Pakubuwono X (also transliterated Pakubuwana X, sometimes abbreviated PBX; Surakarta, November 29, 1866 – Surakarta, February 22, 1939) was the tenth Susuhunan (ruler of Surakarta).
His birth name (Javanese: asma timur) was Raden Mas Sayyidin Malikul Kusna, son of Pakubuwono IX and his wife Kanjeng Raden Ayu Kustiyah.
His reign corresponded with the political changes happening in the Dutch East Indies at the time, in particular the growth of local indigenous political organizations such as Budi Utomo and Sarekat Islam of which he and the royal family were patrons.
Pakubuwono X was known to have many concubines, but his main consort was GKR Hemas, the daughter of Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII of Yogyakarta. He was also known major contributor to improvements at the Royal Graveyard of Imogiri, where he himself is buried.
His correct title in Javanese etiquette standards contains honorific appellations, some of which each successive ruler inherits. He reigned from 1893 to 1939 and was the longest ruling Susuhanan of Surakarta to his time.
Names in Javanese royalty are adjusted with status changes.
Pakubuwono X received many honours from foreign countries. In 2009, due to his contributions to the well-being and interests of Native Indonesians within the Sunanate during his reign, as well as having been a huge patron to many local economic and cultural projects, he was awarded posthumously the title of National Hero of Indonesia.
Even more than women Pakubuono X loved motorcars. In 1894 he purchased a Benz phaeton for 10,000 guilders, an amount of money a contract coolie could make in three centuries. So he became the first motorist in the Dutch Colonial Empire, two years in advance of the first one in the Netherlands. In effect it made him a pioneer of the Indonesian automobile industry as the first car driver of the territories that make up the current Republic.
After PB X's death, his coffin was transported between Surakarta and Yogyakarta by a NIS train. The remaining journey between Yogyakarta and Imogiri was by royal carriage. His coffin's trip to Imogiri was one of the most photographed royal funeral processions of rulers of his era.
Miksic, John (general ed.), et al. (2006) Karaton Surakarta. A look into the court of Surakarta Hadiningrat, central Java (First published: 'By the will of His Serene Highness Paku Buwono XII'. Surakarta: Yayasan Pawiyatan Kabudayan Karaton Surakarta, 2004) Marshall Cavendish Editions Singapore ISBN 981-261-226-2
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