Portrait of Pakubuwono X, wearing the uniform of a KNIL major-general
Portrait of Pakubuwono X, wearing the uniform of a KNIL major-general
Pakubuwono X of Surakarta poses with the Governor General of Dutch East Indies Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff (center) in 1928.
Pakubuwono X of Surakarta poses with the Governor General of Dutch East Indies Andries Cornelis Dirk de Graeff (center) in 1928.
Group portrait during a visit by King Chulalongkorn of Siam (now Thailand).
Group portrait during a visit by King Chulalongkorn of Siam (now Thailand).
Javanese case with the emblem of Surakarta, designed by Pakubuwono X 1930 - Livrustkammaren
Javanese case with the emblem of Surakarta, designed by Pakubuwono X 1930 - Livrustkammaren

Pakubuwono X (also transliterated Pakubuwana X, sometimes abbreviated PBX;[1] Surakarta, November 29, 1866 – Surakarta, February 22, 1939) was the tenth Susuhunan (ruler of Surakarta).

Birth

His birth name (Javanese: asma timur) was Raden Mas Sayyidin Malikul Kusna, son of Pakubuwono IX and his wife Kanjeng Raden Ayu Kustiyah.

Politics

His reign corresponded with the political changes happening in the Dutch East Indies at the time, in particular the growth of local indigenous political organizations such as Budi Utomo and Sarekat Islam of which he and the royal family were patrons.[2]

Family

Pakubuwono X was known to have many concubines, but his main consort was GKR Hemas, the daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII of Yogyakarta. He was also known major contributor to improvements at the Royal Graveyard of Imogiri, where he himself is buried.

Name sequence

His correct title in Javanese etiquette standards contains honorific appellations, some of which each successive ruler inherits. He reigned from 1893 to 1939 and was the longest ruling Susuhanan of Surakarta to his time.[citation needed]

Names in Javanese royalty are adjusted with status changes.

Honours

Thirteen daughters of Pakubuwono X (circa 1921-1926), photo by Tassilo Adam
Thirteen daughters of Pakubuwono X (circa 1921-1926), photo by Tassilo Adam

Pakubuwono X received many honours from foreign countries. In 2009, due to his contributions to the well-being and interests of Native Indonesians within the Sunanate during his reign, as well as having been a huge patron to many local economic and cultural projects, he was awarded posthumously the title of National Hero of Indonesia.

Motorcar

Even more than women Pakubuono X loved motorcars. In 1894 he purchased a Benz phaeton for 10,000 guilders,[3] an amount of money a contract coolie  could make in three centuries.[4] So he became the first motorist in the Dutch Colonial Empire, two years in advance of the first one in the Netherlands. In effect it made him a pioneer of the Indonesian automobile industry as the first car driver of the territories that make up the current Republic.

Death and funeral train

The prepared carriage with the coffin of PB X on trip to Yogyakarta
The prepared carriage with the coffin of PB X on trip to Yogyakarta

After PB X's death, his coffin was transported between Surakarta and Yogyakarta by a NIS train. The remaining journey between Yogyakarta and Imogiri was by royal carriage. His coffin's trip to Imogiri was one of the most photographed royal funeral processions of rulers of his era.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "PB XIII Tegaskan Lembaga Adat Sudah Dihapus Sejak PB X" [PB XIII Emphasises that Traditional Institutions Have Been Abandoned since PB X]. Tribun (in Indonesian). Yogyakarta. 27 May 2012. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
  2. ^ Lawson, George D. (George Donald); Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde (Netherlands) (1987), Prelude to revolution : palaces and politics in Surakarta, 1912-1942, Foris Publications, ISBN 978-90-6765-217-9
  3. ^ F.F. Habnit: KRÈTA SÈTAN, ‘s-Gravenhage: Tong Tong 1977.
  4. ^ Jan Breman: Koelies, Planters en Koloniale Politiek, Dordrecht: Foris Publications 1987.

Further reading

Regnal titles Preceded byPakubuwono IX Susuhunan of Surakarta 1893–1939 Succeeded byPakubuwono XI