President of Indonesia Joko Widodo and Prime Minister of Malaysia Mahathir Mohamad in Putrajaya, 9 August 2019

Since independence, Indonesian foreign relations have adhered to a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. During the presidency of Sukarno, Indonesia's foreign relations were marked by engagement with other newly independent nations in Asia and Africa, as exemplified by the Bandung Conference, the subsequent foundation of the Non-Aligned Movement and a confrontational attitude towards Western powers, justified by a belief in the CONEFO and opposition to what Sukarno termed as NEKOLIM (Neocolonialism and Imperialism).[1]

After a US-backed ouster of Sukarno and left-wing elements in 1965, Indonesian foreign policy underwent a major shift under the "New Order" government, as President Suharto moved away from the stridently anti-Western, anti-American posturing that characterised the latter part of the Sukarno era. Following Suharto's ouster in 1998, Indonesia's government has preserved the broad outlines of Suharto's independent, moderate foreign policy. Preoccupation with domestic problems has not prevented successive presidents from travelling abroad.

Indonesia's relations with the international community were strained as a result of its invasion of neighbouring East Timor in December 1975, the subsequent annexation and occupation, the independence referendum in 1999, and the resulting violence afterwards. As one of the founding members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), established in 1967, and also as the largest country in Southeast Asia, Indonesia has put ASEAN as the cornerstone of its foreign policy and outlook. After the transformation from Suharto's regime to a relatively open and democratic country in the 21st century, Indonesia today exercises its influence to promote co-operation, development, democracy, security, peace and stability in the region through its leadership in ASEAN.[2] Currently, Israel is the only UN member state that does not have formal diplomatic relations with Indonesia, although they maintain informal relations.

Indonesia managed to play a role as a peacemaker in the Cambodia–Thailand conflict over the Preah Vihear temple. Indonesia and other ASEAN member countries collectively have also played a role in encouraging the government of Myanmar to open up its political system and introduce other reforms more quickly.[2]

Given its geographic and demographic size, rising capabilities and diplomatic initiatives, scholars have classified Indonesia as one of Asia-Pacific's middle powers.[3]

Historical issues

The foreign policy of Indonesia has evolved over time and has been shaped by various factors such as its historical context, geographic location, national interests, and leadership. Here is an overview of the historical context of Indonesia's foreign policy:

Significant international memberships

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)

A cornerstone of Indonesia's contemporary foreign policy is its participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN),[16] of which it was a founding member in 1967 with Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. Since then, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia also have joined ASEAN. While organised to promote shared economic, social, and cultural goals, ASEAN acquired a security dimension after Vietnam's liberation of Cambodia in 1979; this aspect of ASEAN expanded with the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Forum in 1994, which comprises 22 countries, including the US.

Indonesian national capital Jakarta is also the seat of ASEAN Secretariat, located at Jalan Sisingamangaraja No. 70A, Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta. Other than serving their diplomatic missions for Indonesia, numbers of foreign embassies and diplomatic mission in Jakarta are also accredited to ASEAN. ASEAN Headquarter has led to the prominence of Jakarta as a diplomatic hub in Southeast Asia.

In the late 1990s to early 2000s, Indonesia's continued domestic troubles have distracted it from ASEAN matters and consequently lessened its influence within the organisation. However, after the political and economic transformation, from the turmoil of 1998 Reformasi to the relatively open and democratic civil society with rapid economic growth in the 2010s, Indonesia returned to the region's diplomatic stage by assuming its leadership role in ASEAN in 2011. Indonesia is viewed to have weight, international legitimacy and global appeal to draw support and attention from around the world to ASEAN. Indonesia believes that ASEAN can contribute positively to the international community, by promoting economic development and co-operation, improving security, peace, the stability of ASEAN, and making the Southeast Asia region far from conflicts.[2]

Indonesia's bilateral relations with three neighbouring ASEAN members—Malaysia, Singapore, and Vietnam—are not without challenges. If not appropriately managed, it would result in mutual mistrust and suspicion, thus hindering bilateral and regional co-operation. In the era of rising Indonesia, which might assert its leadership role within ASEAN, the problem could become more significant. Nevertheless, the rise of Indonesia should be regarded in the sense of optimism. First, although Indonesia is likely to become assertive, the general tone of its foreign policy is mainly liberal and accommodating. The consolidation of the Indonesian democratic government played a key role and influence in ASEAN. The second, institutional web of ASEAN will sustain engagements and regular meetings between regional elites, thus deepening their mutual understanding and personal connections.[17]

Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)

Indonesia also was one of the founders of NAM and has taken moderate positions in its councils. As NAM Chairman in 1992–95, it led NAM positions away from the rhetoric of North-South confrontation, advocating the broadening of North-South co-operation instead in the area of development. Indonesia continues to be a prominent, and generally helpful, leader of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC)

Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population and is a member of OIC. It carefully considers the interests of Islamic solidarity in its foreign policy decisions but generally has been an influence for moderation in the OIC.

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)

Indonesia has been a strong supporter of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. Mainly through the efforts of President Suharto at the 1994 meeting in Indonesia, APEC members agreed to implement free trade in the region by 2010 for industrialised economies and 2020 for developing economies. As the largest economy in Southeast Asia, Indonesia also belongs to other economic groupings such as G20 and Developing 8 Countries (D-8).

G20 major economies

In 2008, Indonesia was admitted as a member of the G20, as the only ASEAN member state in the group.[18] Through its membership in the global economic powerhouse that accounted of 85% of the global economy,[18] Indonesia is keen to position itself as a mouthpiece for ASEAN countries, and as a representative of the developing world within the G20.[19] Bali, Indonesia had played host to the 2022 G20 Summit.

IGGI and CGI

After 1966, Indonesia welcomed and maintained close relations with the international donor community, particularly the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan, through the meetings of the Inter-Governmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI) and its successor, the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which coordinated substantial foreign economic assistance. Problems in Timor and Indonesia's reluctance to implement economic reform at times complicated Indonesia's relationship with donors. In 1992 the IGGI aid coordination group ceased to meet and the coordination activities were transferred to meetings arranged by the World Bank through the CGI. The CGI, in turn, ceased activities in 2007 when the Indonesian government suggested that an internationally organised aid coordination program was no longer needed.

International disputes

Indonesia has numerous outlying and remote islands, some of which are inhabited by numerous pirate groups that regularly attack ships in the Strait of Malacca in the north,[20] and illegal fishing crews known for penetrating Australian and Filipino waters.[21] While Indonesian waters itself is the target of many illegal fishing activities by numerous foreign vessels.[22]

Indonesia has some present and historic territorial disputes with neighboring nations, such as:

Diplomatic relations

List of countries which Indonesia maintains diplomatic relations with:

# Country Date[23]
1  Egypt 10 June 1947[24]
2  Netherlands October 1949[25][26]
3  Philippines 24 November 1949[27]
4  Myanmar 27 December 1949[28]
5  United States 28 December 1949[29]
6  Italy 29 December 1949[30]
7  Belgium December 1949[31]
8  Australia 1949
9  Syria 1949[32]
10  United Kingdom 13 January 1950[33]
11  Norway 25 January 1950
12  Czech Republic 2 February 1950
13  Russia 3 February 1950
14  Denmark 15 February 1950
15  Romania 20 February 1950
16  Thailand 7 March 1950[34]
 Holy See 13 March 1950[35]
17  Iraq 27 March 1950
18  China 13 April 1950
19  Saudi Arabia 1 May 1950[36]
20  Afghanistan 20 May 1950[37]
21  Pakistan June 1950[38]
22  France 2 August 1950[39]
23  Iran 1950[40]
24  Lebanon 1950[41]
25  Turkey 1950
26  India 3 March 1951[42]
27  Portugal 19 October 1951[43]
28  Jordan 22 October 1951
29   Switzerland 2 November 1951[44][45]
30  Luxembourg 8 January 1952[46]
31  Germany 25 June 1952[47]
32  Sri Lanka 6 August 1952[48]
33  Sweden 1952[49]
34  Canada 3 March 1953[50]
35  Mexico 6 April 1953
36  Brazil April 1953[51]
37  Finland 6 September 1954[52]
38  Serbia 4 November 1954
39  Austria 1954
40  Hungary 26 June 1955[53]
41  Poland 19 September 1955[54]
42  Vietnam 30 December 1955[55]
43  Argentina 30 June 1956
44  Bulgaria 20 September 1956[56]
45  Mongolia 22 December 1956[57]
46  Laos 30 August 1957[58]
47  Malaysia 31 August 1957[59]
48  Greece 23 February 1958[60]
49  Spain February 1958[61]
50  Japan April 1958[62]
51  New Zealand 28 June 1958
52  Cambodia 13 February 1959[63]
53  Venezuela 10 October 1959
54  Ghana 1959[64]
55  Cuba 22 January 1960
56  Morocco 19 April 1960[65]
57  Somalia 21 December 1960[66]
58    Nepal 25 December 1960[67]
59  Sudan 1960
60  Tunisia 1960[68]
61  Ethiopia 1961[69]
62  Yemen 21 April 1962[70]
63  Algeria 1963[71]
64  Bolivia 1963
65  Democratic Republic of the Congo 1963[72]
66  Guinea 1963[73]
67  North Korea 16 April 1964[74]
68  Tanzania 13 January 1965[75]
69  Nigeria 5 March 1965[76]
70  Mali 21 June 1965[77]
71  Albania 18 August 1965[78]
72  Chile 29 September 1965[79]
73  Liberia 1965[80]
74  Uruguay 1965[81]
75  Singapore 7 September 1967[82]
76  Kuwait 28 February 1968
77  Bangladesh 1 May 1972[83]
78  South Korea 18 September 1973[84]
79  Trinidad and Tobago 12 October 1973
80  Maldives 2 September 1974[85]
81  Madagascar 13 December 1974[86]
82  Fiji 1974
83  Peru 12 August 1975
84  Papua New Guinea 16 September 1975
85  Zambia 18 November 1975[87]
86  Suriname 24 January 1976[88]
87  Qatar 1976[89]
88  United Arab Emirates 1976[90]
89  Bahamas 5 May 1977
90  Oman 1 January 1978[91]
91  Panama 27 March 1979[92]
92  Kenya July 1979[93]
93  Djibouti 6 September 1979[94]
94  Malta 1 December 1979
95  Samoa 17 March 1980
96  Ecuador 29 April 1980
97  Colombia 15 September 1980
98  Senegal 3 October 1980[95]
99  Paraguay 29 November 1981[96]
100  Jamaica 17 December 1981
101  Gambia 30 May 1982[97]
102  Gabon 3 June 1982[98]
103  Ivory Coast 4 June 1982[99]
104  Comoros 19 March 1983[100]
105  Mauritius 27 May 1983[101]
106  Iceland 13 June 1983
107  Solomon Islands 28 July 1983
108  Brunei 1 January 1984[102]
109  Rwanda 16 January 1984[103]
110  Bahrain 23 June 1984[104]
111  Ireland 4 September 1984
112  Costa Rica 9 January 1985
113  Seychelles 16 December 1985[105]
114  Zimbabwe 14 August 1986[106]
115  Cyprus 15 December 1987[107]
116  Nicaragua 11 April 1988[108]
117  Burundi 31 May 1988[109]
118  Uganda 12 January 1989[110]
 State of Palestine 19 October 1989
119  Eswatini 12 April 1991[111]
120  Namibia 13 May 1991[112]
121  Federated States of Micronesia 16 July 1991
122  Mozambique 4 October 1991
123  Libya 17 October 1991
124  Grenada 28 February 1992
125  Guatemala 29 April 1992[113]
126  Ukraine 11 June 1992
127  Cameroon 16 June 1992[114]
128  Uzbekistan 23 June 1992[115]
129  Burkina Faso 8 August 1992[116]
130  Croatia 2 September 1992
131  Armenia 22 September 1992
132  Azerbaijan 24 September 1992[117]
133  Slovenia 12 October 1992[105]
134  Turkmenistan 10 December 1992[118]
135  Slovakia 1 January 1993
136  Georgia 25 January 1993
137  Moldova 12 February 1993[119]
138  Kyrgyzstan 5 April 1993[120]
139  Marshall Islands 21 May 1993
140  North Macedonia 23 May 1993
141  Kazakhstan 2 June 1993[121]
142  Belarus 18 June 1993
143  Estonia 5 July 1993[122]
144  Lithuania 15 July 1993[123]
145  Eritrea 2 August 1993[124]
146  Latvia 25 August 1993[125]
147  Lesotho 4 November 1993[126]
148  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 30 November 1993
149  Saint Lucia 2 February 1994
150  Benin 10 March 1994[127]
151  Bosnia and Herzegovina 11 April 1994[105]
152  Dominica 19 April 1994
153  Tonga 27 May 1994
154  South Africa 12 August 1994[105]
155  Tajikistan 27 August 1994[128]
156  Sierra Leone 12 December 1994[129]
157  Vanuatu 3 July 1995[130]
158  Andorra 26 March 1996
159  Guinea-Bissau 12 December 1996[131]
160  Honduras 24 September 1997[105]
161  Liechtenstein 12 November 1998
162  Guyana 27 August 1999
163  Angola 7 August 2001[132]
164  East Timor 2 July 2002[133]
165  Republic of the Congo 2004[134]
166  Togo 2006[135]
167  Palau 6 July 2007
168  Monaco 17 December 2010[136]
169  Dominican Republic 21 September 2011[137]
170  Montenegro 21 September 2011[105]
171  Niger 21 September 2011[138]
172  Antigua and Barbuda 23 September 2011[139]
173  El Salvador 23 September 2011[140]
174  San Marino 26 September 2011
175  Mauritania 27 September 2011[141]
176  São Tomé and Príncipe 27 September 2011[142]
177  Bhutan 15 December 2011[105]
178  Botswana 28 March 2012[143]
179  Tuvalu 1 October 2012
180  Haiti 21 November 2012[105]
181  Nauru 21 December 2012
182  Kiribati 8 May 2013
183  Saint Kitts and Nevis 30 January 2014[105]
184  Belize 9 July 2014[144]
185  Malawi 29 September 2014[142]
186  Central African Republic 21 September 2016[145]
187  Chad 22 September 2016[146]
188  Equatorial Guinea 22 September 2016[147]
189  Barbados 26 June 2019[105]
 Cook Islands 12 July 2019
 Niue 12 July 2019
190  South Sudan 20 September 2022[148]
191  Cape Verde Unknown[149]

Bilateral relations

ASEAN

Country Formal relations began Notes
 Brunei 1 January 1984 See Brunei–Indonesia relations
  • The Republic of Indonesia established diplomatic relations with Brunei Darussalam on 1 January 1984. Brunei Darussalam was recognised by Indonesia in 1984.
  • Although they do not share a direct land border, Indonesia and Brunei share the island of Borneo. Overall relations between the two countries were progressing well and that both sides continued to enjoy strong ties in a wide spectrum of co-operations; including trade and investment, tourism, agriculture, marine and fisheries, health, defence, transnational crimes, education, youth, culture and people-to-people contacts.[150]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bandar Seri Begawan, while Brunei has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries also members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Non-Aligned Movement, Group of 77, Asia Cooperation Dialogue and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
 Cambodia 13 February 1959 See Cambodia–Indonesia relations
  • The relationship between ancient Indonesia and Cambodia dated back from the kingdom of Chenla and Javan Sailendra also Srivijaya; it was mentioned that king Jayavarman II had resided for some times in Java during the reign of Sailendras, and in 802 declare sovereignty of Cambodia from Java and proclaimed himself as universal monarch thus started the Angkor period.[151]
  • During the Sukarno reign in the 1960s, the president of Indonesia has visited Cambodia and vice versa prince Norodom Sihanouk also visited Indonesia.
  • In 1992, Indonesia is among the countries that provides troops for United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia. Indonesia also supported Cambodia membership to ASEAN in 1999. Indonesia also among the countries that provide aid to Angkor restoration project, especially the three main gates of Angkor Royal Palace archaeological site near Phimeanakas site. Indonesia is also appointed as observer in Cambodian–Thai border dispute.[152][153]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Phnom Penh, while Cambodia has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Laos 30 August 1957 See Indonesia–Laos relations

Since established diplomatic relations in 1957, both countries enjoy cordial relations. Indonesia has an embassy in Vientiane, while Laos has an embassy in Jakarta. Indonesia supported and welcomed Laotian membership to ASEAN in 1997. Laos and Indonesia agreed to enhance relations to focus on exploring the potential of both countries to co-operate on trade and investment. The two countries expressed a desire to reach further agreements relating to security, tourism, sport, air transport and education.[154] Indonesia through bilateral co-operation assist Laos on capacity building and development in various sectors, through scholarships and trainings for Laotian students.[155]

 Malaysia 31 August 1957,[156] severed diplomatic relations 15 September 1963, restored 31 August 1967 See Indonesia–Malaysia relations
  • Despite fighting each other during the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, Indonesia and Malaysia enjoy friendly relations. The populations of both countries have cordial relations and trade between the two countries has greatly increased over the years.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur and consulates general in Johor Bahru, George Town, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching. Malaysia has an embassy in Jakarta, a consulate general in Medan and consulates in Pekanbaru and Pontianak.
  • Indonesia and Malaysia has the same ethnic population that belongs to the Austronesian group and sharing the same language although minor differences in vocabulary.
  • Both countries also members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Cairns Group and Indian-Ocean Rim Association.
  • Relations were deteriorated under President Sukarno, whose opposition to the formation of Malaysia led to a confrontation between the two countries. However, relations were restored following a government transition in Indonesia.
  • Currently, both countries are in a territorial dispute over the oil rich islands of Ambalat. Previously, they were over territorial disputes over the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan, which were won by Malaysia.
  • The Indonesian migrant workers (Indonesian: TKI/Tenaga Kerja Indonesia) have become the important issue between both countries. The problems concerning migrant workers such as illegal immigration, crime, human trafficking, abuse, poor treatment and extortion upon migrant workers. Since 2009 Indonesia has temporarily stop sending domestic workers to Malaysia until both countries agree on ways to protect them.[157] Indonesia resumed sending migrant workers to Malaysia in May 2011 as both countries signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) about worker protection by the end of April 2011.[158]
 Myanmar 27 December 1949 See Indonesia–Myanmar relations
  • Both Indonesia and Myanmar are promoting the two countries' trade volume. The trade volume is estimated to reach up to $1 billion in 2016.[159]
  • Indonesia has offered to purchase 300,000 tons of rice from Myanmar, with prospects of buying more in the future.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Yangon, while Myanmar has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia supports Myanmar's democratisation process.[160]
 Philippines 24 November 1949[161] See Indonesia–Philippines relations
  • Indonesia and the Philippines are both archipelagic countries dominated by an ethnic population that belongs to the Austronesian group.
  • Both countries established their bilateral and diplomatic relations in 1949. The Indonesian Government has opened its consular office in Manila but it was not until the mid-1950s that an embassy was established headed by an ambassador. Indonesia also has a consulate general in Davao City.[162]
  • The Philippines has an embassy in Jakarta and a consulate general in Manado.
  • A treaty of friendship was signed in 1951. This Treaty constituted the basic relationship of both countries, covering several aspects such as maintenance of peace and friendship, settlement of disputes by diplomatic and peaceful means, traffic arrangements for citizens of both countries and activities to promote co-operation in the area of trade and cultural, which include the political, social-economic and security matters of both countries.
  • Both countries are also members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Non-Aligned Movement, Cairns Group, G20 developing nations and the East ASEAN Growth Triangle together with Brunei and Malaysia.
  • Both countries peacefully settled their maritime borders after 20 years of diplomatic talks.
  • Both countries have high cooperation in fields of economy, tourism, culture, and defense.
 Singapore 7 September 1967[163] See Indonesia–Singapore relations
 Thailand 7 March 1950[167] See Indonesia–Thailand relations
  • Indonesia and Thailand are viewed as natural allies.[168]
  • Indonesia is Thailand's third most important trade partner within ASEAN, with bilateral trade worth $8.7 billion in 2007.[169] Trade between the two countries is set to grow over the years.
  • Following the military takeover of the government in Thailand in May 2014, Indonesia supports the restoration of democracy in Thailand. Indonesia urged the military and civilian elements in Thailand to work together to quickly restore the political situation in Thailand.[170]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bangkok and a consulate in Songkhla.
  • Thailand has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries are also members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Non-Aligned Movement, Cairns Group, Indian-Ocean Rim Association and G20 developing nations.
 Vietnam 30 December 1955 See Indonesia–Vietnam relations
  • Formal relations started in 1955 for the consulate general level. Soedibjo Wirjowerdojo (former chargé d'affaires of Indonesian Embassy in Peking, China from year of 1953–1955) was appointed to be The First Indonesian Consul General to Vietnam, and located in Hanoi.
  • Both countries are also members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Non-Aligned Movement, Cairns Group, Group of 77 and CIVETS.
  • President Megawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia visited Vietnam in June 2003. At this time the two countries signed a "Declaration on the Framework of Friendly and Comprehensive Cooperation Entering the 21st Century".
  • In May 2005 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia visited Vietnam.
  • In the December of the same year festivities were organized in the respective capital cities to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Hanoi and a consulate general in Ho Chi Minh City.[171]
  • Vietnam has an embassy in Jakarta.

Africa

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Algeria 1963 See Algeria–Indonesia relations
 Angola 7 August 2001 See Angola–Indonesia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 7 August 2001.[132]
  • Indonesia supported Angola's fight against apartheid South Africa and its territorial integrity against separatist movements.
  • Angola supported Indonesia's sovereignty over East Timor and its territorial claims in the South China Sea.[174]
  • Indonesia is accredited to Angola from its embassy in Windhoek, Namibia.
  • Angolan embassy in Singapore is accredited to Indonesia.
 Botswana 28 March 2012 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 March 2012[143]
 Cameroon 16 June 1992
 Cape Verde

Indonesia is accredited to Cape Verde from its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.[178]

 Comoros 19 March 1983
 Egypt 1947 See Egypt–Indonesia relations
  • The Egyptian Ministry of Foreign Affairs officially acknowledged the Jam'iyya Istiqlâl Indonesia on March 22, 1946, as the representative of the self-claimed Indonesian Republican government.
  • The Prime Minister of Egypt and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia signed the Treaty of Friendship and Cordiality between the two countries on 10 June 1947, beginning both diplomatic relationships.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Cairo and Egypt has an embassy in Jakarta since February 25, 1950.
  • Gamel Abdel Nasser of Egypt and Sukarno of Indonesia were two of the five founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement.
  • Both countries are members of the OIC, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the G20 developing nations.
 Ethiopia 1961 See Ethiopia–Indonesia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1961, followed by the opening of Indonesian embassy in Addis Ababa in 1964.[179]
  • Ethiopia has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Gabon 3 June 1982
 Gambia 30 May 1982
 Ghana 1959
  • Ghana is accredited to Indonesia from its high commission in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Indonesia is accredited to Ghana from its embassy in Abuja, Nigeria.
 Guinea 1963
 Ivory Coast 4 June 1982 Both countries established diplomatic relations on 4 June 1982[99]
  • Indonesia is accredited to Ivory Coast through its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.
  • Ivory Coast is accredited to Indonesia through its embassy in Seoul, South Korea.[181]
 Kenya 1979 See Indonesia–Kenya relations
 Liberia 1965 See Indonesia–Liberia relations

The diplomatic relations was officially established in 1965, however it was not until 2013 that both leaders of each countries visited each other's to further the co-operations.

 Libya 17 October 1991 See Indonesia–Libya relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 October 1991[184]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Tripoli and Libya has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries are members of the OIC and the Non-Aligned Movement.
 Madagascar 13 December 1974[185] See Indonesia–Madagascar relations
  • The ancestors of Madagascar people came from Indonesia, sailed across Indian Ocean, back in early 8th to 9th century CE.[186]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Antananarivo, while Madagascar has not established an embassy in Jakarta yet.
  • Malagasy language and Indonesian language shared similar words, such as hand: ˈtananə (Malagasy), tangan (Indonesian); skin: ˈhulitse (Malagasy), kulit (Indonesian); white: ˈfuti (Malagasy), putih (Indonesian).
 Mali 21 June 1965
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 June 1965 when M. Souraedi Tashi, Indonesia's first Ambassador to Mali, presented his credentials to President Modibo Keita.[77]
  • Both countries are members of the OIC and the Non-Aligned Movement.
 Mauritania 27 September 2011
 Mauritius 27 May 1983
 Morocco 1960 See Indonesia–Morocco relations
  • Indonesia and Morocco shared similarity as Muslim-majority countries.
  • Morocco praised Indonesia as a strong democratic nation, and pointed that both countries facing the same challenges of separatism and terrorism.[189]
  • Diplomatic relations were established in 1960. Indonesia has an embassy in Rabat and a consulate in Casablanca, while Morocco has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • both countries are members of the WTO, NAM and OIC.
 Mozambique 4 October 1991 See Indonesia–Mozambique relations
 Namibia 1991 See Indonesia–Namibia relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Windhoek.[193]
  • Namibia is accredited to Indonesia from its high commission in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
 Niger 21 September 2011
 Nigeria 5 March 1965 See Indonesia–Nigeria relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 5 March 1965[76]

 Rwanda 16 January 1984
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 16 January 1984[195]
  • Rwanda is represented in Indonesia by its high commission in Singapore.
  • Indonesia has a non-resident embassy in Dar es Salaam.
 São Tomé and Príncipe 27 September 2011
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 27 September 2011[196]
  • São Tomé and Príncipe is represented in Indonesia by its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Indonesia has a non-resident embassy in Abuja.
 Senegal 3 October 1980 See Indonesia–Senegal relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 October 1980.[95]
  • Indonesia recognizes Senegal's potential as its entrance to penetrate the West African market.[197]
  • Indonesia has opened an embassy in Dakar since 1982.[198]
  • Senegalese embassy in Kuala Lumpur is accredited to Indonesia.
  • Both countries are members of the OIC and the Non-Aligned Movement.
 Seychelles 16 December 1985
 Sierra Leone November 1994
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in November 1994.
  • Sierra Leone is accredited to Indonesia through its embassy in Seoul, South Korea and is planning to open an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia is accredited to Sierra Leone, through its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.[200]
 Somalia 21 December 1960
 South Africa 12 August 1994 See Indonesia–South Africa relations
 Sudan 1960 See Indonesia-Sudan relations
  • During a visit by Sudanese Foreign Minister Ali Karti to Jakarta in February 2012, both countries have agreed to foster bilateral relations in politics, science, education and economic sectors.[202]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Khartoum.
  • Sudan has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries have Muslim-majority population and both are members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement.
 South Sudan 20 September 2022 See Indonesia-South Sudan relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 20 September 2022[148]
  • Indonesia recognized South Sudan on 12 July 2011.[203]
 Tanzania 13 January 1965 See Indonesia–Tanzania relations
 Tunisia 1960[206] See Indonesia–Tunisia relations
  • Tunisia and Indonesia are partners in capacity building and partnership for democracy.[207]
  • Indonesia hails Tunisia as a shining example of democratic transition in Arab world.[208]
  • The diplomatic relations dated back to the 1950s when Indonesia supports Tunisian independence from France.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Tunis, while Tunisia has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries are the member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement.
 Zimbabwe 14 August 1986 See Indonesia–Zimbabwe relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 14 August 1986[106]
  • The two nations signed a memorandum of understanding on the establishment of a joint commission on trade and investment in May 2011.[209]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Harare.
  • Zimbabwe has an embassy in Jakarta.

Americas

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Argentina 30 July 1956 See Argentina–Indonesia relations
 Barbados 26 June 2019 See Barbados-Indonesia relations
 Bolivia 1963
  • Bolivia is accredited to Indonesia from its embassy in Beijing, China.
  • Indonesia is accredited to Bolivia from its embassy in Lima, Peru.[213]
 Brazil March 1950 See Brazil–Indonesia relations
 Canada 3 March 1953 See Canada–Indonesia relations
 Chile 29 September 1965 See Chile–Indonesia relations
  • Chile has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Santiago.
 Colombia 15 September 1980 See Colombia–Indonesia relations
 Costa Rica 3 January 1985
 Cuba 1960 See Cuba–Indonesia relations
 Dominica April 1994

Indonesia is represented in Dominica by its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.[223]

 Dominican Republic 21 September 2011[137] See Dominican Republic-Indonesia relations
  • The Dominican Republic has a non-resident embassy in New Delhi, India.
  • Indonesia has a non-resident embassy in Havana, Cuba.
 Ecuador 29 April 1980 See Ecuador-Indonesia relations
 El Salvador 23 September 2011
 Guatemala 29 April 1992
  • Indonesia is accredited to Guatemala from its embassy in Mexico City, Mexico.
  • Guatemala has an embassy in Jakarta.[226]
 Haiti 21 November 2012 See Haiti-Indonesia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 November 2012.[227]
  • Haiti is represented in Indonesia by its embassy in Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • Indonesia has a non-resident embassy in Havana, Cuba.
 Honduras 24 September 1997[228]
 Jamaica 17 December 1981 See Indonesia-Jamaica relations
 Mexico 1953 See Indonesia–Mexico relations

Diplomatic relations between both nations were officially established in 1953.

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Mexico City.
  • Mexico has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries sees their counterpart as their strategic partners in each regions.
  • Both countries are partners in multilateral organizations such as the WTO, FEALAC, APEC and G-20.
 Nicaragua 11 April 1988[108]
 Panama 27 March 1979 See Indonesia-Panama relations
 Paraguay 29 November 1981[230]
 Peru 12 August 1975[231] See Indonesia–Peru relations
  • Both nations see each other as attractive markets with good prospects and potentials, and seek to boost trade relations.[232][233][234]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Lima.
  • Peru has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Suriname 24 January 1976 See Indonesia–Suriname relations
  • Indonesia and Suriname have a special relationship,[235] based upon shared common history as former colonies of the Dutch Empire.
  • Large numbers of Javanese migrated to Suriname to work on plantations during the late 19th and early 20th-centuries.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Paramaribo.
  • Suriname has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries committed to expand and improve their relations covering trade, agriculture and cultural sectors.
  • Indonesia and Suriname are partners in multilateral organisations such as the WTO and FEALAC.
 Trinidad and Tobago 12 October 1973 See Indonesia–Trinidad and Tobago relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 October 1973[236]
  • Indonesia is represented in Trinidad and Tobago by its embassy in Caracas, Venezuela.
  • Trinidad and Tobago's embassy in New Delhi, India, is accredited to Indonesia.
  • Both countries are members of the Non-Aligned Movement.
 United States 1949[237] See Indonesia–United States relations

The United States has important economic, commercial, and security interests in Indonesia. It remains a lynchpin of regional security due to its strategic location astride a number of key international maritime straits, particularly the Malacca Strait. Relations between Indonesia and the US are positive and have advanced since the election of President Yudhoyono in October 2004. The US played a role in Indonesian independence in the late 1940s and appreciated Indonesia's role as an anti-communist bulwark during the Cold War. Cooperative relations are maintained today, although no formal security treaties bind the two countries. The United States and Indonesia share the common goal of maintaining peace, security, and stability in the region and engaging in a dialogue on threats to regional security. Cooperation between the US and Indonesia on counter-terrorism has increased steadily since 2002, as terrorist attacks in Bali (October 2002 and October 2005), Jakarta (August 2003 and September 2004) and other regional locations demonstrated the presence of terrorist organisations, principally Jemaah Islamiyah, in Indonesia. The United States has welcomed Indonesia's contributions to regional security, especially its leading role in helping restore democracy in Cambodia and in mediating territorial disputes in the South China Sea.

 Uruguay 1965 See Indonesia–Uruguay relations
 Venezuela 9 October 1959 See Indonesia–Venezuela relations
  • Since the diplomatic relations established in 1959, Indonesia and Venezuela enjoy friendly ties.[238]
  • Indonesia supports Venezuela on the Guayana Esequiba issue.[239]
  • both countries agreed to expand the trade and investment relations, especially in tourism, technology, chemicals and natural gas sectors.[240]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Caracas, while Venezuela has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia and Venezuela are partners in multilateral organisations such as the WTO, NAM and FEALAC.

Asia

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Afghanistan 20 May 1950 See Afghanistan–Indonesia relations
  • Afghanistan has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia reopened its embassy in Kabul on 14 February 2022. Despite the embassy reopening, the Indonesian government remained not acknowledging the Taliban government.[241]
  • In January 2018, Indonesian president Joko Widodo visited Afghanistan.[242]
 Bahrain 23 June 1984 See Bahrain–Indonesia relations
 Bangladesh 1 May 1972 See Bangladesh–Indonesia relations
 Bhutan 15 December 2011 See Bhutan–Indonesia relations
  • Bhutan officially established diplomatic relations with Indonesia on 15 December 2011.[244]
  • Both countries represent each other through their respective embassies in New Delhi, India.
  • The two nations have cooperated in development of human resources and education.[244]
  • Both countries are members of the Asia Cooperation Dialogue and the Non-Aligned Movement.
 China 13 April 1950 See China–Indonesia relations
Countries which signed cooperation documents related to the Belt and Road Initiative
  • China and Indonesia established diplomatic relations on 13 April 1950, which was suspended on 30 October 1967 due to the occurrence of the 30 September event of 1965. Indonesia also supports China on the Diaoyu (Senkaku) issue.
  • The bilateral relations began to ease since the 1980s. Foreign Minister Qian Qichen of China met with President Suharto and State Minister Moerdiono of Indonesia in 1989 to discuss the resumption of diplomatic relations of the two countries. In December 1989, the two sides held talks on the technical issues regarding the normalisation of bilateral relations and signed the Minutes. Foreign Minister Ali Alatas of Indonesia visited China on invitation in July 1990 and the two sides issued the Agreement on the Settlement of Indonesia's Debt Obligation to China and the Communique on the Resumption of Diplomatic Relations between the two countries. The two countries issued the "Communiqué on the Restoration of Diplomatic Relations between the Two Countries".
  • Premier Li Peng visited Indonesia on 6 August 1990. In his talks with President Suharto, the two sides expressed their willingness to improve relations on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence and the Ten Principles of the Bandung Conference. On 8 August 1990, the Foreign Ministers of China and Indonesia signed a Memorandum of Understanding on the Resumption of Diplomatic Relations. The resumption of formal diplomatic relations between China and Indonesia was announced the same day.
  • Both countries are members of the G-20 major economies and APEC.
 Hong Kong (Special Administrative Region of China) See Hong Kong–Indonesia relations
 Macau (Special Administrative Region of China) See Indonesia-Macau relations
  • Indonesian consulate general in Hong Kong is accredited to Macau.
  • Macau has a Government Tourism Office in Jakarta.[247]
 East Timor 2 July 2002 See East Timor–Indonesia relations
  • East Timor (officially named the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) and Indonesia share the island of Timor. Indonesia invaded the former Portuguese colony in 1975 and annexed East Timor in 1976, maintaining East Timor as its 27th province until a United Nations-sponsored referendum in 1999, in which the people of East Timor chose independence. Following a United Nations interim administration, East Timor gained independence in 2002.
  • Despite the traumatic past, relations with Indonesia are very good. Indonesia is by far the largest trading partner of East Timor (Approximately 50% of imports, 2005) and is steadily increasing its share.
  • Problems to be solved include, East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee meetings to survey and delimit land boundary; and Indonesia is seeking resolution of East Timorese refugees in Indonesia.
 India 3 March 1951 See India–Indonesia relations
  • India and Indonesia are founding members of Non-Aligned Movement.
  • India had supported Indonesian independence and Nehru had raised the Indonesian question in the United Nations Security Council.
  • Indonesia views India as a "distant-cousin" and fellow fighter against colonialism. Indonesia's President Sukarno called for both nations to "intensify the cordial relations" that had existed "for more than 1,000 years" as crystallized in the Treaty of Friendship of March 1951.[248]
  • India and Indonesia had signed three security agreements in 1956, 1958 and 1960.
  • India provided military assistance to Indonesia's counterinsurgency campaign in the 1950s.[248]
  • As part of India's Look East Policy both countries signed 2005 India-Indonesia Strategic Partnership Agreement which was a milestone in the bilateral relationship of both countries.[248]
  • India provides support and training for the Indonesian Air Force's Sukhoi fighter jet and pilots.[248]
  • India has an embassy in Jakarta[249] and Indonesia operates an embassy in Delhi.[250]
 Iran 1950 See Indonesia–Iran relations
  • Indonesia and Iran are Muslim-majority countries, despite the differences in its religious orientation. Indonesia has the largest Muslim Sunni population in the world, while Iran is a predominantly Shiite nation.[251]
 Iraq 1950 See Indonesia–Iraq relations
  • Indonesia and Iraq share similarity as Muslim-majority countries. Both countries share their experiences in rebuilding and development. Indonesia has an embassy in Baghdad, while Iraq has an embassy in Jakarta. Both countries are partners in multilateral organisations, such as World Trade Organization (WTO), The Non-Aligned Movement and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1950 and have signed around 15 agreements to boost bilateral ties. Indonesia has maintained its embassy in Baghdad during various crises, such as the Iraq-Iran War in the 1980s. However, at the height of the Iraq War, Indonesia was forced to temporarily closed its embassy in Baghdad in 2003, and reopen it in June 2011.[255]
  • In 2003, the Indonesian government and people protested against a US-led military campaign against Baghdad. Over 50,000 Indonesian people crowded the streets of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta, on Sunday, 9 February 2003, to protest the United States' threat of military action against Iraq.[256] After the war ended and Indonesia reopened its embassy in 2011, relations between the two countries have developed at a fast pace. Iraq invited Indonesia's companies to participate in the reconstruction of Iraq.[257]
  • Traditionally, Indonesia views Iraq as a source of energy resources, such as oil and gas. Iraqi people are familiar with Indonesian exported products such as: tires, soaps, spices, furniture, coal, clothing, palm oil, shoes, paper, automobiles, rubber, and electronic goods.
 Israel Informal relations See Indonesia–Israel relations
  • The two countries maintain no formal diplomatic ties, although they maintain limited trade, tourism and security relations.[258][259][260][261]
  • In 2005, Indonesia said that establishing full diplomatic ties with Israel will only be possible after peace with Palestine has been reached.[262]
  • In 2008, Indonesia signed a medical cooperation agreement with Israel's national emergency medical service worth US$200,000.[263]
 Japan April 1958 See Indonesia–Japan relations
  • Despite being invaded by Japan in World War Two, Indonesia enjoys friendly relations with Japan.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Tokyo and a consulate in Osaka. Japan has an embassy in Jakarta and consulates in Medan, Denpasar, Surabaya, and Makassar.
  • Japan is Indonesia's largest export partner.
  • Both countries are members of the G-20 major economies and APEC.
 Jordan 1950 See Indonesia–Jordan relations
 Kazakhstan 2 June 1993 See Indonesia–Kazakhstan relations
 North Korea 16 April 1964 See Indonesia–North Korea relations

Indonesia is one of the very few countries that still maintain cordial relations with North Korea, despite international sanctions and isolation applied upon North Korea concerning its human rights abuses and nuclear missile program. Indonesia has adopted what it calls a "free-and-active" foreign policy, which allows it to be consistent in counting on both Koreas as friends.

Both countries share a relationship that dates back to the Sukarno and Kim Il Sung era in the 60s. Indonesia has an embassy in Pyongyang, while North Korea has an embassy in Jakarta. both countries are members of the Non-Aligned Movement.

According to a 2014 BBC World Service Poll, 28% of Indonesians view North Korea's influence positively, with 44% expressing a negative view. This shows a deterioration from previous year's poll where 42% of Indonesians view North Korea's influence positively, with 29% expressing a negative view.[266][267]

 South Korea 17 September 1973 See Indonesia–South Korea relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Jakarta and a consulate in Denpasar.[268]
  • Scale of bilateral trade between two nation is US$14.88 billion.
  • Both countries have invested in multiple joint military development projects including the KFX/IFX fighter jet.
  • South Korea firm Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME) is in final contract negotiations to supply Indonesia with three Type-209 submarines. This will be the largest ever bilateral defence deal valued at US$1.1 billion.[269]
  • Numerous K-pop performances, such as SMTown Live World Tour III and Music Bank World Tour, have been performed in Indonesia.
  • Trade in National currencies and moving away from the US dollar.[270][citation needed]
  • Both countries are members of the G-20 major economies and APEC.
 Kuwait 28 February 1968 See Indonesia–Kuwait relations
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • The relations focused on economy and trade sectors, especially on energy (oil) and human resources (migrant workers).
 Kyrgyzstan 5 April 1993 See Indonesia–Kyrgyzstan relations
 Lebanon 1950 See Indonesia–Lebanon relations
 Maldives 2 September 1974 See Indonesia–Maldives relations
 Mongolia 22 December 1956 See Indonesia–Mongolia relations
  • Indonesia and Mongolia established diplomatic relations in 1956.[271]
  • Mongolia is planning to have a Center of Indonesian Studies, located in Mongolian National University. This institution will serve as a learning center for Mongolian students, professors and common people wishing to learn various aspects of Indonesian studies, includes language, culture, history, politics and economy.[272]
  • Mongolian embassy in Bangkok is accredited to Indonesia.
  • Indonesia is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Beijing, China.
   Nepal 25 December 1960 See Indonesia–Nepal relations

Since diplomatic relations were established in 1960, both countries enjoy friendly and cordial relations, although both parties have not established embassies in each counterparts' capitals. Indonesia only established an honorary consulate in Kathmandu, while its embassy in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is also accredited to Nepal. Nepal on the other hand accredited its embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, also to Indonesia. Both the countries have many cultural proximities and similar view on international issues. Both countries are also partners and founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).

 Oman 1978 See Indonesia–Oman relations
  • Oman has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Muscat that is also accredited to Yemen.
  • Indonesia and Oman are Muslim majority countries and share same commitments in pursuing global peace and prosperity.[273]
 Pakistan 1949[274] See Indonesia–Pakistan relations
 Palestine 19 October 1989 See Indonesia–Palestine relations
  • Indonesia has a non-resident embassy in Amman.
  • Palestine has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Qatar 1976 See Indonesia–Qatar relations
  • Qatar has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Doha.
  • Indonesia and Qatar have both signed a number of memorandums of understanding in fields like air transport, tourism, and agricultural cooperation.[280]
 Saudi Arabia 1950 See Indonesia–Saudi Arabia relations
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia has an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate general in Jeddah.
  • Both countries are the member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and G-20 major economies.
  • Indonesia sent the largest hajj pilgrims among Muslim-majority countries.
  • The balance of trade is heavily in favour of Saudi Arabia, because of its oil and gas exports to Indonesia.
  • Migrant worker abuse and death sentences faced by Indonesian workers in Saudi Arabia are the main problems that strained diplomatic relations between two countries.
 Sri Lanka 6 August 1952 See Indonesia–Sri Lanka relations
  • Indonesia and Sri Lanka are founders of the Non-Aligned Movement.
  • Since the diplomatic relations were established in 1952, both countries enjoys cordial and friendly relationship
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Colombo, while Sri Lanka has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries are also members of the Group of 77 and the Indian-Ocean Rim Association.
 Syria 1949 See Indonesia–Syria relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1949.[32]
  • Syria has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Damascus.
  • In 2019, around 12,904 Indonesians reside in Syria.[281]
  • Both nations are members of Non-Aligned Movement and the Group of 77.
 Taiwan Informal relations See Indonesia–Taiwan relations
  • Indonesia and Taiwan (ROC) do not have diplomatic relations, both have only an unofficial relationship.
  • Despite geopolitical constraints, the relations between two countries remain flourished over times, the opportunities for widening and deepening the relations have grown.[282]
  • In 2020, around 300,000 Indonesians reside in Taiwan.[283]
  • Indonesia has an Economic and Trade Office in Taipei.
  • Taiwan has an Economic and Trade Office in Jakarta.
 Tajikistan 27 August 1994 See Indonesia-Tajikistan relations
 Turkey 1950[284] See Indonesia–Turkey relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Ankara[285] and a consulate general in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Jakarta.[285]
  • Both countries are members of D-8, G20, MIKTA, OIC and WTO.
  • Trade volume between the two countries was 1.85 billion USD in 2019 (Indonesian exports/imports: 1.64/0.21 billion USD.[286]
  • 2,400 Indonesian citizens reside in Turkey.[285]
 Turkmenistan 10 December 1992
 United Arab Emirates 1976 See Indonesia–United Arab Emirates relations
  • The diplomatic relations between Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates are important because both share the solidarity as Muslim-majority countries, and both countries recognize the important role of each counterparts in the region.
  • Since the diplomatic relations established in 1976, both country enjoy friendly and cordial relationship.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi, while the United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries are partners in multilateral organisations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), Non-Aligned Movement and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Indonesia uses the UAE as the main gate to enter the Gulf and Middle East market, Indonesia's export to UAE is the largest in the Middle East.
  • The Indonesian government has established the trade and investment representative office to promote its products in the United Arab Emirates and the entire Middle East region.
 Uzbekistan 23 June 1992 See Indonesia–Uzbekistan relations
  • On December 28, 1991, Indonesia has recognized the independence of the Republic of Uzbekistan from the dissolved Soviet Union.
  • Uzbekistan realized the strategic importance of Indonesia, home to the world's biggest Muslim population and Southeast Asia's biggest economy.[287]
  • Indonesia recognizes Uzbekistan's strategic importance as the gate to Central Asia, a growing economy and a potential market.[288]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Tashkent.
  • Uzbekistan has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both nations are members of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Non-Aligned Movement.
 Yemen 21 April 1962 See Indonesia–Yemen relations

Europe

See also: Indonesia–European Union relations

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Albania 1965 See Albania-Indonesia relations
 Armenia 22 September 1992 See Armenia–Indonesia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on September 22, 1992.[291]
  • Armenia has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has a non-resident ambassador in Kyiv, Ukraine also accredited to Armenia,[292] and an honorary consulate in Yerevan.
 Austria 1954 See Austria–Indonesia relations
  • Bilateral relations between Austria and Indonesia were officially established in 1954.
  • Austria recognises Indonesia as a stable and reliable partner, and both countries enjoy excellent relations.[293]
  • The two countries have agreed to expand relations in business, trade and investment, tourism, culture, environment and green technology.[294]
  • Austria has an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia has an embassy in Vienna that is also accredited to Slovenia as well as the following multilateral organisations: IAEA, PrepCom CTBTO, UNODC and UNOOSA.
 Azerbaijan 24 September 1992[295] See Azerbaijan–Indonesia relations
  • On September 28, 1991, the Republic of Indonesia recognized the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan.[295]
  • On September 24, 1992, diplomatic relations were established between the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Republic of Indonesia.[295]
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Jakarta.[295]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Baku.[295]
 Belarus 18 June 1993 See Belarus-Indonesia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 June 1993[296]
  • Belarus has an embassy in Jakarta
  • Indonesia is represented in Belarus by its embassy in Moscow.
 Belgium 1949 See Belgium-Indonesia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1949 as Belgium was among the first European nations that recognized Indonesia.
  • Belgium has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Brussels, also accredited to Luxembourg and the EU.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 11 April 1994 See Bosnia and Herzegovina–Indonesia relations
 Bulgaria 21 September 1956 See Bulgaria–Indonesia relations
  • Diplomatic relations started on 21 September 1956.
  • Bulgaria has had an embassy in Jakarta since October 1958
  • Indonesia has had an embassy in Sofia Since 1960.[298]
 Croatia 3 September 1992 See Croatia-Indonesia relations
 Cyprus 4 December 1987 See Cyprus–Indonesia relations
  • Diplomatic relations were established on 4 December 1987[301]
  • Cyprus reopened its embassy in Jakarta in October 2023.[302]
  • Indonesia is represented in Cyprus through its embassy in Rome, Italy.[303]
 Czechia 1950 See Czechia–Indonesia relations
 Denmark 15 February 1950[305][306] See Denmark–Indonesia relations
  • Denmark has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Copenhagen.
 Estonia 5 July 1993 See Estonia–Indonesia relations
  • Estonia has a non-resident embassy in Singapore.
  • Indonesia has a non-resident embassy in Helsinki.
 Finland 6 September 1954 See Finland-Indonesia relations
  • Indonesia and Finland enjoy friendly relations.
  • Finland played a key role in the peace talks to solve the insurgency in Aceh.
 France 2 August 1950 See France–Indonesia relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Paris.
  • France has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Relations between France and Indonesia have been improving of late, while Indonesia has become increasingly strategic to the government and people of France.
  • There are 110 French multinational companies operating in Indonesia.[307]
  • The relations between two countries are important as both are democratic republics and both have significant geopolitical influence in their regions.
  • The diplomatic relationship between France and Indonesia is also a key element for developing relations between Indonesia and the European Union and between France and ASEAN.[308]
  • Both countries are the member of G-20 major economies.
 Georgia 25 January 1993 See Georgia–Indonesia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 25 January 1993.
  • Georgia has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has a non-resident ambassador in Kyiv, Ukraine also accredited to Georgia.
 Germany 25 June 1952[309] See Germany–Indonesia relations
  • Indonesia and Germany have traditionally enjoyed good, intensive and wide-ranging relations.
  • Germany and Indonesia, as the largest members of the European Union and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), respectively, take similar positions on many issues relating to the development of the two regional organisations.[310]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Berlin.
  • Germany has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Greece 23 February 1958 See Greece–Indonesia relations
 Holy See (Vatican City) 13 March 1950 See Holy See–Indonesia relations
 Hungary 1955 See Hungary–Indonesia relations
  • Diplomatic relations started in 1955.[320]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Budapest which was opened in 1960.[321]
  • Hungary has an embassy in Jakarta which was opened in 1957, as well as honorary consuls in Bandung and Denpasar.[320]
 Iceland 13 June 1983 See Iceland–Indonesia relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1983.[322]
  • Iceland has a non-resident embassy in Tokyo.
  • Indonesia is represented in Iceland by its embassy in Oslo and an honorary consulate in Reykjavík.
 Ireland 4 September 1984[323] See Indonesia–Ireland relations
  • Ireland has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia is represented in Ireland through its embassy in London and an honorary consulate in Dublin.
 Italy 29 December 1949[30] See Indonesia–Italy relations
  • Both countries have shown a strong desire to improve their relations, especially in intercultural understanding and trade.[324]
  • Indonesia recognises Italy's strategic location and important role in the Mediterranean region, while Italy has favoured relations with Indonesia, and sees Indonesia as the leader in Southeast Asia.[325]
  • The relations between two countries not only important to bridge the two regional communities; European Union and ASEAN, but also vital as intercultural and interfaith dialogue,[326]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Rome.
  • Italy has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Kosovo No formal diplomatic relations See Indonesia's reaction to the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence

Indonesia's reaction to Kosovo's independence has been mixed. Indonesia does not recognize Kosovo's membership in some international organizations, including the World Bank.[327]

 Liechtenstein 12 November 1998
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 12 November 1998[328]
  • Indonesia has a non-resident embassy in Bern.
 Monaco 17 December 2010
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 December 2010.[329]
  • Indonesia has a non-resident embassy in Paris.
 Montenegro 21 September 2011
  • Montenegro has a non-resident embassy in Beijing
  • Indonesia is represented in Montenegro by its embassy in Belgrade.
 Netherlands See Indonesia–Netherlands relations
  • The Netherlands is the former colonial power, and handed over sovereignty in 1949.[330]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in The Hague.
  • The Netherlands has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Norway 25 January 1950 See Indonesia-Norway relations
  • Both countries have agreed to establish a strategic partnership against poverty and climate change, and also in promoting democracy and tolerance.[331]
  • Norway has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Oslo.
 Poland 19 September 1955 See Indonesia-Poland relations
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 19 September 1955.[332]
  • Poland has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Warsaw.
 Portugal 4 January 1965[43] See Indonesia–Portugal relations

In 1999, Indonesia and Portugal restored diplomatic relations, which were broken off following the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in 1975.

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Lisbon.[333]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Jakarta.[334]
 Romania 20 February 1950 See Indonesia-Romania relations
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bucharest.[335]
  • Romania has an embassy in Jakarta.
 Russia February 1950 See Indonesia–Russia relations
  • Russia has an embassy in Jakarta.[336]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Moscow along with a consulate general in Saint Petersburg.[337]
  • Both countries are also members of the G20 and APEC.
  • Early in the Cold War, both countries had very strong relations with Indonesian president Sukarno visiting Moscow and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev visiting Jakarta. When Sukarno was overthrown by General Suharto, relations between the two states were not as close as they were during Sukarno's times.
  • In late 2007, Indonesia purchased military weapons from Russia with long term payment.
 Serbia 1954 See Indonesia–Serbia relations

Serbia has very close relations with Indonesia, especially within the fields of trade, culture and tourism. Indonesia has also voiced support for Serbia's territorial integrity over the Kosovo issue.[338]

 Slovakia 1 January 1993 see Indonesia-Slovakia relations
  • Slovakia has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bratislava.
 Slovenia 12 October 1992
  • Slovenia has a non-resident embassy in Canberra.
  • Indonesia is represented in Slovenia by its embassy in Vienna.
 Spain February 1958[61] See Indonesia–Spain relations
  • Spain identifies Indonesia as a natural ally and has named Indonesia as one of their priority countries in their foreign relations with the Asian region.[339]
  • Indonesia supports Spain in the Gibraltar issue.[239]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Madrid and consulates in Barcelona and Las Palmas, while Spain has an embassy in Jakarta and a consulate in Denpasar, Bali.
  • Cooperation has expanded to various fields, from trade and culture to education and the defence technology sector.[340]
  • Since the 1980s, Spain and Indonesia have embarked on a strategic partnership in aeronautics technology. Spain's CASA and Indonesia's IPTN (formerly known as Nurtanio) co-designed and co-produced the CASA/IPTN CN-235 medium transport aircraft.
 Sweden 1960 See Indonesia–Sweden relations
  • Sweden has actively contributed in Aceh peace process and gave assistance to the tsunami reconstruction.
  • Sweden has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Stockholm.
  Switzerland 2 November 1951[44][45] See Indonesia–Switzerland relations
  • In 2010, the heads of state of the two countries agreed to launch negotiations on a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement.[341]
  • Switzerland has named Indonesia as one of seven priority countries for economic development co-operation.[342]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bern, while Switzerland has an embassy in Jakarta, also accredited for East Timor and ASEAN.
  • On 6 December 1973, the Indonesian and Swiss governments signed an agreement to establish Polytechnic for Mechanics within the Bandung Institute of Technology at Bandung.[343] Today, the Swiss Mechanics Polytechnic has transformed into Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacture.
 Ukraine 11 June 1992[344] See Indonesia-Ukraine relations
  • Indonesia recognised Ukraine's independence on 28 December 1991 and established diplomatic relations on 11 June 1992.
  • In 2011, the total trade volume between two nations has reached US$1.27 billion, and increased to US$1.32 billion in 2012. The trade balances between two nations is in favour to Ukraine; the Indonesian export value to Ukraine in 2012 was US$548.9 million, while Indonesia's import value from Ukraine for the same year was US$774.1 million.[345]
  • During the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Indonesian government provided additional aid to Ukraine through the Ukrainian Red Cross and expressed its commitment to assisting in reconstructing war-damaged hospitals.[346][347][348]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Kyiv.[349]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Jakarta.[350]
 United Kingdom 1949 See Indonesia–United Kingdom relations

The United Kingdom and Indonesia have maintained strong links since formal relations were established in 1949.[351] Indonesia has an embassy in London,[352] the UK has an embassy in Jakarta and a consulate in Denpasar.[353]

The Culture and Tourism Ministry of Indonesia launched a campaign to boost the number of tourists from the UK entering Indonesia.[352] In 2009, 160,000 British tourists visited Indonesia, the aim of the campaign was to boost this number to 200,000.[352]

In 2006 former British prime-minister Tony Blair met with Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono where they agreed upon "the establishment of a regular Indonesia-UK Partnership Forum to be chaired by the Foreign Ministers, to promote strategic dialogue on bilateral, multilateral and global issues".[351] The first Indonesia-UK forum was held in 2007 and was chaired by British foreign minister Margaret Beckett and Indonesian foreign minister Hassan Wirajuda.[351]

In March 2010 members of the House of Lords praised Indonesia for its progress in democratising society, media freedom and environmental protection.[354] In a meeting with Indonesian MP Hayono Isman, the Lords stated that they wanted to improve the relationship between the two countries.[354]

Oceania

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
 Australia 17 March 1950 See Australia–Indonesia relations

Since Indonesian independence, the two countries have maintained mutual diplomatic relations, formalised co-operation (especially in the fields of fisheries conservation, law enforcement, and justice co-operation), a measure of security co-operation, broadening treaty relationships, co-membership of regional forums, and co-participation in several multilateral Treaties of significance. Trade between the two countries has grown over the years.

Recent years have seen a deepening of Australia's aid commitment to Indonesia, and Australia has become a popular venue for Indonesian students.[355]

In 2008–09, Indonesia is the largest recipient of Australian aid at a value of AUD462 million.[356]

Indonesia has an embassy in Canberra and consulates general in Melbourne, Perth and Sydney, While Australia has an embassy in Jakarta and consulates in Medan, Makassar, Surabaya and Denpasar.

 Fiji 1974 See Indonesia–Fiji relations
  • Fiji has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Suva.
 New Zealand 28 June 1958 See Indonesia–New Zealand relations

Having common interests as democracies and neighbours in the Asia-Pacific region, New Zealand and Indonesia are viewed as natural partners.[357] Both countries are members of APEC. Indonesia and New Zealand officially established diplomatic relations in 1958, the diplomatic and economic ties have grown stronger ever since. New Zealand has an embassy in Jakarta and Indonesia has an embassy in Wellington. Indonesia's commodity exports to New Zealand consist mainly of energy products and minerals as well as lumber and agriculture, while New Zealand's commodity exports to Indonesia mainly consist of dairy products and meats, such as beef, milk, and cheese.

 Cook Islands and  Niue (States in free association within New Zealand) 13 July 2019 See Political status of the Cook Islands and Niue

Indonesia established diplomatic relations with both the Cook Islands and Niue on 13 July 2019 as a move to strengthen its ties with the Pacific Islands region.[358][359]

 Palau 6 July 2007
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 6 July 2007.[360]
  • Indonesia shares a maritime border with Palau.
  • Both countries represent each other through their respective embassies in Manila, Philippines.
 Papua New Guinea 16 September 1975 See Indonesia–Papua New Guinea relations

Indonesia shares a 760-kilometre (470 mi) border with Papua New Guinea through its Papua, Highland Papua and South Papua provinces. The common border has raised tensions and ongoing diplomatic issues[which?] over many decades.[361]

  • Indonesia has an embassy Port Moresby and a consulate in Vanimo.
  • Papua New Guinea has an embassy in Jakarta and a consulate general in Jayapura.
 Samoa 17 March 1980

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 17 March 1980.

 Solomon Islands 28 July 1983 See Indonesia–Solomon Islands relations
 Vanuatu 3 July 1995
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 3 July 1995.[130]
  • Bilateral relations are strained as Vanuatu is one of the key allies of the Free Papua Movement.[362][363]
  • Indonesia is represented in Vanuatu through its embassy in Canberra, Australia.
  • Vanuatu is planning to open an embassy in Jakarta.[364]

International organisation participation

See also

Notes

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