Gaikindo Indonesia International Auto Show (GIIAS), the largest auto show in Southeast Asia.

The automotive industry in Indonesia plays an important role to the economic growth of the nation, contributing 10.16 per cent of the GDP.[1] Indonesia automotive product exports is currently higher in value than their imports.[2] In 2017, Indonesia is the 17th largest passenger vehicle producer in the world and the 5th largest passenger vehicle producer in Asia, producing 0.98 million vehicles.[3]

Most of the vehicles built in Indonesia are from foreign brands, notably Japanese, and produced in the country through a joint venture plant with a local partner or a fully owned plant. While full manufacturing with a high percentage of local components in the country is usually preferred by manufacturers and encouraged by the government, several plants in the country also conducted a CKD assembly. CBU imports of new cars in the country is also allowed since 1999 with considerably light import tariffs, although it is discouraged by the government.

Indonesia predominantly produces mini or compact MPVs (52 per cent of total production), SUVs and light pickup trucks under one ton. In 2019, a total 26 per cent of its production output was exported. Around 7.2 per cent of total automobile sales in Indonesia consists of imported vehicles, notably from Thailand, Japan, India, and to lesser extent, South Korea.

Most automobile manufacturers in Indonesia (including passenger car manufacturers and commercial truck manufacturers) are a member of the non-governmental Association of Indonesia Automotive Industries (Gabungan Industri Kendaraan Bermotor Indonesia, GAIKINDO).


The Honda Brio was the best-selling passenger car in Indonesia in 2020 and 2022.
The Toyota Avanza was the best-selling passenger car in Indonesia between 2006 and 2019, and then in 2021.
for the first time since its launch in 2004 and in 2005, Toyota Kijang Innova becoming best selling car in 2023.

Traditionally, Indonesia is a market heavily oriented to Japanese cars like most of its Southeast Asian neighbours. However, while other Southeast Asian markets prefer compact sedans, Indonesian car market has a strong preference to three-row MPVs.[4][5][6] In 2019, 96.3 per cent of cars and trucks sold in Indonesia are from Japanese brands.[7] The percentage is even higher than the proportion of Japanese brands in Japan itself which stood at 90 per cent.[8] In the same year, around 550,000 cars or 68 per cent of passenger cars sold in Indonesia consisted of MPVs, crossovers and SUVs equipped with three rows of seats.[7] The percentage is one of the highest in the world. For example, in 2006, models such as Toyota Avanza (16.4%), Toyota Kijang Innova (14.6%), Daihatsu Xenia (7.4%), and Suzuki Carry/Futura (7.3%) had a very high market share. Top ten best-selling models consisted of almost 73 per cent of domestic sales of the vehicles in 2006.[9]

Japanese manufacturer Toyota is leading the market share in Indonesia for decades since the early 80s. Despite that, the largest manufacturer in Indonesia is Daihatsu as several popular Toyota-branded models sold in Indonesia are developed and produced by Daihatsu, which is wholly owned by Toyota since 2016. The subsidiary, Astra Daihatsu Motor (ADM) operates several plants capable of producing a total 530,000 cars per year.[10] Around 2 out of 5 automobiles sold in Indonesia is produced by ADM.

Apart from Indonesian consumers wanting a large car to carry the whole family, the popularity of MPVs or three-row cars in general could be explained by the regulations and the car culture that followed after. When the complete ban on car imports on 22 January 1974 by a Decree No. 25/74 was imposed, the Indonesian government also imposed a tax scheme which saw pickup trucks and minibuses with wagon body style free from luxury goods tax, while sedan cars were charged a 100% luxury goods tax. As the result, a sedan of any size became a luxury-type vehicle for most consumers while minibuses became more popular, even when at the time, despite its natural practicality, tended to be much less comfortable to drive or to ride in.[11] As the result, unlike its neighbouring countries in Southeast Asia that prefers mostly compact sedans, Indonesian consumers are predominantly buying three-row MPVs.

According to GAIKINDO, 82 per cent of the national automobile sales in 2018 is contributed by the Java island.[12] In 2017, West Java province contributed 19.6 per cent of the national car sales at around 207,000 vehicles, DKI Jakarta at 19.3 per cent, and East Java at 13.1 per cent.[13][14]


The first motor vehicle to arrive in Indonesia is reported to have been a German Hildebrand & Wolfmüller two-cylinder motorcycle, brought in by Briton John C Potter who was a machinist at the Oemboel Sugar Factory in Probolinggo, East Java.[11] The first car arrived shortly thereafter, an 1894 Benz Viktoria belonging to Pakubuwono X, the Susuhunan of Surakarta.[15]

Local production of automobiles began in 1964, originally with SKD assembly of imported cars and commercial vehicles.[16]

Government programs

From 1969, the National Plan for Industrial Development was aimed at substituting imports in all areas of manufacture.[17] A series of laws were enacted in the following years to create this situation, affecting passenger cars as well as commercial vehicles.[16] Gradual limitations on CBU vehicle imports were introduced, reaching a complete ban on CBUs by 1974.[17] A localization program commenced with Decree no. 307 of 1976. This law included a provision requiring the bodies for cargo vehicles of a one-ton capacity or less to be made locally beginning in 1978.[18] The new law then led to a series of subsequential decrees designed to minimize its harmful impacts.

Beginning in 1980, new rules were also enacted to inhibit the sprawl of brands, with the government limiting local assembly to 71 models of 42 different makes.[17] All assemblers and agents were to be forced into eight separate groups manufacturing everything except engines. Engines were to be supplied by separate corporations.[19] GAAKINDO, made up in large part of small pribumi operations, was opposed to these programs and also had an outspokenly anti-Chinese leader from 1981 to 1984.[20] The companies most in favor of localization were the large Chinese firms like the Liem Group and PT Astra Motor.[21]

In 1981, the Government declared that no engine built in Indonesia was to be of less than one liter's displacement by 1985. As a result, manufacturers of local microvans and trucks scrambled to install larger engines.[22] Daihatsu and Suzuki already manufactured suitable engines for other vehicles, but Mitsubishi did not and used a Daihatsu engine for a few years, while Honda withdrew from the mini pick-up/microvan segment. In October 1982, the VAT on certain diesel vehicles were raised dramatically. Diesel sedans and station wagons, as well as diesel off-roaders, were hit with a 40 per cent VAT, while light commercial vehicles (Category 1) in the form of small trucks, pickups, and passenger vans received a twenty per cent VAT.[23] Some commentators expected this to spell the end of diesel vehicles in Indonesia.[24]

Low Cost Green Car

Main article: Low Cost Green Car (Indonesia)

The Daihatsu Ayla, one of the first model in "Low Cost Green Car" category alongside the Toyota Agya.

In 2007, the Indonesian government announced a set of tax incentives intended to help develop a "Low Cost Green Car" (LCGC) as an Indonesian people's car. The initial rules required a low price, set lower for villagers, a fuel efficiency of at least 20 km/L (56 mpg‑imp; 47 mpg‑US), and at least 60 per cent domestic content.[25] A few projects were shown but none made it to market, and in May 2013 a new set of regulations were issued, meaning a 0% luxury tax for cars under 1,200 cc (1,500 cc for diesels) as long as they could meet the same 20 km/L mileage goal. The luxury tax is between 50 and 75 per cent for larger and less fuel efficient vehicles.[26]

Local manufacture encouraged

Indonesia levies an import tax of 10% on foreign imported luxury cars, while the import tariff for imported cars from outside the free trade area is currently at 50 per cent.[27][28][29][30]


From 1969 until 1975, sole agents and assemblers were represented by separate groups, GAM (Gabungan Assembler Mobil) and GAKINDO.[31] In 1972 the government decreed that assemblers and agencies be consolidated and since 1975 the industry was represented by the unified GAAKINDO trade group (Gabungan Agen-agen dan Assembler Kendaraan Bermotor Indonesia, "Association of Indonesia Sole Agents and Automobile Assemblers").[32] In the first half of the 1980s, GAAKINDO was an outspoken opponent of the government's localization programs.[20] In 1985 the group was reconsolidated into a new organization called GAIKINDO (Gabungan Industri Kendaraan Bermotor Indonesia, "the Association of Indonesia Automotive Industries").


The Toyota-Astra Motor headquarters in Sunter, North Jakarta.

The dominant manufacturer in Indonesia is the Astra International, which is indirectly controlled by Jardine Matheson; their products represented around half of the annual vehicle sales in Indonesia in the early 2010s - in large part thanks to the success of the Toyota Kijang.[33]

Most cars sold in Indonesia were originally European in origins; In the 1950s, the most popular cars were Morris and Austin.[34] Japanese imports commenced on a small scale in 1959 with the Mitsubishi Jupiter truck, but by the 1970s this had changed considerably as the Japanese took an ever-growing share of the market. Japanese cars was first imported by the government in 1961 as a fleet for cooperative across Indonesia. It was a Toyota Land Cruiser Canvastop. The main reason the Toyota was picked is its low price compared to the nominated Land Rover. At the same year, A.H. Budi, the founder of Nasmoco Toyota dealership network in Central Java bought a Toyopet Tiara from an importer in Jakarta. Impressed by the quality of the car, Budi founded the PT Ratna Dewi Motor Coy to retail Toyota cars.[11]

The January 1974 Malari incident started as a protest against Japanese trading practices and included the burning of a Toyota dealership, but sales of Japanese cars reached new heights soon afterwards.[34] By 1980, from 181,100 new registrations, 88.5 per cent were Japanese in origin.[35]

Distribution and manufacture

In Indonesia, the import, marketing, distribution, and after sales service rights of foreign brands are usually held by firms called ATPMs (Agen Tunggal Pemegang Merek, "sole trademark-holding agent").[36] ATPMs may be foreign or locally owned, with certain differences to their licensing requirements and scope. Foreign firms, for instance, may not sell directly to Indonesian consumers (Agency), although Distribution may be foreign-controlled.[36] ATPMs may carry out the manufacture under license, or contract the manufacture to third parties (subject to approval of the principal), or may simply act as distributors and retailers. In the case of special-bodied vehicles, such as the angkots offered by many body builders (karoseri, from Dutch word carrosserie), ATPMs also have relationships with specific companies and often sell their designs through their own showrooms.[37]

Active manufacturers


NV Spemotri was BMW's main importer of motorcycles during the 1950s; they mainly brought in the 250cc one-cylinder R25, R26, and R27.[38] A handful of BMW 700s were imported to Indonesia by NV Spemotri in the early 1960s; the Salim Group held the import rights until they sold the tiny concession to the Astra Group in the late 1970s.[33] Astra sells BMW through a wholly owned subsidiary called PT Tjahja Sakti Motor. The first BMW to be assembled locally was the 520/4, which was sent CKD and built in Jakarta by PT Indonesia Service Coy. 780 E12 were assembled from 1976 until 1981, with the 520/6 replacing the four-cylinder in 1978.[39] Indonesia Service Coy later built the E28, E30, E36, and E34 models, until assembly was taken over by the PT Gaya Motor company in 1993.

As of April 2001, BMW has their own wholesale company in Indonesia, PT BMW Indonesia, although Astra continues to assemble BMW automobiles through PT Gaya Motor.[40] Assembly is currently of a limited variety of semi-knocked down cars, while the remainder of the range is available CBU.[39]


Main article: Astra Daihatsu Motor

From 1973, when PT Astra gained distribution rights, until the 1980s, PT Daihatsu Indonesia distributed Daihatsus while assembly was carried out by Gaya Motor - both companies were located in North Jakarta. PT Daihatsu Indonesia was a joint venture between a Japanese holding company (30%) and PT Astra International (70%), while PT Gaya Motor was a joint venture between the Indonesian government, PT Astra International, PT Multi France and PT Multi Astra.[41] Gaya Motor was a general assembler and also built Peugeot and Renault automobiles in the early 1980s.[41] Daihatsu's Hijet was very popular in Indonesia, especially after the larger one-litre engine from the Charade was introduced - one out of eight four-wheeled vehicles built in Indonesia in 1983 was a Hijet.[22]

In 2003, Daihatsu through PT Astra Daihatsu Motor (ADM) launched its joint project with Toyota, which spawned the Toyota Avanza and Daihatsu Xenia.[42][43][44] Both cars are designed according to Indonesian needs in mind. As an entry-level MPV, it complements the role of Toyota Kijang, offering similar capability in a smaller and cheaper package. Both cars would later send Astra Daihatsu Motor as the largest car manufacturer in the country, surpassing Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia, and saw the Avanza as the best selling car in Indonesia since 2007 until today. 40.8% of Indonesia's total vehicle production output (four-wheel or above) in 2019 was contributed by ADM.


Main article: Honda Prospect Motor

Honda first entered Indonesia in the 1960s through PT Imora Motor as its sole national distributor, with its first model Honda T360 pickup. In 1972, Honda also introduced the two-door Civic to the country.[45] As a response to the vehicle import ban, PT Prospect Motor began local assembly of Honda automobiles in Sunter, North Jakarta. The brand then gained reputation for its passenger cars, contrary to several other Japanese brands which relied on commercial pickups and minivans. Honda's best selling products at the time were the Civic and Accord.

In 1999, Honda established a new joint venture company, PT Honda Prospect Motor (HPM), which took over Imora Motor's sole national distribution rights that same year. HPM integrated Honda's Indonesian automobile businesses, which was previously conducted by four separate companies ranging across vehicle assembly, engine and component manufacturing, and wholesale distribution. A new manufacturing plant in Karawang was opened in 2003.


Main article: Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Indonesia

Hyundai cars has been in the Indonesian market since the 1990s. It was handled by "PT Hyundai Mobil Indonesia (HMI)" as the sales company with the authorized assembling company entitled to "PT Hyundai Indonesia Motor", which assembled Hyundai cars in Indonesia since 1996.

In 2019, Hyundai Motor Company signed an MoU with the Indonesian Government to conduct business of Hyundai automobiles directly in Indonesia, especially to foster the production of electric vehicles, the Hyundai Ioniq 5 in the country. Since 2019, Hyundai sales company is directly handled by Hyundai Motor Indonesia (HMID) with its head office at South Jakarta, and the newly built advanced manufacturing plant, Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Indonesia (HMMI) located at Cikarang, Bekasi Regency, West Java, both subsidiaries of Hyundai Motor Company.[46]

To welcome and enhance public relations, Hyundai Indonesia initiated to welcome the general public to visit and tour its plant in Cikarang, to witness the automotive manufacturing process directly. The first initiative from the automotive industrial sector in Indonesia.[47]


Main article: Mercedes-Benz Distribution Indonesia

Mercedes-Benz officially entered Indonesian market in 1970, when PT Star Motors Indonesia (nowaday's PT Mercedes-Benz Distribution Indonesia/MBDI) established together with PT German Motor Manufacturing (nowaday's PT Mercedes-Benz Indonesia) in collaboration with Volkswagen in Tanjung Priok. They have since then become the dominant market leader on premium vehicles in Indonesia. Currently, the following models that are locally assembled including the A-Class, GLA, C-Class, GLC, E-Class, GLE, S-Class, GLS, Axor trucks, and some Mercedes-Benz buses. In the mid-1990s, Mercedes-Benz Indonesia tried to break Mitsubishi's dominance in the medium-weight truck markets with the locally developed and built MB700/MB800 truck, without notable success.[48]


The Mitsubishi Colt L300 is the vehicle with the longest production run in Indonesia under a single generation. Production started in 1982.

Main article: Mitsubishi Motors Krama Yudha Indonesia

Mitsubishi, through PT Krama Yudha Tiga Berlian Motors (KTB) has a long presence in Indonesia, but their first true hit was the Colt T120. This was a locally built version of the first generation Mitsubishi Delica, and from its introduction in the early 1970s it became a seminal vehicle. It was mostly alone in its class and for a generation of Indonesians "Colt" became synonymous with minibus.[49] The T120 was finally discontinued in 1982 and replaced by the L300 (also based on the Delica); but sales never reached their earlier highs. Mitsubishi finally revived the T120 nametag with a Mitsubishi-engined version of the Suzuki Carry Futura called the Mitsubishi Colt T120SS.[49] This alliance with Suzuki was an attempt to challenge the dominance of the Astra Group's Toyota, Daihatsu, and Isuzu.[50]

In 2014, Mitsubishi Motors Corporation announced to build an MMC-owned plant in Indonesia. On 24 March 2015, the construction of a new manufacturing plant in Cikarang, West Java was started. The plant was designed with a maximum production capacity of 160,000 vehicles per year. PT Mitsubishi Motors Krama Yudha Indonesia owned 51% by MMC was established to operate the plant. The plant was started its operation in April 2017 by producing the Mitsubishi Pajero Sport. At the same time, the passenger cars and LCV operations were transferred from PT KTB to PT Mitsubishi Motors Krama Yudha Sales Indonesia (MMKSI).[51][52] Mitsubishi Xpander was launched in August 2017 and nearly doubled Mitsubishi Motors sales in the country between 2017 and 2018 from 79,807 units to 142,861 units, emerging as the largest market for MMC. In 2019, MMKI surpassed Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia as the second largest car manufacturer in Indonesia by a production output of 193,954 units.


Main article: Suzuki Indomobil Motor

PT Suzuki Indomobil Motor is a joint venture between Suzuki Motor Corporation and the Indomobil Group. Until recently, the company was known as PT Indomobil Suzuki International. The company is located in Jakarta, Indonesia and specialized in manufacturing Suzuki vehicles for the local market. Their first products were the ST10 Carry and Fronte LC20 of 1976. The Carry (soon replaced by the ST20) saw extensive use as an Angkot.[53] Suzuki's first Indonesian activity was in 1970 through its import firm PT Indohero Steel & Engineering Company. Six years later they had built their manufacturing facility in Jakarta, which is the oldest part of the Indomobil Group. Suzuki's sales rose exponentially in the mid-1980s as sales of minitrucks boomed and the Forsa/Swift was introduced: Suzuki Indonesia sold 13,434 vehicles in 1984, followed by 58,032 in 1985.[54]

Since 2004, Suzuki Indonesia's APV (All Purpose Vehicle) budget MPV has been assembled exclusively in Indonesia. Designed in Japan, it is exported to numerous countries since 2005, to the ASEAN and beyond. It is also available with Mitsubishi badging (as the "Maven").


The Toyota Kijang is regarded as one of the most influential vehicles in Indonesian automotive industry.

Main article: Toyota Astra Motor

PT Toyota Astra Motor (TAM) was founded in April 1971.[55] Vehicle production began in September 1974 at the PT Multi-Astra manufacturing subsidiary.[55] Toyota Indonesia's most famous product is the Kijang series of light trucks and vans. The Kijang, developed from the Philippine market Tamaraw Revo of 1976, has spawned an entire range of vehicles and is now built in a number of Asian countries including India. The Kijang was one of a series of BUV's, or Basic Utility Vehicles, developed for developing markets by several global manufacturers in the 1960s and 1970s. The Kijang was very successful for Toyota Astra Motor, with the 100,000th example leaving the line in February 1985.[56] Production was almost entirely localized by the mid-eighties, with engine parts as well beginning to be produced in Indonesia by January 1985.[56] The Kijang also caused major upheavals amongst Indonesia's host of small body builders, as the body was built to a whole new standard of quality and was offered directly by Toyota in a number of variants that had hitherto been the purview of the body builders.[37] The success of the Kijang was helpful for TAM as the Crown, Mark II, Land Cruiser, and Corona GL were all struggling in the market place in the first half of the 1980s.[57]

The Land Cruiser dominated the "Jeep" category until the early 1980s, when lighter and more economical competitors began taking away its market share.[57] Unable to compete with the smaller offerings from Suzuki and Daihatsu, Toyota chose to not further increase the local content levels of the Land Cruiser and had withdrawn it from the Indonesian market by 1986.[58] Currently Toyota Astra Motor's production is carried out by PT Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia (TMMIN), which consists of the erstwhile PT Multi-Astra as well as PT Toyota Mobilindo (which was established in December 1976 with production commencing in May 1977).

Toyota and the Astra Group remains dominant in Indonesia, with their market share historically hovering from 35 to 50 per cent. They are bigger than the two second biggest brands combined.[59]


Volkswagen and their local partner PT Garuda Mataram was a major player until the mid-1970s but sales dropped precipitously in the latter half of the decade. In 1970, Volkswagen entered into a collaboration with Mercedes-Benz Distribution Indonesia to set up a manufacturing line in Tanjung Priok, Jakarta. The resulting company was called PT German Motor Manufacturing, with Garuda Mataram retaining the Volkswagen distribution rights. The partnership was dissolved in 1979 and Volkswagen went their own way.[60] In or just before 1971 Indonesia's Army Strategic Command (Kostrad) took over the local Volkswagen operations as part of a trend of direct government involvement in vehicle manufacturing (and industry in general).[61] Kostrad owned the Volkswagen agency through its Yayasan Dharma Putra business group, in partnership with two Chinese entrepreneurs.[62]

As with Volkswagen in the Philippines, sales dropped precipitously as the Japanese brands took hold. By 1980, the locally developed Mitra project had come to an end as had assembly of the Beetle and the Typ 181 (Camat). Assembly of German-made Kombis and Transporters ended in 1978.[63] Volkswagen replaced this on their Indonesian assembly lines with the Brazilian-made Volkswagen Combi Clipper. This remained Volkswagen's single model on offer in Indonesia until the middle of the 1980s.[64] By 1986, Volkswagens were no longer available in Indonesia, after 13,162 Volkswagens had been assembled between 1976 and 1985.[65]

In 1998, a new distributor company called PT Garuda Mataram Motor was founded as a joint venture between Volkswagen Group and Indomobil Group. Currently, the company assembles and distributes Volkswagens passenger cars in Indonesia.


Main article: SGMW Motor Indonesia

Wuling Motors (Indonesia) is established in August 2015 as a subsidiary of SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Company Limited (SGMW) with share composition 50.1 per cent of SAIC (Shanghai Automotive International Corporation), 44 per cent of GM China and 5.9 per cent Guangxi Automobile Group. The company has 60 hectares land in Cikarang, 30 hectares is for the manufacturing and 30 hectares is for supplier park for accessibility of the parts.[66][67][68]

Defunct manufacturers

General Motors (1927–2015)

A 1948 Chevrolet Advance Design being unloaded in Makassar in 1949.
The General Motors complex in Tanjung Priok, Batavia (now Jakarta) in 1939.

A variety of General Motors vehicles have been sold in Indonesia, since the early days of the automobile there. General Motors (GM) vehicles have been represented in Indonesia since 1915. GM established their first local assembly operation (pictured) in Tanjung Priok in February 1927, as "KN Gaya Motor." The location was suitable as there was ample timber nearby, a necessity for car body manufacture at the time.[34] In 1930, the company was renamed "N.V. General Motors Java Handel Maatschappij." Cars from their Jakarta factory were exported all across the region. After having been requisitioned by the Netherlands East Indies government in 1941, on 9 March 1942 all machines and equipment was destroyed to avoid it falling into the hands of the approaching Japanese.[69] Two weeks later the Japanese occupied the plant and interred all foreigners; on 31 December GM wrote off the entire enterprise.[69] The plant was taken over by Toyota, and was used to assemble trucks for the military.[70]

In 1946, General Motors Overseas Operations established a Batavia Branch (later renamed "Djakarta Branch") to continue the pre-war activities, building nearly 20,000 vehicles in the next six years.[69] By 1953, activities had mostly ended as Sukarno's pro-Chinese government took power. As of 1954 local partner PN Gaya Motor continued alone; the Indonesian government took over the assets in April 1955. GM dissolved this paper operation a year later.[69] The government-run operations did not take good care of the plant and 60 per cent of the run-down assets were sold to PT Astra Motor (who, coincidentally, had gotten their start by being allowed to import 800 Chevrolet trucks in 1967) in 1969.[71] Astra had expected to sell Chevrolets but were denied the contract and ended up importing Toyotas instead.[71]

A number of other, smaller companies proceeded to import and assemble a variety of GM products. Udatimex/Udatin has generally handled Holdens, while Garuda Diesel/Garmak has sold Chevrolets, Opels, and the short-lived Morina national Basic Transportation Vehicle project.[72] In the early 1970s, PT Kali Kuning (Jakarta) also imported Opels, particularly the Rekord. Chevrolet, Holden, Opel, and Isuzu badging have been used, often placed on the same cars by the various importers.


At the time of their 1959 introduction to Indonesia (although Holden-built Chevrolets first arrived in 1938) Holdens were sold by Gaya Motor. After gaining some popularity in the 1960s Udatimex (part of Fritz Eman's Udatinda Group in Jakarta) took over in 1970. Another sub-company, PT Udatin, acted as the assembler. From 1954 until 1959, Holden Australia held the General Motors rights to all of Australia and Indonesia. The first Holden to arrive in Indonesia was the FC series.[73] Sales increased considerably when the locally assembled Holden Gemini arrived in 1981. Other locally assembled Holdens were the Torana, Commodore, Statesman, Kingswood, and Premier. In the early 1970s, the HQ Statesman was sold as the "Chevrolet 350" by Garuda Diesel (Chevrolet's sole agent in Indonesia), while the Statesman was sold in parallel by Udatimex.

Garuda also developed an SUV version on the basis of the Isuzu KB, called the Holden Lincah. This was superficially very similar to the Isuzu Trooper, but had locally developed bodywork. A small number of Lincahs were exported to neighboring and Pacific Island countries in the middle of the 1980s.[74] A five-door version of the Lincah was also developed, called the Lincah Gama, but may never have entered production. The Lincah Gama was one of the many cars Malcolm Bricklin planned on importing, following his success with the Yugo.[75] While the Gemini Diesel remained popular with taxi operators, with passenger car sales slowing down Udatimex shut their doors in 1991, and regular imports of Holdens came to an end. The last new Holden introduced in Indonesia was the VL Calais. Even as the Indonesian automobile market has grown rapidly after the Asian Crisis Holden did not return, as GMH's export manager Bob Branson decreed the end of exports to countries with annual sales of less than 500 cars in 2001.[76]


Opels had also been very popular before the war, with the Opel P4 being assembled in Tanjung Priok. A locally bodied 7-seater taxibus arrived in 1932; an ambulance version was added in 1933.[77] The taxi model was called Oplet (short for the trade name "Opelette") - a name which was used for share taxis until the type was abolished in 1979.

In January 1993, GM re-established its presence in Indonesia by forming PT General Motors Buana Indonesia, which is owned 60% by GM and 40% by local partner and previous importer/assembler PT Garmak Motor of Indonesia.[78] The company built plant with 15,000 vehicle capacity in Bekasi, West Java.[69] In 1997, General Motors took full control of the company. The first locally made product of the new company was the Opel Vectra (1994), followed by the Opel Optima and the Opel Blazer SUV as the first right-hand drive Blazer in 1995.[69] As of 2002, the Chevrolet nameplate has replaced Opel in Indonesia.[69]

Chevrolet manufactured the Spin MPV in Bekasi, Indonesia between 2013 and 2015.

Chevrolet was one of the most popular brands in Indonesia until the 1960s. In particular the 210-series sold well. Later, the Chevrolet badge was mainly used on various Isuzu products like the Chevrolet LUV and Trooper.

The brand was re-introduced in Indonesia in 2001 with the Chevrolet Tavera, a rebadged Isuzu Panther, and the imported Zafira and Blazer V6 4x4.[79] In 2002, the locally assembled Opel Blazer was renamed to Chevrolet Blazer. It was sold alongside GM dealers, known as GM AutoWorld also marketed the Subaru Forester and Subaru Impreza since 2002.[80]

In 2005, GM ended Blazer production in Indonesia, effectively rendering their manufacturing plant in Bekasi as dormant. Since then, GM effectively acts as an importer of Chevrolet-badged Daewoo cars from Thailand and South Korea.

In 2012, GM announced that it would reactivate the Bekasi plant to assemble a compact MPV, the Chevrolet Spin for Southeast Asian market. The 58,000 square meter plant represents an investment of US$150 million, employs 700 people and was planned to produce 40,000 vehicles a year.[81] GM said that the Bekasi plant was a critical part of GM's growth strategy in Indonesia and Southeast Asia. The plant's location met GM's philosophy of "build where we sell and source where we build."[82]

GM closed the plant in 2015, citing low sales and rising costs.[83][84] GM's status in Indonesia was reverted to being an importer.

In October 2019, General Motors Indonesia announced that it would exit the Indonesian market entirely by 31 March 2020.[85][86] Later in February 2020 GM also exited Thailand and Australia, leaving GM without any major presence in right-hand drive markets.[87][88]

Mazda (1985–1998)

Mazda MR90
Mazda Baby Boomer
Mazda Vantrend

Mazda first entered the Indonesian market in the 1960s as an imported brand. In 1985, Indomobil started manufacturing Mazda vehicles in Indonesia through its fully owned plant and was distributed through PT National Motors Co. (now PT Unicor Prima Motor), another Indomobil subsidiary.[89] In 1989, Indomobil together with Sumitomo Corporation started work on the PT Mazda Indonesia Manufacturing (MIM) plant through a joint venture.[90] The plant would manufacture the Mazda MR90, a car based on the third generation Mazda 323 Familia. With the support of President Suharto, the MR90 was designated as a 'people's car' to compete directly with the Toyota Kijang. MR90 stands for 'Mobil Rakyat 1990', ('people's car of the 1990s'), as the car was introduced around July 1990. To achieve a competitive price for the car, and with the support of Suharto, Indomobile requested that the government remove the 30 per cent luxury goods tax. This proposal was unexpectedly rejected by the Finance Ministry, citing the absence of a 'national car' regulation and the fact that the car is categorized as a sedan - which meant it ould only be considered a luxury good. As the result, sales were below expectations by an order of magnitude, since the car ended up significantly more expensive than the Toyota Kijang.[91] The Mazda MR90 was later revised and renamed to Mazda Vantrend and Mazda Baby Boomer, hoping to improve sales. In 1998, PT MIM went bankrupt in the midst of Southeast Asian financial crisis and the plant in Tambun was sold to Suzuki.[91]

Between 1998 and 2006, Mazda cars were imported and distributed by PT Unicor Prima Motor before the distribution was taken over by Mazda Motor Corporation, creating PT Mazda Motor Indonesia as the sole importer and distributor.[92] The handover marked the end of production of the locally assembled Mazda E2000 which was introduced in 1996,[93] and also saw PT Unicor Prima Motor transformed into Chery car distributor.[94] Mazda Motor Indonesia solely relied on importing its line-up of vehicles from Japan, Thailand and the Philippines, except the Suzuki-made Mazda VX-1 (a rebadged Ertiga).

In 2017, Mazda Motor Corporation transferred its operations in Indonesia to PT Eurokars Motor Indonesia.[95] Mazda remained an import brand, sourcing Mazda vehicles from Japan, Thailand and Malaysia.

Timor (1996–2000)

Main article: Timor Putra Nasional

Timor S515

In 1996, the Ministry of Industry and Trade announced a president instruction (Inpress) No. 2 year 1996 regarding the development of the national car industry, instructing the Minister of Industry and Trade, the Minister of Finance, and the State Minister for Mobilization of Investment Funds to immediately realize the national car industry. It also mentioned the pioneer company to do so is PT Timor Putra Nasional (TPN), owned by Hutomo Mandala Putra, the son of president Suharto. TPN is the only car manufacturer to be declared free from luxury goods tax.[96] TPN partnered with Kia Motors to import Kia Sephia sedan as the Timor S515i by a semi knock down (SKD) scheme. The sedan was introduced on 8 July 1996. Due to its low price, the car quickly gained some traction in Indonesia.

However, several countries such as Japan, the United States, and the European Communities immediately protested the national car program and privilege of Timor cars. A lawsuit was then brought to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The program was declared incompatible with WTO rules by Dispute Settlement Body of WTO in 1998. It was proved that the "national car program" violated the World Trade Organization Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Duties because the exemption from taxes is a subsidy contingent upon the use of domestic goods.[97] As such, the company had to stop its operations by a presidential decree (Keppres) No 20 1998 issued on 21 January 1998.


A fleet of Volvo 144's being used as police cars in 1976, a result of Liem's close relationship with the Indonesian government.

Volvo automobiles have been regularly imported to Indonesia since 1971, when Liem Sioe Liong's PT Central Sole Agency gained the concession.[98] By 1975, industrial policy dictated that the cars be assembled locally and Liem responded by creating a joint venture called PT Salim Jaya Motor, operated by his son Albert. A small number of heavy trucks were also imported. They assembled two Volvo models and had a steady market in the form of military and government officials. The venture still lost money though, partly due to the difficulties of collecting money from government officials during the Suharto era. Even with government favor, sales were never very large: between 1976 and 1985, only 1015 Volvo passenger cars (and 201 heavy trucks) were assembled in Indonesia.[99]

The Salim Group still imports Volvo trucks, buses, and construction equipment as of 2017, through a company called PT Indotruck Utama.

Luxury goods tax classification

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (November 2021)

Indonesia imposes luxury goods tax (Indonesian: Pajak Penjualan atas Barang Mewah (PPnBM)) based on engine displacement and body type.[100] While dimensions aren't used in the classification, sedan and station wagon body type are taxed differently. This tax scheme was phased out in October 2021 in favour of an emission-based classification.[101]

A vehicle is considered a sedan if the rear window is not a part of the rear trunk opening.

Classification used until October 2021
Luxury goods
tax percentage
Layout Body type
0% main article: Low Cost Green Car (Indonesia)
10% ≤1.5 L 2WD except sedan and station wagon
any capacity any layout minibus with 10-15 passengers capacity
20% >1.5–3.0 L (petrol)
>1.5–2.5 L (diesel)
2WD except sedan and station wagon
any capacity any layout double cabin pick-up
30% ≤1.5 L 2WD sedan and station wagon
4WD except sedan and station wagon
40% >1.5–3.0 L (petrol) 2WD sedan and station wagon
>1.5–2.5 L (diesel) 2WD sedan and station wagon
>2.5–3.0 L (petrol) 2WD except sedan and station wagon
>1.5–2.5 L (diesel) 4WD any body type
>1.5–3.0 L (petrol) 4WD any body type
125% >2.5 L (diesel)
>3.0 L (petrol)
any layout any body type

Vehicles currently manufactured and sold in Indonesia

Toyota Calya, exclusively built and sold in Indonesia.

BMW: 2 Series Gran Coupé, 3 Series, 5 Series, 7 Series, X1, X3, X5, X7

Chery: Tiggo 5x, Tiggo 7 Pro, Tiggo 8 Pro

Citroën: ë-C3

Daihatsu: Ayla, Gran Max, Luxio, Rocky, Sigra, Terios, Xenia

DFSK: Gelora E, Super Cab

Fuso: Canter, Fighter X

GAC Aion: Y Plus

Haval: Jolion

Hino: 200 Series/300 Series, 500 Series, 700 Series

Honda: Brio, BR-V, City Hatchback, HR-V, Mobilio, WR-V

Hyundai: Creta, Ioniq 5, Kona Electric, Santa Fe, Stargazer/Stargazer X

Isuzu: Elf, Giga, Traga

Jetour: Dashing, X70 Pro

Mazda: CX-3

Mercedes-Benz: Axor, A-Class, C-Class, E-Class, S-Class, GLA, GLC, GLE, GLS


Mitsubishi: Colt L300, L100 EV, Pajero Sport, Xforce, Xpander/Xpander Cross

Neta: V-II, X

Nissan: Livina

Omoda: 5/E5

Ora: 03

Seres: E1

Suzuki: APV, Carry, Ertiga/XL7

Toyota: Agya, Avanza/Veloz, Calya, Dyna, Fortuner, Kijang Innova/Kijang Innova Zenix, Raize, Rush, Yaris, Yaris Cross

UD Trucks: Quester

Wuling: Air EV, Almaz, Alvez, Binguo EV, Cloud EV, Confero/Formo, Cortez

*Excluding buses

Active manufacturing facilities

Automotive manufacturing facilities in Indonesia is currently focused in the western part of Java, mainly in the Jakarta–Cikampek toll road corridor in Bekasi and Karawang, where few industrial estates are located there.

List of active automobile manufacturing plants in Indonesia
Name Founded Location Production Exports
Operational scope Make Models produced (as of 2024)
Astra Daihatsu Motor
Plant 1
1998 Sunter,
North Jakarta,
DKI Jakarta
Manufacturing Daihatsu
  • Bongo (2020–, export only)
Astra Daihatsu Motor
Plant 2
2013 Karawang Regency,
West Java
Astra Daihatsu Motor
Plant 3
2024 Daihatsu
Gaya Motor 1969 Tanjung Priok,
North Jakarta,
DKI Jakarta
Assembly BMW
UD Trucks
Eurokars Produksi Pratama
2024 Karawang Regency,
West Java
Assembly Mazda
Handal Indonesia Motor
1995 Pondok Ungu,
Bekasi City,
West Java
Assembly Chery
  • 5 (2023–)
  • E5 (2023–)
  • V-II (2024–)
  • X (2024–)
Hino Motors Manufacturing Indonesia
2003 Purwakarta Regency,
West Java
Manufacturing Hino
Honda Prospect Motor
Plant 1
2003 Karawang Regency,
West Java
Manufacturing Honda
Honda Prospect Motor
Plant 2
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Indonesia
2022 Cikarang,
Bekasi Regency,
West Java
Manufacturing Hyundai
Isuzu Astra Motor Indonesia
2015 Karawang Regency,
West Java
Manufacturing Isuzu
Krama Yudha Ratu Motor
1973 Pulo Gadung,
East Jakarta,
DKI Jakarta
Manufacturing Fuso
Mercedes-Benz Indonesia
1978 Wanaherang,
Bogor Regency,
West Java
Assembly Mercedes-Benz
  • 03 (2024–)
Mitsubishi Motors Krama Yudha Indonesia
2017 Cikarang,
Bekasi Regency,
West Java
Manufacturing Mitsubishi
National Assemblers Plant 1 2009 Pulo Gadung,
East Jakarta,
DKI Jakarta
Assembly Foton
  • eAumark (2024–)
  • eTruckmate (2024–)
  • eView (2024–)
National Assemblers Plant 2 2019 Purwakarta Regency,
West Java
GAC Aion
SGMW Motor Indonesia
2017 Cikarang,
Bekasi Regency,
West Java
Manufacturing Wuling
Sokonindo Automobile 2017 Cikande,
Serang Regency,
Manufacturing DFSK
  • E1 (2023–)
Suzuki Indomobil Motor
Plant 1
1991 Tambun,
Bekasi City,
West Java
Manufacturing Suzuki
Suzuki Indomobil Motor
Plant 2
2015 Cikarang,
Bekasi Regency,
West Java
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia
Plant 1
1998 Karawang Regency,
West Java
Manufacturing Toyota
Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indonesia
Plant 2


Historical statistics

Sales rank

Top 10 best-selling models in Indonesia (passenger and light commercial vehicles), 1990–2023
Source: BSCB,[102] GAIKINDO[7]
Year Models and ranking
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
1990 Toyota Kijang Daihatsu Zebra Suzuki Carry Suzuki Katana Honda Civic Toyota Corolla Daihatsu Rocky Honda Accord Daihatsu Hiline Mitsubishi Colt L300
1991 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Daihatsu Zebra Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Isuzu Panther Suzuki Katana Daihatsu Rocky Honda Civic Daihatsu Hiline Toyota Starlet
1992 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Isuzu Panther Daihatsu Zebra Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Suzuki Katana Daihatsu Rocky Toyota Corolla Honda Civic Suzuki Vitara
1993 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Isuzu Panther Daihatsu Zebra Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Mitsubishi Colt L300 Suzuki Katana Suzuki Vitara Daihatsu Rocky Toyota Corolla
1994 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Isuzu Panther Daihatsu Zebra Daihatsu Feroza Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Mitsubishi Colt L300 Suzuki Vitara Toyota Corolla Honda Accord
1995 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Isuzu Panther Daihatsu Zebra Daihatsu Feroza Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Mitsubishi Colt L300 Suzuki Vitara Toyota Corolla Daihatsu Hiline
1996 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Isuzu Panther Daihatsu Zebra Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Mitsubishi Colt L300 Suzuki Vitara Timor S5 Toyota Corolla Suzuki Katana
1997 Toyota Kijang Isuzu Panther Suzuki Carry Daihatsu Zebra Timor S5 Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Mitsubishi Colt L300 Suzuki Baleno Suzuki Vitara Suzuki Katana
1998 Toyota Kijang Isuzu Panther Suzuki Carry Timor S5 Daihatsu Zebra Mitsubishi Colt L300 Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Suzuki Baleno Daihatsu Feroza Ford Laser
1999 Toyota Kijang Isuzu Panther Suzuki Carry Mitsubishi Kuda Daihatsu Taruna Mitsubishi Colt L300 Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Timor S5 Opel Blazer Suzuki Vitara
2000 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Isuzu Panther Daihatsu Taruna Mitsubishi Kuda Mitsubishi Colt L300 Toyota Soluna Timor S5 Suzuki Baleno Daihatsu Zebra
2001 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Isuzu Panther Mitsubishi Colt L300 Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Daihatsu Taruna Daihatsu Zebra Toyota Soluna Mitsubishi Kuda Honda CR-V
2002 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Isuzu Panther Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Mitsubishi Colt L300 Mitsubishi Kuda Daihatsu Zebra Daihatsu Taruna Toyota Soluna Honda CR-V
2003 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Isuzu Panther Mitsubishi Colt L300 Daihatsu Zebra Honda CR-V Mitsubishi Kuda Honda City Daihatsu Taruna
2004 Toyota Kijang Suzuki Carry Toyota Avanza Honda Jazz Daihatsu Xenia Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Daihatsu Zebra Mitsubishi Colt L300 Isuzu Panther Toyota Vios
2005 Toyota Kijang Innova Toyota Avanza Suzuki Carry Honda Jazz Suzuki APV Daihatsu Xenia Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Mitsubishi Colt L300 Isuzu Panther Daihatsu Zebra
2006 Toyota Avanza Toyota Kijang Innova Suzuki Carry Daihatsu Xenia Honda Jazz Suzuki APV Isuzu Panther Toyota Yaris Mitsubishi Colt L300 Daihatsu Zebra
2007 Toyota Avanza Toyota Kijang Innova Daihatsu Xenia Suzuki Carry Daihatsu Terios Toyota Rush Honda Jazz Nissan Livina Suzuki APV Mitsubishi Colt L300
2008 Toyota Avanza Toyota Kijang Innova Daihatsu Xenia Daihatsu Gran Max Nissan Livina Honda Jazz Suzuki Carry Suzuki APV Honda CR-V Mitsubishi Colt L300
2009 Toyota Avanza Daihatsu Xenia Toyota Kijang Innova Suzuki Carry Honda Jazz Daihatsu Gran Max Nissan Livina Daihatsu Terios Toyota Rush Suzuki APV
2010 Toyota Avanza Daihatsu Xenia Toyota Kijang Innova Suzuki Carry Daihatsu Gran Max Nissan Livina Honda Jazz Mitsubishi Colt L300 Toyota Rush Suzuki APV
2011 Toyota Avanza Daihatsu Xenia Toyota Kijang Innova Suzuki Carry Nissan Livina Daihatsu Gran Max Mitsubishi Colt L300 Toyota Rush Mitsubishi T120SS Daihatsu Terios
2012 Toyota Avanza Daihatsu Xenia Toyota Kijang Innova Daihatsu Gran Max Suzuki Carry Nissan Livina Suzuki Ertiga Toyota Rush Toyota Yaris Mitsubishi Colt L300
2013 Toyota Avanza Daihatsu Xenia Toyota Kijang Innova Daihatsu Gran Max Suzuki Ertiga Suzuki Carry Nissan Livina Toyota Rush Mitsubishi Colt T120SS Honda Jazz
2014 Toyota Avanza Honda Mobilio Toyota Agya Daihatsu Gran Max Toyota Kijang Innova Suzuki Carry Suzuki Ertiga Daihatsu Xenia Daihatsu Ayla Mitsubishi Colt T120SS
2015 Toyota Avanza Daihatsu Gran Max Toyota Agya Suzuki Carry Honda Brio Toyota Kijang Innova Honda HR-V Daihatsu Xenia Daihatsu Ayla Suzuki Ertiga
2016 Toyota Avanza Toyota Kijang Innova Daihatsu Gran Max Toyota Calya Honda Brio Toyota Agya Daihatsu Xenia Honda HR-V Daihatsu Ayla Honda BR-V
2017 Toyota Avanza Toyota Calya Toyota Kijang Innova Daihatsu Gran Max Honda Brio Daihatsu Sigra Honda HR-V Daihatsu Xenia Suzuki Ertiga Suzuki Carry
2018 Toyota Avanza Mitsubishi Xpander Toyota Calya Toyota Kijang Innova Honda Brio Daihatsu Gran Max Toyota Rush Daihatsu Sigra Suzuki Carry Honda HR-V
2019 Toyota Avanza Honda Brio Mitsubishi Xpander Toyota Rush Toyota Calya Suzuki Carry Toyota Kijang Innova Daihatsu Gran Max Daihatsu Sigra Mitsubishi Colt L300
2020 Honda Brio Suzuki Carry Toyota Avanza Daihatsu Gran Max Toyota Rush Toyota Kijang Innova Mitsubishi Xpander Toyota Calya Daihatsu Sigra Mitsubishi Colt L300
2021 Toyota Avanza Mitsubishi Xpander Daihatsu Gran Max Suzuki Carry Toyota Rush Toyota Kijang Innova Honda Brio Daihatsu Sigra Toyota Calya Mitsubishi Colt L300
2022 Honda Brio Toyota Avanza Suzuki Carry Daihatsu Sigra Mitsubishi Xpander Daihatsu Gran Max Toyota Kijang Innova Toyota Rush Toyota Calya Toyota Veloz
2023 Toyota Kijang Innova Honda Brio Daihatsu Sigra Toyota Avanza Toyota Calya Daihatsu Gran Max Mitsubishi Xpander Suzuki Carry Toyota Rush Honda HR-V
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th
Note: 1. Suzuki Vitara includes Escudo and Sidekick   2. Suzuki Carry not including Mega Carry   3. Daihatsu Gran Max not including van/panel van models   4. Nissan Livina includes two-row Livina and three-row Grand Livina   5. Honda Brio includes LCGC Brio Satya   6. Mitsubishi Xpander includes Xpander Cross   7. Toyota Avanza not including W100 series Veloz   8. Toyota Kijang Innova includes AN140 series and AG10 series
See also : Best-selling models in

Industry data

Calendar Year Wholesales Retail Sales Production Exports (CBU)[103]
1990[104] 223,547 not available not available not available
1991[104] 215,644
1992[105] 150,221
1993[105] 184,977
1994[106] 279,228
1995[106] 326,965
1996[107] 278,416
1997[108] 336,968
1998[108] 53,412
1999[109] 84,928
2000[110] 289,747
2001[110] 270,920
2002[110] 288,553
2003[111] 320,457
2004[112] 441,912 9,572
2005 533,917 17,805
2006 318,904 30,974
2007 433,341 60,267
2008 603,774 100,982
2009 486,088 464,816 56,669
2010 764,710 702,508 85,769
2011 894,164 890,559 838,388 107,932
2012 1,116,230 1,098,331 1,052,895 173,371
2013 1,229,811 1,218,817 1,206,368 170,958
2014 1,208,019 1,195,409 1,298,523 202,273
2015 1,013,518 1,031,842 1,098,780 207,961
2016 1,062,694 1,073,547 1,178,346 194,395
2017 1,077,365 1,067,396 1,217,518 231,169
2018 1,151,284 1,152,641 1,343,743 264,553
2019 1,030,126 1,043,017 1,286,848 332,023
2020 532,027 578,327 690,150 232,175
2021 887,202 863,348 1,121,967 294,639
2022 1,048,040 1,013,582 1,470,146 473,602
2023[113] 1,005,802 998,059 1,395,717 505,134


  1. ^ Anggraeni, Kartika (29 March 2018). Hidayat, Ali Akhmad Noor (ed.). "Menperin: Industri Otomotif Sumbang 10,16 Persen ke PDB". Tempo. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  2. ^ Amelia, Vini Rizki (18 September 2014). Mutiara, Dian Anditya (ed.). "Industri Otomotif Indonesia Untung 2,5 Miliar Dolar AS" [Indonesian automotive industry gained 2.5 billion USD surplus]. Detik.
  3. ^ Wright, Mindy (20 November 2018). "World's Top 20 Largest Passenger Car-Producing Countries In 2017 (Million Units)". CEOWORLD magazine. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  4. ^ "Automotive Manufacturing Industry Indonesia - Car Sales | Indonesia Investments". Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  5. ^ Dem, Bart; Scenes 1, tInternational Street (9 January 2016). "Car cultures around the world: Bali, Indonesia". Retrieved 11 May 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ "Indonesia Automotive Industry Outlook 2020" (PDF). Ipsos.
  7. ^ a b c "Indonesian Automobile Industry Data". Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  8. ^ Semuels, Alana (6 November 2017). "Why Aren't U.S. Cars Popular in Japan?". The Atlantic. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  9. ^ "Changing Features of the Automobile Industry in Asia: Comparison of Production, Trade and Market Structure in Selected Countries" (PDF) (pdf). Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 December 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2021.
  10. ^ "Astra International". Retrieved 1 February 2020.
  11. ^ a b c Luhulima, James (2012). Sejarah Mobil & Kisah Kehadiran Mobil di Negeri Ini [History of Cars & The Story of the Presence of Cars in this Country] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: Kompas Penerbit Buku. p. 16. ISBN 978-979-709-648-9.
  12. ^ "Inilah 3 Provinsi dengan Penjualan Mobil Terbesar 2018". Tempo. 29 March 2019. Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  13. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (9 August 2018). "Hampir 40 Persen Penjualan Mobil Nasional Hanya di Jakarta-Jabar" [Almost 40 per cent of national car sales were from Jakarta and West Java]. (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  14. ^ Idris, Muhammad. "2017, Warga Jabar dan Jakarta Paling Banyak Beli Mobil Baru" [2017, West Java and Jakarta citizens bought the most new cars]. detikoto (in Indonesian). Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  15. ^ Luhulima, James (25 March 2014), Sejarah Mobil & Kisah Kehadiran Mobil Di Negeri Ini (in Indonesian), Jakarta, Indonesia: Kompas, p. 16
  16. ^ a b Adriana, Elisabeth; Tu, Chaw-Hsia, eds. (2014), Indonesia-Taiwan Economic Cooperation Arrangement: Is it Feasible?, Jakarta, Indonesia: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, p. 41, ISBN 978-979-461-858-5
  17. ^ a b c Witoelar, Wimar (1983), Odata, Kōnosuke (ed.), "Ancillary Firm Development in the Motor Industry in Indonesia", The Motor Vehicle Industry in Asia: A Study of Ancillary Firm Development, Singapore: NUS Press, pp. 18–19, ISBN 978-9971690571
  18. ^ "Vol. 6, 1978 onward: Active entry into overseas markets". Daihatsu History. Daihatsu Motor Co., Ltd. 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2019.
  19. ^ Harjanto, Ismu (June 1981). "Tahun 1984 Indonesia diharapkan sudah dapat membuat mobil sendiri" [Indonesia is expected to make its own car by 1984]. Andalan (in Indonesian). Vol. I, no. 3. PT New Ratna Motor. p. 8.
  20. ^ a b Doner, Richard F. (1991), Driving a Bargain: Automobile Industrialization and Japanese Firms in Southeast Asia, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Oxford: University of California, pp. 151, 157, ISBN 0-520-06938-2
  21. ^ Doner, p. 152
  22. ^ a b Salamun, Untung (March 1984). "MPU larisnya seperti pisang goreng" [MPUs are selling like fried bananas]. MOB: Mekanik Populer & Mobil (in Indonesian). Jakarta, Indonesia: P.T. Dinamika Dharma: 47. ISSN 0125-9520.
  23. ^ Hidayat, Arief (1 December 1982). "Daftar harga: mobil diesel" [Price list: diesel vehicles]. Mobil & Motor (in Indonesian). Vol. 12, no. 11. PT Inscore Indonesia. p. 67. ISSN 0047-7591.
  24. ^ Purwoto, Breyman (1 December 1982). "Nasib mobil berbahanbakar solar" [The fate of diesel cars]. Mobil & Motor (in Indonesian). Vol. 12, no. 11. PT Inscore Indonesia. pp. 7–8. ISSN 0047-7591.
  25. ^ "detik Finance : Mobil Murah Nasional Rp 39,99 Juta Meluncur Januari 2012" [National Cheap Car stock slides by Rp 39.99 million in January 2012]. Detik Finance (in Indonesian). 23 December 2011. Retrieved 8 April 2013.
  26. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia nomor 41 tahun 2013" [Indonesian Republic, Government Regulation number 41 of 2013] (PDF) (in Indonesian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  27. ^ "Bea Masuk Barang Impor Naik – GAIKINDO". Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  28. ^ "Tata Cara dan Menghitung Biaya Bea Masuk Impor Kendaraan". Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  29. ^ "UPDATE 1-Indonesia raises import taxes on 1,000-plus goods to support rupiah | Reuters". Reuters. 5 September 2018.
  30. ^ "Indonesian Demand for Imported CBU Cars still Strong | Indonesia Investments".
  31. ^ "GAIKINDO History". GAIKINDO. Retrieved 13 December 2017.
  32. ^ Witoelar, p. 32
  33. ^ a b Borsuk, Richard; Chang, Nancy (23 May 2014). Liem Sioe Liong's Salim Group: The Business Pillar of Suharto's Indonesia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 241. ISBN 978-981-4459-57-0.
  34. ^ a b c "Kota, Asap Knalpot, dan Cinta nan Rumit..." [City, Exhaust Smoke, and Troubled Love...]. Kliping (in Indonesian). DKI Jakarta. 2 May 2016. Archived from the original on 1 January 2018.
  35. ^ Ekonugroho, Muhammad (June 1981). "Kendaraan Jepang: Andalan dunia di Jalan Raya" [Japanese Vehicles: Mainstays of the world’s Highways]. Andalan (in Indonesian). Vol. I, no. 3. PT New Ratna Motor. p. 9.
  36. ^ a b Ayu Kusumawardhani, Citra (4 June 2016). "What Kind of Business does an Exclusive Licensee Agent (Agen Tunggal Pemegang Merk or "ATPM") Actually Do?". Hanafiah Ponggawa & Partners. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016.
  37. ^ a b Mustmar, Andi (2 November 1992). "Tanpa spesialisasi, ya merugi" [Specialize or be lost]. Intan Motor (in Indonesian). Vol. VI, no. 113. Jakarta: Yayasan Beraya Press. p. 42. ISSN 0215-7713.
  38. ^ "Sejarah Motor BMW di Indonesia" [History of BMW motorcycles in Indonesia]. Modifikasi Motor Klasik (in Indonesian). 27 January 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  39. ^ a b Thieme, Ulrich. "CKD: Indonesien". (in German). Retrieved 30 July 2017.
  40. ^ "BMW Group To Establish Subsidiary in Indonesia". BMW Group. 29 January 2001.
  41. ^ a b Salamun, p. 47
  42. ^ "Daihatsu, Toyota Announce Dual-model Debut for Indonesia —Innovative Small Car Aimed at Creating New Segment—". DAIHATSU Global Website. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  43. ^ (19 December 2003). "Mobil Serba Guna ala Avanza dan Xenia". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 February 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  44. ^ "Hari Bersejarah Buat Duo Daihatsu Xenia dan Toyota Avanza, Ada Apa? -". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  45. ^ Hadi, Dimas (26 March 2019). "Infografis: Sejarah Honda di Indonesia". Carmudi Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  46. ^ "Hyundai Motor Accelerating Penetration of the ASEAN Market". 17 January 2023.
  47. ^ "Hyundai Factory Tour Program | Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Indonesia".
  48. ^ S., Suryo (17 February 2020). "MB700 Dan MB800, Sempat Jadi Andalan Mercedes-Benz Untuk Tekuk Colt Diesel" [MB700 and MB800, Mercedes-Benz' mainstay to best the Colt Diesel]. (in Indonesian). BLM Group. Archived from the original on 19 May 2021.
  49. ^ a b Ruwendo Suswanto, Budiono (21 January 1991). "Nostalgia Raya Jalanan" [Nostalgia for the King of the Road]. Mobil & Motor (in Indonesian). Vol. XX, no. 21. PT Informedia Indonesia. pp. 12–13. ISSN 0047-7591.
  50. ^ Kusnaeni, Mohamad (21 January 1991). "Pertempuran kelas 1.300cc" [Battle in the 1300 cc class]. Mobil & Motor (in Indonesian). Vol. XX, no. 21. PT Informedia Indonesia. p. 13. ISSN 0047-7591.
  51. ^ "KTB Pisahkan Dua Merek Mitsubishi". Republika Online. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  52. ^ "Sejarah Perusahaan". Mitsubishi Motors Indonesia.
  53. ^ Trisulo, Bambang; Samudra, M; Firmansyah, Arif (2003). Arsip mobil kita: Tamasya sejarah seabad perjalanan mobil di Indonesia [Our cars archive: Sightseeing through a century of the car in Indonesia] (in Indonesian). Jakarta: PT Temprint. p. 109. ISBN 9789799768506.
  54. ^ A.B., Dahlan, ed. (15 March 1986). "Laporan Test: Suzuki Forsa GL" [Test report]. Mobil & Motor (in Indonesian). Vol. 15, no. 17. PT Inscore Indonesia. p. 42. ISSN 0047-7591.
  55. ^ a b "Overall Chronological Table: 1971–1980". 75 Years of Toyota. Toyota Motor Corporation. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  56. ^ a b Hidayat, Arief (11 November 1985). "Corona EX-Saloon '86". Mobil & Motor (in Indonesian). Vol. XV, no. 10. PT Inscore Indonesia. p. 30. ISSN 0047-7591.
  57. ^ a b B.J., Zulkifli (1 January 1984). "Loncatan Kijang" [Kijang climbs]. Motor80 (in Indonesian). Vol. IV, no. 1. PT Blora Mulya. p. 58.
  58. ^ Pawitra, p. 37
  59. ^ Indonesia-Taiwan Economic Cooperation Arrangement: Is it Feasible?, p. 42
  60. ^ "Brief History". Mercedes-Benz Indonesia. Archived from the original on 28 November 2016.
  61. ^ Doner, p. 128
  62. ^ Robison, Richard (April 1978), "Toward a Class Analysis of the Indonesian Military Bureaucratic State", Indonesia, 25 (25), Cornell University Southeast Asia Program: 28, doi:10.2307/3350965, hdl:1813/53657, JSTOR 3350965
  63. ^ Molenaar, Vincent; Prinz, Alexander (1 March 2013), VW Transporter and Microbus Specification Guide 1967-1979, Crowood, ISBN 9781847975454
  64. ^ Adrai, Kadjat, ed. (1 January 1984). "Harga Mobil & Motor" [Car and motorcycle prices]. Motor80 (in Indonesian). Vol. IV, no. 1. PT Blora Mulya. p. 79.
  65. ^ Pawitra, p. 33
  66. ^ "Profile Perusahaan Wuling Motors Indonesia". Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  67. ^ "The Best Car for Your Comfort & Family". Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  68. ^ "Mobil Keluarga, Mobil MPV, dan Mobil SUV Terbaik Untuk Kenyamanan Anda & Keluarga". Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  69. ^ a b c d e f g Bowman, Bill. "GM Indonesia". Generations of GM History. GM Heritage Center. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016.
  70. ^ Louis F. Fourie (2016). On a Global Mission: The Automobiles of General Motors International Volume 3. FriesenPress. pp. 1131–1132. ISBN 978-1-4602-9690-5. Retrieved 10 March 2017.
  71. ^ a b "PT Astra International Tbk History". Funding Universe. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017.
  72. ^ Pawitra, p. 26
  73. ^ Alfan, Charis (27 September 2017). "Jejak Holden di Indonesia" [Holden's footprint in Indonesia]. Mobil Motor Lama. Archived from the original on 1 January 2018.
  74. ^ Pawitra, T (July 1988). "Marketing in the Automotive industry of Indonesia: Problems, Possibilities, and Limits". ASEAN Economic Bulletin. 5 (1): 22–23. doi:10.1355/AE5-1B. JSTOR 25770186.
  75. ^ Bangsberg, P.T. (18 October 1987). "Indonesia takes its turn behind import wheel". The Journal of Commerce. JOC Group Inc.
  76. ^ Doak, Alastair (2001). "Holden push in Middle East".
  77. ^ Binder, Alan K.; Ferris, Deebe, eds. (2000). General Motors in the Twentieth Century. Southfield, MI: Ward's Communications. p. 153. ISBN 0-910589-52-6.
  78. ^ "Historical Timeline General Motors in Indonesia".
  79. ^ "General Motors Indonesia optimist on 2000 sales target". Indonesian Business Updates. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  80. ^ "Subaru Introduces All New Forester Available July 20 At GM AutoWorld". Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  81. ^ "Bekasi Indonesia GM Plant Opens". Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  82. ^ "General Motors Bekasi, West Java, Indonesia Plant". GM Authority. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  83. ^ "General Motors to shut down factory, axe jobs in Indonesia". Rappler (in Indonesian). Reuters. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  84. ^ "General Motors Prepares to Close Down Bekasi Chevrolet Assembly Plant". Jakarta Globe. 27 February 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  85. ^ Priyanto, Wawan (29 October 2019). "GM Hengkang dari Indonesia, Ini Kata Pengguna Chevrolet" [GM would exit the Indonesian market, here's what Chevrolet owners say]. Tempo. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  86. ^ Indonesia. "Chevrolet Hengkang dari RI, Bakal Bikin Penggemar Ilfil" [Chevrolet exited the Indonesian market, would make fans lost trust]. CNBC Indonesia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  87. ^ "GM axes Holden in global exit from right-hand-drive markets". Motor Authority. 17 February 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  88. ^ Jackson, Patrick (17 February 2020). "Holden brand axed as GM pulls out of all RHD markets globally". DriveTribe. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  89. ^ developer, medcom id (17 October 2016). "Sejarah Perjalanan Mazda di Indonesia". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  90. ^ developer, medcom id (17 October 2016). "Sejarah Perjalanan Mazda di Indonesia". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  91. ^ a b Wirayudha, Randy (29 August 2017). "Cerita Pahit Mobil Rakyat Mazda MR 90". Historia - Majalah Sejarah Populer Pertama di Indonesia. Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  92. ^ "Mazda Cerai Dengan Indomobil". detikfinance (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  93. ^ "Flashback Mazda E2000, Punya Teknologi dan Fitur Canggih Di Zamannya -". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  94. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber. "Merek Chery "Menghilang" Dua Kali, Begini Ceritanya... Halaman all". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 February 2020.
  95. ^ (14 October 2016). "Mengenal Eurokars Group, Penguasa Baru Mazda di Indonesia". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 22 February 2020.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  96. ^ ""Timor" Mobil Nasional Orde Baru (Bagian I)". kumparan (in Indonesian). Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  97. ^ "Asia Beckons America: The Case of the Automobile Industry". Retrieved 31 March 2020.
  98. ^ Borsuk and Chang, p. 240
  99. ^ Pawitra, pp. 35, 37
  100. ^ "Tarif PPnBM: Pengelompokan dan Besarannya | OnlinePajak". 10 December 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2019.
  101. ^ Media, Kompas Cyber (13 March 2019). "Tahun 2021, Pemerintah Terapkan Pajak Kendaraan Berbasis Emisi". (in Indonesian). Retrieved 17 December 2020.
  102. ^ Gasnier, Matt (20 July 2019). "Indonesia: 1976-2019 Historical Info available". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  103. ^ "Indonesian Demand for Imported CBU Cars still Strong | Indonesia Investments". Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  104. ^ a b Gasnier, Matt (19 January 1992). "Indonesia 1990-1991: Toyota Kijang holds 25% share in record market". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  105. ^ a b Gasnier, Matt (19 January 1994). "Indonesia 1992-1993: Kijang leads, Isuzu Panther on podium in imploding market (-30.3%)". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  106. ^ a b Gasnier, Matt (19 January 1996). "Indonesia 1994-1995: Market breaks all-time record twice". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  107. ^ Gasnier, Matt (19 January 1998). "Indonesia 1996-1997: Toyota Kijang and Isuzu Panther on top, Timor brand launches". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  108. ^ a b Gasnier, Matt (19 January 1999). "Indonesia 1998: Timor S515 up to #4 in annihilated market (-84.1%)". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  109. ^ Gasnier, Matt (19 January 2000). "Indonesia 1999: Market bounces back up 59%, Mitsubishi up to #2 thanks to Kuda". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  110. ^ a b c Gasnier, Matt (20 January 2003). "Indonesia 2000-2002: Market back to pre-crisis levels, Suzuki strong". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  111. ^ Gasnier, Matt (20 January 2004). "Indonesia 2003: Honda up 65.1% in highest market in 5 years". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  112. ^ Gasnier, Matt (20 January 2005). "Indonesia 2004: Toyota Innova, Avanza, Honda Jazz and Daihatsu Xenia land in first year above 400.000 sales". Best Selling Cars Blog. Retrieved 19 October 2020.
  113. ^ "10 Mobil Terlaris 2023" [10 Best Selling Car in 2023]. CNN Indonesia (in Indonesian). Indonesia: Transmedia. 16 January 2024. Retrieved 16 January 2024.