenced to death, with Amnesty Indonesia stating "the case should serve as a reminder to the police that it needed to make serious improvements in its internal operations and that this was not the first time that a police officer had been involved in an extrajudicial killing”.[36]

On the 1st of October 2022, Indonesian riot police deployed tear gas inside Kanjuruhan Stadium in response to a pitch invasion and clashes with football supporters,[37] which triggered a stampede of people in the stadium trying to escape from the effects of the gas.[38] A crush formed at an exit, resulting in fans being asphyxiated. As a result, 134 people died, and more than 500 were injured.[39] The National Commission on Human Rights in Indonesia (KOMNAS HAM) investigated the use of tear gas by police, and found that the Indonesian National Police were one of 6 parties responsible for the tragedy due to excessive use of tear gas inside the stadium.[40] Other visual investigations, such as one by Narasi, also highlighted the force's excessive use of tear gas.[41] Out of the 3 commanding officers that were charged for giving the order for tear gas to be fired,[42] only 1 was given an 18-month sentence, whilst the other officers were acquitted, in a verdict deemed "an offense to the public's sense of justice".[43]



An Indonesian Armed BRIMOB special Police personnel with a Pindad SS1 assault rifle guarding outside the Jakarta Cathedral

Main article: Equipment of Indonesian National Police

The standard issue sidearm to all Indonesian National Police officers is the Taurus Model 82 revolver in .38 Special. While police personnel attached to special units such as Detachment 88, Gegana and BRIMOB are issued with the Glock 17 semi-automatic pistol.

Heavy arms are always available to Indonesian police personnel, such as the Heckler & Koch MP5 sub-machine gun, Remington 870 shotgun, Steyr AUG assault rifle, AK-101, M4 carbine, SIG MCX, SIG MPX, M1 Carbine. and other weapons. The standard rifle for the Indonesian National Police are the Pindad SS1 and the M16 rifle. Units are also issued the "Sabhara"/Police V1-V2 Pindad SS1 special law enforcement assault rifle.

Police vehicles

The police vehicles that are usually operated by the Indonesian Police ("Polri") for patrol and law enforcement activities are mainly, Mitsubishi Lancer, Hyundai Elantra (for some police regions), Mitsubishi Strada/Triton, Isuzu D-Max, Nissan Almera, Ford Ranger and Nissan Navara. Such vehicles are usually operated by the "Sabhara" police unit and other units which the vehicles are mainly colored dark-grey. In some areas, usually in rural places, the vehicles are not up-to date compared to the ones in the major urban areas in the country, so some police vehicles still use older versions such as the Toyota Kijang and Mitsubishi Kuda.

Special Investigation units usually operate in black Toyota Avanza and some are unmarked vehicles. Police laboratory and forensics ("Puslabfor") units are issued dark-grey police Suzuki APV, Isuzu D-Max, Ford Ranger, Toyota Fortuner or Mitsubishi Fuso Canter vehicles.

The Traffic Police Corps ("Korlantas") usually uses vehicles such as the Mazda 6, Mitsubishi Lancer, Mitsubishi Galant V6, Toyota Vios, Toyota Corolla, Hyundai Ioniq, Mitsubishi Pajero, Toyota Fortuner (usually for escort), Hyundai Elantra, Tesla Model 3 (mostly in Jakarta), Ford Ranger, Hino Dutro, Isuzu MU-X, and Toyota Hilux (coloured white and blue). Some vehicles for traffic patrol are also used such as the Toyota Rush and Daihatsu Terios and suzuki grand vittara. Sedan types are usually used for highway and road patrolling and escort. Double-Cab types are usually used for Traffic incidents and traffic management law enforcement activities.

Police vehicles coloured orange usually Ford Focus and Mitsubishi Lancer sedans and white-orange Chevrolet Captiva are operated by the Vital Object Protection unit ("Pam Obvit") and usually parked outside and operated for international embassies, airports, and other special specified locations. It is also used by the Tourist police for patrol.

For the paramilitary police, counter-terrorism and anti-riot units such as the Mobile Brigade or "Brimob", Detachment 88 and "Gegana" units usually use special costumed vehicles for special operations such as the Pindad Komodo, Barracuda 4x4 Light Armoured personnel carrier or light APC, Panus 4x4 Light Armored Patrol Car, DAPC 1/2 4x4 Light Armoured Transport Vehicle, and modified armored Mitsubishi Strada, Nissan Terrano and other special double-cabin and SUV vehicle types. Vehicles are coloured dark-grey with the bumper coloured orange identifying vehicles of the special police units. Some special operational "Gegana" and "Densus 88" vehicles are coloured black also with orange bumpers.

Other customised vehicles used for mobilisation of police personnel are usually modified Suzuki Mega Carry, Isuzu Elf and Toyota Dyna with horizontal side sitting facilities inside of the trunk covered by dark colored canvas for canopy. Costumed patrol pick-ups with mounted sitting facilities on the trunk covered with canopy are also operated by the police to carry police personnel during patrol, the pick-ups are usually Isuzu Panther pick-ups and usually operate in rural areas.

For high-ranking officers (usually generals), issued cars are usually grey (some black) full to compact sedans and Mid to Full-sized SUVs. Such cars are mainly chauffeured Toyota Camry, Hyundai Sonata, Toyota Land Cruiser, Suzuki Grand Vitara and Toyota Prado. Some use black Toyota Innova.

Ford Focus mostly not used anymore for Korlantas and Sabhara only small uses, while MPVs like Honda Mobilio and Toyota Innova sometimes used for Korlantas unit for patrol and escort.


Example police uniform, c 1976

The National Police Force of Indonesia had changes for uniform colours about 3 times, the periods are:

Based on the regulation of the Chief of the Indonesian National Police,[44] there are four types of uniform worn by police personnel which are:

Ceremonial and service uniform are equipped with gorget paches (officially called "Monogram"). Higher officers (Brigadier General above) wear red while the rest wear dark brown.

Field and service uniform are equipped with office badge on left sleeve, and corps badge on the right sleeve. Officer with command held wears his/her DUI (Lencana Tanda Jabatan) on the right pocket of the dress or service uniform and usually carries baton (called tongkat komando) while others don't.

Headgears and beret colors:

National Police Pledge (Tribrata)

The National Police Pledge is a pledge of loyalty and fidelity of all sworn personnel and constables to the government and people of Indonesia, the principles of nationhood and the Constitution.[45][46]

Original Indonesian English
Kami, Polisi Indonesia: We, (policemen and women) of Indonesia:
1. Berbakti kepada nusa dan bangsa dengan penuh ketakwaan terhadap Tuhan yang Maha Esa. Swear therefore our loyalty to serve the people and nation with full reverence to the One True God,
2. Menjunjung tinggi kebenaran, keadilan dan kemanusiaan dalam menegakkan hukum negara kesatuan Republik Indonesia yang berdasarkan Pancasila dan undang-undang dasar 1945. to uphold the values of truth, justice and humanity in our duties in the protection of the laws of the unitary Republic of Indonesia, based on Pancasila and the 1945 Constitution,
3. Senantiasa melindungi, mengayomi dan melayani masyarakat dengan keikhlasan untuk mewujudkan keamanan dan ketertiban. and to always protect, preserve and serve to the community with sincerity in order to develop public order and security.


List of Chiefs of Police (Kapolri)

Main article: Chief of the Indonesian National Police

In popular culture



See also


  1. ^ Undang-Undang Republik Indonesia Nomor 2 Tahun 2002  (in Indonesian) – via Wikisource.
  2. ^ Indonesian police split from military, CNN, Reuters, 1 April 2009, retrieved 18 September 2009
  3. ^ a b Davies, Sharyn Graham; Meliala, Adrianus; Buttle, John, Indonesia's secret police weapon (Jan-Mar 2013 ed.), Inside Indonesia, retrieved 8 December 2015
  4. ^ Rohmah, Ainur (13 January 2022). "Twitter Users Ridicule Indonesian Police". asiesentinel.con. Asia Sentinel. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  5. ^ "Sudan Focus: United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) introduces Community Policing in Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps in Khartoum" (PDF), UN Police Magazine (5 ed.), United Nations, p. 16, July 2010, archived (PDF) from the original on 1 November 2018, retrieved 30 April 2019
  6. ^ Suwarsono, Tjuk (20 March 2021). "Polisi Terbanyak dan Terbaik" (in Indonesian). Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  7. ^ Hackett, James, ed. (2021). Written at Abingdon, Oxon. The military balance 2021. New York City: International Institute for Strategic Studies. ISBN 978-1-000-41545-2. OCLC 1239962384.
  8. ^ Dewi, Anita Permata (4 December 2019). Burhani, Ruslan (ed.). "Kapolri ingatkan jajaran Polairud jaga kesehatan". Antara News. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  9. ^ Akhmad, Chairul (10 June 2014). "Senkom Mitra Polri Gelar Rakernas". Republika Online (in Indonesian). Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  10. ^ "Website Resmi Polri". Archived from the original on 16 November 2019.
  11. ^ "Website Resmi Polri". Archived from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  12. ^ "Background on Kopassus and Brimob", etan.,, 2008, retrieved 6 March 2016
  13. ^ "Pasukan gegana". Archived from the original on 11 July 2021. Retrieved 11 July 2021.
  14. ^ "Tim Gegana Bebaskan Bupati Aceh Besar dari 'Sanderaan Teroris'".
  15. ^ Detachment 88, Kopassus Get Covert US Aid: US Intelligence Personnel Tap Indonesian Phones. Retrieved on July 16, 2008.
  16. ^ "The eastern fringe of the Muslim world worries about Islamic State's influence". The Economist. 23 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
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  18. ^ Indonesia Company Laws and Regulations Handbook: Volume 1 Strategic Information and Basic Laws. International Business Publications USA. June 2015. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-5145-0900-5.
  19. ^ Allard, Tom (10 May 2010), Indonesia pays a high price for its corrupt heart, Sydney Morning Herald, retrieved 8 December 2015
  20. ^ Antagonism between the KPK and the police, with memories of the cicak versus buaya clash, remained deeply embedded in the relationship between the KPK and the police after the clash. See, for example, references to the clash in 2012 in Ina Parlina, 'Doubts over KPK inquiry into police bank accounts', The Jakarta Post, 18 May 2012.
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  27. ^ Human Rights Watch (17 November 2014). "Indonesia: 'Virginity Tests' for Female Police being performed in some regions".
  28. ^ Dewi, Santi. Rusmanto, Eddy (ed.). "Polri Telah Hapus Tes Keperawanan bagi Calon Polwan Sejak 2014". IDN Times (in Indonesian). Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  29. ^ Eko Prasetyo (22 April 2016), Police Negligence Admission only Tip of the Iceberg: Amnesty International, The Jakarta Globe, archived from the original on 23 April 2016, retrieved 22 April 2016
  30. ^ "Amnesty wants impartial probe of Indonesia police violence". Federal News Network. 26 June 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  31. ^ Nurbaiti, Alya; Oktavianti, Tri Indah (1 July 2020). "Rights groups highlight cases of police brutality on National Police's 74th anniversary". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 20 March 2023.
  32. ^ Ainur Rohmah (30 June 2021). "Laporan Hari Bhayangkara ke-75 Tahun 2020 Komisi untuk Orang Hilang dan Korban Tindak Kekerasan" [2020 National Police Anniversary report by the Commission for Missing Persons and Victims of Violence]. Commission for Missing Persons and Victims of Violence (in Indonesian). Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  33. ^ McBeth, John (11 August 2022). "Cop-on-cop killing rocks and roils Indonesia". Asia Times. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  34. ^ "Ferdy's wife charged with premeditated murder". Jakarta Post. 20 August 2022. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  35. ^ Janti, Nur; Lai, Yerica (21 August 2022). "Police image in tatters as murder scandal widens". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  36. ^ Llewellyn, Aisyah. "Indonesia's 'Trial of the Century' ends in death sentence". Retrieved 17 March 2023.
  37. ^ "Tragedi Kanjuruhan, Polisi: 3.000 Penonton Turun ke Lapangan Usai Laga Arema Vs Persebaya". (in Indonesian). 2 October 2022. Retrieved 21 October 2022.
  38. ^ Duerden, John (3 October 2022). "Stadium tragedy exposes Indonesia's troubled soccer history". AP NEWS. Retrieved 21 October 2022.
  39. ^ Febrianto, Vicki (21 October 2022). "Korban jiwa akibat tragedi Kanjuruhan bertambah". Antara News (in Indonesian). Retrieved 21 October 2022.
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Further reading