Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung
Portrait, 1948
3rd Prime Minister of the State of East Indonesia
In office
15 December 1947 – 27 December 1949
PresidentTjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati
Preceded bySemuel Jusof Warouw
Succeeded byJ.E. Tatengkeng
Interior Minister of the United States of Indonesia
In office
20 December 1949 – 6 September 1950
PresidentSukarno
Preceded byWongsonegoro
Succeeded byAssaat
Foreign Minister of Indonesia
In office
12 August 1955 – 24 March 1956
PresidentSukarno
Preceded bySoenario
Succeeded byRoeslan Abdulgani
6th Indonesian Ambassador to Austria
In office
1970–1974
Preceded byLaili Roesad
Succeeded byAbdullah Kamil
Personal details
Born(1921-07-21)21 July 1921
Gianyar, Bali, Dutch East Indies
Died22 April 1999(1999-04-22) (aged 77)
Gianyar, Bali, Indonesia
CitizenshipIndonesian
Political partyIndependent
ChildrenAnak Agung Gde Agung
Parent(s)
  • Raja Anak Gunung Ngurah Agung (father)
Profession

Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung[1] (Old Spelling: Ide Anak Agoeng Gde Agoeng; 21 July 1921 – 22 April 1999),[2] alternatively spelled too as Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung, was an Indonesian ethnic-Balinese politician, historian, and National Hero, who was the Raja of Gianyar, Bali, and served as the prime minister of the State of East Indonesia from 1947 to 1949, and the Foreign Affairs Minister of Indonesia from 1955 until 1956.[2]

Born in Gianyar, Bali, on 21 July 1921, Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung was born to Raja Anak Gunung Ngurah Agung, the Raja of Gianyar.[2] He obtained a doctorate degree at the University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, in the field of history. He served as the prime minister of the State of East Indonesia from 1947 to 1949. Following the independence of Indonesia, he served as Minister of Home Affairs and Minister of Foreign Affairs during the era of President Sukarno's administration. In addition, he has also served as the Indonesian Ambassador to Belgium, Portugal, France, and Austria.

Based on Presidential Decree No. 066/TK/2007, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono bestowed the title of National Hero to several national figures including Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung for his services in the struggle for Indonesian Independence, specifically for establishing and being the main driver of the Federal Consultative Assembly (PMF) in 1948, the association of federal states and territories in Indonesia aimed at gathering political power to overcome various Dutch-Indonesian negotiations.[3]

Biography

Early life and education

Anak Agung speaking to Sultan Hamid II of Pontianak
Anak Agung speaking to Sultan Hamid II of Pontianak

Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung was born in Gianyar, Bali, on 21 July 1921. He was the son of Raja Anak Gunung Ngurah Agung, the Raja of Gianyar. Since he was a small child, he was interested in history.[2] He started his school education at the Hollandsche-Inlandsche School, the equivalent of elementary school. He then continued his education at Meer Uitgebreid Lagere Onderwijs (MULO), the equivalent of junior high school. After graduating from MULO, he continued his education at the Algemeene Middelbare School, the equivalent of high school. After that, he studied law at the Rechtshogeschool (The predecessor of the law faculty of the University of Indonesia), in Batavia (now Jakarta), and obtained a Doctorate of History in the Netherlands.[4][5]

On 23 August 1943, a year after the Japanese invaded, Anak Agung became the Raja of Gianyar, a month after he celebrated his twenty-second birthday, making him only 22 years old. This was after his father was suspected and detained by the Japanese Ministry for treason.[6]

Political career

Anak Agung's role in politics began in the State of East Indonesia (NIT). He served as prime minister from December 1947 until December 1949. He also served as the premier for Tjokorda Gde Raka Soekawati, a key figure in the East Indonesian government based in Sulawesi.[7] In this role, he played a decisive part in the Round Table Conference that finally led to Dutch recognition of Indonesia's independence.[8]

Following the transfer of sovereignty on December 27, 1949, Agung served as a member of the short-lived Republic of the United States of Indonesia Cabinet, where he served as minister of the interior.[8] Due to his Federalist sympathies, he politically feuded with Sukarno, who advocated a unitary Republic of Indonesia. Following the abolition of the federal system in 1950, he served as the Indonesian ambassador to Belgium, followed by successive appointments as ambassador to Luxembourg, Portugal, France and Austria.[7] During the Sukarno presidency, Agung served as Indonesia's foreign minister between 1955 and 1956, and was a participant in the West New Guinea dispute. Later, he was imprisoned by the Sukarno regime between 1962 and 1966 but was never brought to trial.[8]

Following the 1965 attempted coup and rise of Suharto's New Order regime, Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung was released by the new Indonesian foreign minister Adam Malik, who also restored him to his senior position in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. During the New Order era, Agung served as Indonesia's ambassador to Austria. During his time overseas, Agung also authored Twenty years Indonesian foreign policy 1945–1965, a 660-page history of Indonesian foreign policy during the Sukarno era. In his book, Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung argued that Indonesian foreign policy was based on the principles of independence and action, which meant remaining independent of foreign powers. Agung also argued that Sukarno abandoned Indonesia's independent foreign policy by aligning Indonesia with China and embarking on a policy of confrontation against Malaysia.[8]

Death and legacy

Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung died in Gianyar, Bali, indonesia, on April 22, 1999. Based on Presidential Decree No. 066/TK/2007, President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono bestowed the title of National Hero to several national figures, including Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung for his services in the struggle for Indonesian Independence,[5][9] specifically for his services in 1948 in establishing and being the main driver of the Federal Consultative Assembly (PMF), the association of federal states and territories in Indonesia aimed at gathering political power to overcome various Dutch-Indonesian negotiations.[3] He was also given the Bintang Mahaputra Adipradana award by the Indonesian government.

Writings

List of writings

The following is a list of writings by Anak Agung.

List of writings
Title Year of Publication Publisher Pages
Dua Puluh Tahun Politik Luar Negeri Indonesia 1945-1965

Twenty Years Indonesian Foreign Policy 1945-1965

1973 Mouton 640
Kenangan masa lampau zaman kolonial Hindia Belanda dan zaman pendudukan Jepang di Bali

Memories of the past during the Dutch East Indies colonial era and the Japanese occupation in Bali

1993 Obor Indonesia 236
Persetujuan Linggajati prolog & epilog

Linggajati agreement prologue & epilogue

1995 Pustaka Nusatama 444
Renville – Terjemahan

Renville – Translation

1991 Sinar Harapan 407
Pernyataan Rum-van Roijen

Rum-van Roijen statement

1995 University of Michigan 124
Dari Terbentuknya Negara Indonesia Timur Menuju Berdirinya Negara Indonesia Serikat

From the Formation of the State of East Indonesia Towards the Establishment of the United States of Indonesia

1996 Obor Indonesia 906
Source: [5]

References

Citations

  1. ^ Agung 1995, p. 899.
  2. ^ a b c d Ajisaka 2008, p. 275.
  3. ^ a b Agung 1995, p. 391–395.
  4. ^ Clancy 1992, p. 18.
  5. ^ a b c Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung: Masa Muda, Kiprah, dan Peran Halaman all
  6. ^ Agung 1993, p. 182.
  7. ^ a b Westerling 1952, p. 167.
  8. ^ a b c d Agung 1973, p. 11.
  9. ^ Vickers 2007.
Speech of Prime Minister Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung at the installation of the Council of Kings in Bali.
Speech of Prime Minister Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung at the installation of the Council of Kings in Bali.
Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung after his arrival at Mapanget airport in Sulawesi
Ide Anak Agung Gde Agung after his arrival at Mapanget airport in Sulawesi

Bibliography

  • Ajisaka, Arya (2008). Mengenal Pahlawan Indonesia (ed. Revisi) (in Indonesian). Kawan Pustaka. ISBN 978-979-757-278-5.
  • Agung, Ide Anak Agung Gde (1995). Persetujuan Linggajati: prolog & epilog (in Indonesian). Yayasan Pustaka Nusatama bekerja sama dengan Sebelas Maret University Press. ISBN 978-979-8628-22-1.
  • Clancy, Gregory Bruce (1992). A Dictionary of Indonesian History Since 1900. Sydney, Australia: Sunda Publications. ISBN 9780646107547.
  • Agung, Ide Anak Agung Gde (1973). Twenty years Indonesian foreign policy 1945-1965. The Hague: Mouton.
  • Agung, Ide Anak Agung Gde (1996) [1995]. From the Formation of the State of East Indonesia Towards the Establishment of the United States of Indonesia. Translated by Owens, Linda. Yayasan Obor. ISBN 979-461-216-2.
  • Westerling, Raymond Paul Pierre (1952). Mes aventures en Indonesie [Challenge to Terror] (in French). Translated by Root, Waverley. London: W. Kimber.
  • Vickers, Adrian (14 November 2007). "The Ide Anak Agung Agung Gde Agung controversy". Indonesia Blog. University of Sydney. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
  • Agung, Ide Anak Agung Gde (1993). Kenangan masa lampau: zaman kolonial Hindia Belanda dan zaman pendudukan Jepang di Bali (in Indonesian). Yayasan Obor Indonesia. ISBN 978-979-461-156-2.
  • Media, Kompas Cyber (2021-07-04). "Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung: Masa Muda, Kiprah, dan Peran Halaman all". KOMPAS.com (in Indonesian). Retrieved 2021-10-14.

Further reading