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Indonesia is divided into provinces (Indonesian: Provinsi). Provinces are made up of regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota). Provinces, regencies, and cities have their own local governments and parliamentary bodies.
Since the enactment of Law Number 22 of 1999 on Local Government (the law was revised by Law Number 32 of 2004 and Law Number 23 of 2014), local governments now play a greater role in administering their areas. Foreign policy, defence (including armed forces and national police), system of law, and monetary policy, however, remain the domain of the national government. Since 2005 as the enactment of Law Number 32 of 2004, heads of local government (governors, regents and mayors) have been directly elected by popular election.
Main article: Provinces of Indonesia
First level subdivisions of Indonesia are called Provinces. A province is headed by a governor (Gubernur). Each province has its own regional assembly, called Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (DPRD, lit. 'Regional People's Representative Council'). Governors and representative members are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. Provinces were formerly also known as Daerah Tingkat I (Level I Regions).
Indonesia is divided into 38 provinces. Nine provinces have special status:
Main article: List of regencies and cities of Indonesia
Second level subdivisions of Indonesia is regency (kabupaten) and city (kota).This subdivisions is a local level of government beneath the provincial level. However, they enjoy greater decentralisation of affairs than the provincial body, such as provision of public schools and public health facilities. They were formerly known collectively as Daerah Tingkat II (Level II Region).
Both regency and city are at the same level, having their own local government and legislative body. The difference between a regency and a city lies in differing demographics, size and economics.
Generally the regency has a larger area than the city, and the city has non-agricultural economic activities. A regency is headed by a regent (bupati), and a city is headed by a mayor (wali kota). The regent or mayor and the representative council members are elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years.
Main article: Districts of Indonesia
Regencies and cities are divided into districts, which have several variations of terms:
Main article: Villages of Indonesia
Districts are divided into desa (villages) or kelurahan (urban communities). Both desa and kelurahan are of a similar division level, but a desa enjoys more power in local matters than a kelurahan. An exception is Aceh, where districts are divided into mukim before being subdivided further into gampong.
In Indonesian, as in English, a village (desa) has rural connotations. In the context of administrative divisions, a desa can be defined as a body which has authority over the local people in accordance with acknowledged local traditions of the area. A desa is headed by a "head of village" (Indonesian: kepala desa), who is elected by popular vote.
Most Indonesian villages use the term "desa", but other terms are used in some regions:
Although desa and kelurahan are part of a district, a kelurahan has less autonomy than a desa. A kelurahan is headed by a lurah. Lurahs are civil servants, directly responsible to their camats.
The following table lists the number of current provinces, regencies, and cities in Indonesia.
|Level||Type (Indonesian)||Type (English)||Head of government (Indonesian)||Head of government (English)||Number|
|III||Kecamatan, distrik, kapanewon, or kemantren||District||Camat, kepala distrik, panewu or mantri pamong praja||Head of district||7,266|
|IV||Desa or kelurahan||Village/subdistrict||Kepala desa or lurah||Head of village/subdistrict||83,467|