Opu Daeng Risaju

Died10 February 1964(1964-02-10) (aged 83–84)
Other namesOpung Daeng Risadju, Opu Daeng Risadju
TitleOpu Daeng Risaju
HonoursNational Hero of Indonesia

Opu Daeng Risaju (born 1880 in Palopo, Dutch East Indies – died 10 February 1964) was an Indonesian independence activist. She was canonized as a National Hero of Indonesia in 2006.[1]


She was born to Muhammad Abdullah To Baresseng and Opu Daeng Mawellu in 1880, and at birth was named Famajjah.[2] She was from a Buginese community in Luwu in South Sulawesi.[3][4]:198 When she married H. Muhammad Daud, she assumed the Luwu royal title Opu Daeng Risaju, which is how she was known for the rest of her life.[2] She was Muslim and wore hijab.[4]:63[2]

Opu Daeng Risaju primarily fought against the Dutch colonization of what were, at the time, the Dutch East Indies.[5][3] She became active in politics relative late in her life. She first became a member of the Indonesian Islamic Union Party (PSII) in 1927, around age forty-seven, in Parepare.[6] She quickly became involved in the nationalist movement and rose through the PSII's organization.

In 1930, she established a local branch of PSII in Palopo.[4]:198 She would serve as chairman.[2] In 1933, she attended the Indonesian Islamic Union Congress in Batavia (now Jakarta).[7]

Due to her political agitation and growing popularity, her peerage was revoked, and the Dutch government in Masamba arrested her and tried her for sedition.[2][6] Beginning in 1934, she was imprisoned for fourteen months, sentenced to forced labor, and tortured.[4]:64[2][6] After her release from prison and throughout the Japanese occupation, she continued to travel and establish branches of the PSII in South Sulawesi.[6] She was arrested again after the Japanese surrender and transferred between various prisons, where she was tortured.[6] This torture rendered her deaf for the remainder of her life and also damaged one of her eyes.[4]:64[2][6]

In 1949, she moved to Pare-Pare to live with her son Abdul Kadir Daud.[8] She died on 10 February 1964, at age eighty-four.[8] She was buried in the cemetery of the rulers of Luwu in Lokkoe in Palopo.[9]

In 2006, Opu Daeng Risaju was named a National Hero of Indonesia, one of the few women who have received the honor.[10]


  1. ^ Fogg, Kevin W. (2019-01-02). "Making an Indonesian National Hero for Lombok: The shifting category of pahlawan nasional". Indonesia and the Malay World. 47 (137): 1–22. doi:10.1080/13639811.2019.1560710. ISSN 1363-9811. S2CID 166059062.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Rahayu, Mangesti (May 2020). "Hijab in the Indonesian National Struggle". International Review of Humanities Studies. 5 (1 (Special Issue)): 412, 415, 421. doi:10.7454/irhs.v5i1.245. eISSN 2477-6866. S2CID 219427772.
  3. ^ a b Pramono, Suwito Eko; Ahmad, Tsabit Azinar; Wijayati, Putri Agus (2019-07-03). "The National Heroes in History Class". KnE Social Sciences: 119–129. doi:10.18502/kss.v3i18.4705. ISSN 2518-668X. S2CID 199218594.
  4. ^ a b c d e Fogg, Kevin W. (2019-12-05). Indonesia's Islamic Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 63–64, 198. ISBN 978-1-108-48787-0.
  5. ^ Martyn, Elizabeth (2004-11-10). The Women's Movement in Postcolonial Indonesia: Gender and Nation in a New Democracy. Routledge. footnote 4 [no page numbers given]. ISBN 978-1-134-39469-2.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Matanasi, Petrik (20 April 2018). "Opu Daeng Risadju Menentang Kolonialisme di Usia Senja". Tirto (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2021-11-20.
  7. ^ Abduh, Muhammad; Hanif, Zainal Abidin; Pawiloy, Sarita; Masduki; Baso, M. Noer (1985-01-01). Sejarah Perlawanan Terhadap Imperialisme dan Kolonialisme di Sulawesi Selatan (in Indonesian). Direktorat Jenderal Kebudayaan. p. 180.
  8. ^ a b "Opu Daeng Risaju, Penjara Bawah Tanah dan Disiksa Hingga Tuli (bagian 3)". Republika Online (in Indonesian). 2014-11-10. Retrieved 2021-11-20.
  9. ^ Rosmawati (2018-11-14). "19: Typology and efflorescence of early Islamic tomb and gravestone forms in South Sulawesi and Majene, West Sulawesi". In O'Connor, Sue; Bulbeck, David; Meyer, Juliet (eds.). The Archaeology of Sulawesi: Current Research on the Pleistocene to the Historic Period. Terra Australis 48. Acton: Australian National University Press. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-76046-257-4.
  10. ^ "PRESIDENT AWARDS "NATIONAL HERO" TITLE TO 8 COMMUNITY FIGURES." Almanak L.K.B.N. "Antara." (Jakarta), 2006.

Further reading