Pakubuwono X
Pakubuwono X, wearing the uniform of a KNIL major-general
Susuhunan of Surakarta
Reign1893–1939
Coronation30 March 1893
PredecessorPakubuwana IX
SuccessorPakubuwana XI
BornGusti Raden Mas Sayyiddin Malik-ul-Kusna
(1866-11-29)29 November 1866
Surakarta, Surakarta Sunanate
Died22 February 1939(1939-02-22) (aged 72)
Surakarta, Surakarta Sunanate
Burial
SpousesGusti Kanjeng Ratu Pakubuwana of Mangkunegaran
(m. 1890 d. 1924)
Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Hemas of Yogyakarta
(m. 1915)
IssuePakubuwana XI
Regnal name
Sampeyan Dalem Ingkang Sinuhun Kanjeng Susuhunan Pakubuwana Senapati ing Ngalaga Abdurrahman Sayyidin Panatagama Khalifatullah Ingkang Jumeneng Kaping X
HouseMataram
FatherPakubuwana IX
MotherGusti Kanjeng Ratu Pakubuwana
Pakubuwono X with Dutch East Indies Governor General Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff (center) in 1928.
Group portrait during a visit by King Chulalongkorn of Siam (now Thailand).
Javanese case with the emblem of Surakarta, designed by Pakubuwono X 1930 - Livrustkammaren

Pakubuwono X (also transliterated Pakubuwana X, sometimes abbreviated PB X;[1] Surakarta, 29 November 1866 – Surakarta, 22 February 1939) was, despite his regnal name, the ninth Susuhunan (Monarch) of Surakarta. He reigned from the 1893 to 1939, making him the longest reigning Sunan in the history of Surakarta.

He officially succeeded his father, the eighth Sunan, as monarch two weeks after his father died on March 30th 1893.

He was designated a National Hero of Indonesia for his role in the independence movement.[2]

Birth

His birth name (Javanese: asma timur) was Raden Mas Sayyidin Malikul Kusna, son of Pakubuwono IX and his wife Kanjeng Raden Ayu Kustiyah.

Politics

His reign corresponded with the political changes happening in the Dutch East Indies at the time, in particular the growth of local indigenous political organizations such as Budi Utomo and Sarekat Islam of which he and the royal family were patrons.[3]

Family

Pakubuwono X was known to have many concubines, but his main consort was GKR Hemas, the daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII of Yogyakarta. He was also known major contributor to improvements at the Royal Graveyard of Imogiri, where he is buried.

Royal consorts

  1. Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Pakubuwana
    born as Gusti Bendara Raden Ajeng Sumarti, daughter of Mangkunegara IV by his principal consort, Kanjeng Bendara Raden Ayu Mangkunegara IV (Bendara Raden Ajeng Dunuk).
  2. Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Hemas
    born as Gusti Raden Ajeng Mursudariyah, daughter of Hamengkubuwana VII by his principal consort, Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Kencana.

Notable royal concubines

  1. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Adipati Sedahmirah
  2. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Himbarukmi
  3. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Riya Suwanda I
  4. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Mandayaratna
  5. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Ratnapurnama
  6. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Riya Mandayarana
  7. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Kiranarukmi I
  8. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Pradaparukmi
  9. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Kiranarukmi II
  10. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Riya Suwanda II
  11. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Riya Ruyastuti
  12. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Suprabhurukmi
  13. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Widiastuti
  14. Kanjeng Raden Ayu Adipati Tasik Wulan

Notable Sons

  1. Bendara Raden Mas Antasena
    son of KRAy. Mandayaratna, styled as Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Harya Hangabehi, then Pakubuwana XI.
  2. Bendara Raden Mas Abimanyu
    son of KRAy. Ratnapurnama, styled as Kanjeng Gusti Pangeran Harya Kusumayudha. Married to Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Hangger, daughter of Hamengkubuwana VII by his principal consort, Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Hemas.
  3. Bendara Raden Mas Sudhira
    son of KRAy. Pradaparukmi, styled as Gusti Pangeran Harya Suryahamijaya.
  4. Bendara Raden Mas Subandana
    son of KRAy. Kiranarukmi II[citation needed], styled as Gusti Pangeran Harya Jatikusuma. He was the first Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Army.

Notable Daughter

  1. Gusti Bendara Raden Ajeng Menuk Kinasih
    daughter of KRAy. Ratnapurnama, styled as Gusti Bendara Raden Ayu Ratna Purwasa then Gusti Bendara Raden Ayu Adipati Paku Alam. Married to Paku Alam VII of Yogyakarta.
  2. Gusti Raden Ajeng Kustiyah
    daughter of GKR. Hemas, styled as Gusti Kanjeng Ratu Pembayun.

Motorcar

The monarch loved motorcars. In 1894 His Majesty purchased a Benz Victoria Phaeton for a staggering 10,000 guilders,[4] which for comparison purpose, the same amount of money was at the time, could only be obtained by a common manual labourer in three centuries time of labor.[5] This, while proving himself as one of the richest monarch of the land at the time, made him the first person to own a car within the territory of Dutch East Indies, preceding by two years from the first car ownership in the Netherlands.

the first public sight of the car is said, due to the car's ability to move by itself without being drawn by horses, left the general mass in such state of fear and awe, that it was nicknamed Kereta Setan (literal translation demonic carriage). The iconic benz still survives to this day, but was taken out of the country for Amsterdam Motor Show in 1924, presumably after the monarch relinquished the ownership, where it remains in the country to this day as part of an exhibition in a Museum,[6]

This in effect made the monarch regarded as a pioneer of the automobile industry in Indonesia, all the while His Majesty continued to expand the growing collection of motorcars, often luxury limousines with big seating capacities to accommodate his big families and entourages while travelling, with some cars is said to still survive in the royal garage, though the condition remains to be a mystery.

Death and funeral train

The prepared carriage with the coffin of PB X on trip to Yogyakarta

After PB X's death, his coffin was transported between Surakarta and Yogyakarta by a NIS train. The remaining journey between Yogyakarta and Imogiri was by royal carriage. His coffin's trip to Imogiri was one of the most photographed royal funeral processions of rulers of his era.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "PB XIII Tegaskan Lembaga Adat Sudah Dihapus Sejak PB X" [PB XIII Emphasises that Traditional Institutions Have Been Abandoned since PB X]. Tribun (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta. 27 May 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  2. ^ "Govt Gives Posthumous Honor to Heroes". The Jakarta Post. 9 November 2011. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  3. ^ Lawson, George D. (George Donald); Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1987), Prelude to revolution : palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912-1942, Foris Publications, ISBN 978-90-6765-217-9
  4. ^ F.F. Habnit: KRÈTA SÈTAN, 's-Gravenhage: Tong Tong 1977.
  5. ^ Jan Breman: Koelies, Planters en Koloniale Politiek, Dordrecht: Foris Publications 1987.
  6. ^ "Benz Victoria Phaeton, Mobil Pertama Masuk Indonesia Tahun 1894".

Further reading

Regnal titles Preceded byPakubuwono IX Susuhunan of Surakarta 1893–1939 Succeeded byPakubuwono XI