National Hero of Indonesia (Indonesian: Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia) is the highest-level title awarded in Indonesia.[1] It is posthumously given by the Government of Indonesia for actions which are deemed to be heroic, defined as "actual deeds which can be remembered and exemplified for all time by other citizens"[a] or "extraordinary service furthering the interests of the state and people".[b][2] The Ministry of Social Affairs gives seven criteria which an individual must fulfill, as follows:[2]

  1. Have been an Indonesian citizen[c] who is deceased and, during his lifetime, led an armed struggle or produced a concept or product useful to the state;
  2. Have continued the struggle throughout his life and performed above and beyond the call of duty;
  3. Have had a wide-reaching impact through his actions;
  4. Have shown a high degree of nationalism;
  5. Have been of good moral standing and respectable character;
  6. Never surrendered to his enemies; and
  7. Never committed an act which taints his or her legacy.[d]

Nominations undergo a four-step process and must be approved at each level. A proposal is made by the general populace in a city or regency to the mayor or regent, who must then make a request to the province's governor. The governor then makes a recommendation to the Ministry of Social Affairs, which forwards it to the president, represented by the Board of Titles (Dewan Gelar);[2] this board consists of two academics, two persons of a military background, and three persons who have previously received an award or title.[1] Those selected by the president, as represented by the Board, are awarded the title at a ceremony in the Indonesian capital of Jakarta.[2] Since 2000, the ceremony has occurred in early November, coinciding with Indonesia's Heroes' Day (Hari Pahlawan).[3]

The legal framework for the title, initially styled National Independence Hero (Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Nasional), was established with the release of Presidential Decree No. 241 of 1958. The title was first awarded on 30 August 1959 to the politician turned writer Abdul Muis, who had died the previous month.[4][5][6] This title was used for the rest of Sukarno's rule. When Suharto rose to power in the mid-1960s, the title was given its current name. Special titles at the level of National Hero have also been awarded. Hero of the Revolution (Pahlawan Revolusi) was given in 1965 to ten victims of the 30 September Movement that resulted in end of Sukarno reign, while Sukarno and former vice-president Mohammad Hatta were given the title Proclamation Heroes (Pahlawan Proklamasi) in 1988 for their role in reading the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence.[3][4][6]

A total of 185 men and 15 women have been deemed national heroes, most recently Soeharto Sastrosoeyoso, Paku Alam VIII, Rubini Natawisastra, Salahuddin bin Talibuddin and Ahmad Sanusi in 2022.[7] These heroes have come from all parts of the Indonesian archipelago, from Aceh in the west to Papua in the east. They represent numerous ethnicities, including native Indonesians, ethnic Chinese, Arabs and Eurasians. They include prime ministers, guerrillas, government ministers, soldiers, royalty, journalists, and a bishop.

The following list is initially presented in alphabetical order; owing to differing cultural naming conventions, not all entries are sorted by last name. The list is further sortable by year of birth, death, and recognition. Names are standardised using the Indonesian Spelling System and thus may not reflect the original spelling.[e]


National Heroes of Indonesia

I Gusti Ngurah Rai
Adnan Kapau Gani
Albertus Sugiyapranata
Bung Tomo
Fatmawati
Sam Ratulangi
Kartini
Mohammad Hatta
Pakubuwono X
Sudirman
Sukarno
Tan Malaka
As'ad Syamsul Arifin
National Heroes of Indonesia
Name Born Died Elevated Notes Ref.
Abdul Halim Majalengka 1887 1962 2008 Independence activist and Islamic scholar, Member of BPUPK [3][8]
Abdul Haris Nasution 1918 2000 2002 General in the Army, twice appointed Army Chief of Staff [3][9]
Abdul Kadir 1771 1875 1999 Nobleman from Melawi, promoted economic development, fought against the colonial Dutch [3][10]
Abdul Kahar Muzakir 1907 1963 2019 Member of BPUPK and first rector of the Islamic University of Indonesia [11]
Abdul Malik Karim Amrullah 1908 1981 2011 Islamic scholar and author [12]
Abdul Muis 1883 1959 1959 Politician, later author [f][4][13]
Abdul Rahman Saleh 1909 1947 1974 Early figure in the Air Force, killed when his medical flight was shot down by the Dutch [4][14]
Abdul Rozak Fakhruddin 1890 1929 1964 Islamic leader, negotiated protection of Indonesian hajj pilgrims [4][15]
Abdul Wahab Hasbullah 1888 1971 2014 Founding father of Nahdlatul Ulama, established pro-independence organizations [16][17]
Abdurrahman Baswedan 1908 1986 2018 Journalist who united Arab-descent people with Indonesians during the independence war [18]
Ahmad Sanusi [id] 1889 1950 2022 Islamic scholar, Member of BPUPK [7]
Ahmad Subarjo 1896 1978 2009 Independence activist and government minister [3][19]
Adam Malik Batubara 1917 1984 1998 Journalist and independence activist, third Vice-President of Indonesia [3][20]
Adnan Kapau Gani 1905 1968 2007 Independence activist, smuggled weapons to support the National Revolution [3][21]
Nyi Ageng Serang 1752 1828 1974 Javanese guerrilla leader who led attacks on Dutch colonials on several occasions [3][22]
Agus Salim 1884 1954 1961 Minang Islamic leader, politician, independence activist [4][23]
Agustinus Adisucipto 1916 1947 1974 Early figure in the Air Force, killed when his medical flight was shot down by the Dutch [4][24]
Ahmad Dahlan 1868 1934 1961 Javanese Islamic leader, established Muhammadiyah; husband of Siti Walidah [4][25]
Ahmad Rifa'i 1786 1870 2004 Islamic thinker and writer known for his anti-Dutch stance [3][26]
Ahmad Yani 1922 1965 1965 Leader of the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][27]
Aji Muhammad Idris [id] 1667 1739 2021 Monarch of the Sultanate of Kutai (now part of East Kalimantan) who fought the Dutch [28][29]
Albertus Sugiyapranata 1896 1963 1963 Javanese Catholic bishop and nationalist [4][30]
Alexander Andries Maramis 1897 1977 2019 Member of BPUPK and government minister [11]
Alimin 1889 1964 1964 Independence advocate, politician, and Communist Party of Indonesia figure [4][31]
Andi Abdullah Bau Massepe 1918 1947 2005 Bugis nobleman, attacked Dutch forces during National Revolution, son of Andi Mappanyukki [3][32]
Andi Jemma 1935 1965 2002 Independence activist, led attacks against Dutch forces during the National Revolution [3][33]
Andi Mappanyukki 1885 1967 2004 Bugis nobleman, led attacks against Dutch forces, father of Andi Abdullah Bau Massepe [3][34]
Antasari 1809 1862 1968 Fought against Dutch colonial forces in the Banjarmasin War [4][35]
Arie Frederik Lasut 1918 1949 1969 Geologist and educator who was executed by the Dutch [4][36]
Arnoldus Isaac Zacharias Mononutu 1896 1983 2020 Information minister [37]
As'ad Syamsul Arifin 1897 1990 2016 Islamic Leader, co-founder of Nahdlatul Ulama [38]
Sultan Baabullah 15th century 1583 2020 Ruler of Sultanate of Ternate [37]
Bagindo Azizchan 1910 1947 2005 Mayor of Padang, resisted Dutch forces during the National Revolution [3][39]
Basuki Rahmat 1921 1969 1969 General, witness to the Supersemar [4][40]
Bernard Wilhelm Lapian 1892 1977 2015 Nationalist, church leader, and second governor of Sulawesi [41]
Teungku Chik di Tiro 1836 1891 1973 Acehnese Islamic figure and guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces [4][42]
Cilik Riwut 1918 1987 1998 Soldier and politician, promoted economic and cultural development in Central Kalimantan [3][43]
Cipto Mangunkusumo 1886 1943 1964 Javanese politician, mentor to Sukarno [4][44]
Cokroaminoto 1883 1934 1961 Politician, leader of Sarekat Islam, mentor to Sukarno [4][45]
Ernest Douwes Dekker 1879 1950 1961 Indo journalist and politician who advocated Indonesian independence [g][4][46]
Depati Amir [id] 1805 1869 2018 Independence fighter from Bangka [18]
Andi Depu Maraddia Balanipa [id] 1907 1985 2018 Female figure from West Sulawesi who led fighters for independence [18]
Dewi Sartika 1884 1947 1966 Educator, established the country's first school for girls [4][47]
Cut Nyak Dhien 1850 1908 1964 Acehnese guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces; wife of Teuku Umar [4][48]
Diponegoro 1785 1855 1973 Son of the Sultan of Yogyakarta, fought a five-year war against Dutch colonial forces [4][49]
Donald Isaac Panjaitan 1925 1965 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][50]
Fatmawati 1923 1980 2000 Sewed the first national flag, social activist, a wife of Sukarno [3][51]
Ferdinand Lumbantobing 1899 1962 1962 Doctor and politician, fought for the rights of forced labourers [4][52]
Frans Kaisiepo 1921 1979 1993 Papuan nationalist who helped in the acquisition of Papua [3][53]
Gatot Mangkupraja 1896 1968 2004 Independence activist and politician, suggested the formation of Defenders of the Homeland [3][54]
Gatot Subroto 1907 1962 1962 General, deputy chief-of-staff of the Army [4][55]
Halim Perdanakusuma 1922 1947 1975 Early figure in the Air Force, died in an accidental plane crash in Perak, Malaysia during the National Revolution [3][56]
Hamengkubuwono I 1717 1792 2006 Sultan of Yogyakarta, fought against the Dutch East India Company, established Yogyakarta [3][57]
Hamengkubuwono IX 1912 1988 1990 Sultan of Yogyakarta, independence activist, military leader, and politician; second Vice-President of Indonesia [3][58]
Harun Thohir 1947 1968 1968 Bombed the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank building in Singapore during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation [h][4][59]
Hasan Basri 1923 1984 2001 Soldier during the Indonesian National Revolution, supported the integration of Kalimantan in Indonesia [3][60]
Hasanuddin 1631 1670 1973 Sultan of Gowa, fought against Dutch colonial forces [4][61]
Hasyim Asy'ari 1875 1947 1964 Islamic leader, founder of Nahdlatul Ulama [4][62]
Hazairin 1906 1975 1999 Legal scholar, independence activist, government minister, and educator [3][63]
Herman Johannes 1912 1992 2009 Engineer, made weapons for the National Revolution, co-founded Gadjah Mada University [3][64]
Sultan Himayatuddin Muhammad Saidi [id] 18th century 1776 2019 Sultan of Buton who protested against a deal with the Dutch East India Company (VOC) [11]
Ida Anak Agung Gde Agung 1921 1999 2007 Independence activist, diplomat, and government minister [3][65]
Idham Chalid 1921 2010 2011 Leader of Nahdlatul Ulama, politician [12][66]
Ilyas Yakoub 1903 1958 1999 Independence activist, politician, and guerrilla fighter [3][67]
Tuanku Imam Bonjol 1772 1864 1973 Islamic figure from West Sumatra who fought against Dutch colonial forces in the Padri War [4][68]
Radin Inten II 1834 1856 1986 Nobleman from Lampung, led a revolution against Dutch colonists [3][69]
Iskandar Muda 1593 1636 1993 Sultan of Aceh, expanded the state's influence [i][3][70]
Ismail Marzuki 1914 1958 2004 Composer known for numerous patriotic songs [3][71]
Iswahyudi 1918 1947 1975 Early figure in the Air Force, killed during the National Revolution [3][72]
Iwa Kusumasumantri 1899 1971 2002 Independence activist, lawyer, and politician, first Minister of Social Affairs [3][73]
Izaak Huru Doko 1913 1985 2006 Independence activist and educator, helped establish Udayana University [3][74]
Jamin Ginting 1921 1974 2014 Politician and military officer in Sumatra during the National Revolution [16]
Janatin 1943 1968 1968 Bombed the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank building in Singapore during the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation [j][4][75]
Jatikusumo 1917 1992 2002 Member of the Pakubuwono royal family of Surakarta, general in the Army and politician [3][76]
Johannes Abraham Dimara 1916 2000 2010 Papuan army officer who helped in the acquisition of Papua [77]
Johannes Leimena 1905 1977 2010 Early Minister of Health, developed the Puskesmas clinic system [77]
Juanda Kartawijaya 1911 1963 1963 Sundanese politician, final Prime Minister of Indonesia [4][78]
Karel Satsuit Tubun 1928 1965 1965 Police brigadier, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][79]
Ignatius Joseph Kasimo 1900 1986 2011 Independence activist, Catholic Party leader [12][80]
Kasman Singodimedjo [id] 1904 1982 2018 Muhammadiyah figure, who united the nation during the UUD 1945 Constitution ratification process by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence. Later served as chair of the Central Indonesian National Committee, the precursor of the People's Representative Council and as Justice Undersecretary. [18]
Katamso Darmokusumo 1923 1965 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][81]
I Gusti Ketut Jelantik 18th century 1849 1993 Balinese leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces [3][82]
I Gusti Ketut Puja 1904 1957 2011 First Governor of Sunda Kecil Province [12][83]
Ki Bagus Hadikusumo [id] 1890 1954 2015 [41]
Ki Hajar Dewantara 1889 1959 1959 Educator and state minister, established Taman Siswa, brother of Raden Mas Suryopranoto [4][84]
Ki Sarmidi Mangunsarkoro 1904 1957 2011 Educator with Budi Utomo and Taman Siswa, government minister [12][85]
Kiras Bangun 1852 1942 2005 Batak guerrilla leader who fought the Dutch colonialists [3][86]
La Maddukelleng 1700 1765 1998 Nobleman from Paser Sultanate, repelled Dutch forces from Wajo Kingdom [3][87]
Lafran Pane 1922 1991 2017 Founded the Muslim Students' Association [88]
Lambertus Nicodemus Palar 1900 1981 2013 Diplomat, negotiated recognition of Indonesia during the Revolution [89]
Yahya Daniel Dharma 1911 1988 2009 Rear Admiral in the Navy, smuggled products to fund the National Revolution [3][90]
Mahmud Singgirei Rumagesan 1885 1964 2020 Monarch of Sultanate of Sekar (now in Fakfak Regency, West Papua) who advocated for integration of Western New Guinea into Indonesia [37][91]
Mahmud Badaruddin II 1767 1852 1984 Sultan of Palembang, fought against Dutch colonial forces [3][92]
Sultan Mahmud Riayat Syah 1760 1812 2017 Sultan of Riau Lingga, fought against Dutch colonial forces [88]
Malahayati 15th century early 16th century 2017 Female admiral in the navy of the Aceh Sultanate, fought against Cornelis de Houtman [88]
Mangkunegara I 1725 1795 1988 Fought against Dutch colonists and collaborators in Central Java [3][93]
Maria Walanda Maramis 1872 1924 1969 Women's rights advocate and educator [4][94]
Martha Christina Tiahahu 1800 1818 1969 Guerrilla fighter from Maluku who died in Dutch custody [4][95]
Marthen Indey 1912 1986 1993 Nationalist and independence activist, promoted Papuan integration in Indonesia [3][96]
Mas Isman 1924 1982 2015 Revolutionary who commanded students paramilitary TRI Pelajar during independence war [41]
Mas Mansur 1896 1946 1964 Islamic scholar, Muhammadiyah leader [4][97]
Masykur 1917 1994 2019 Member of BPUPK, founder of PETA, government minister [11]
Mas Tirtodarmo Haryono 1924 1965 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][98]
Maskun Sumadireja 1907 1986 2004 Independence activist and politician [3][99]
Raden Mattaher [id] 1871 1907 2020 [37]
Cut Nyak Meutia 1870 1910 1964 Acehnese guerrilla leader who fought against Dutch colonial forces [4][100]
Mohammad Hatta 1902 1980 2012 Independence activist, First Vice-President of Indonesia [k][101][102]
Mohammad Husni Thamrin 1894 1941 1960 Politician and independence activist [4][103]
Mohammad Natsir 1908 1993 2008 Islamic scholar and politician, fifth Prime Minister of Indonesia [3][104]
Teuku Muhammad Hasan 1906 1997 2006 Independence activist, first governor of Sumatra [3][105]
Muhammad Mangundiprojo 1905 1988 2014 [16]
Mohammad Yamin 1903 1962 1973 Poet turned politician and independence activist [4][106]
Muhammad Yasin 1920 2012 2015 Regarded as the founder of Indonesian Police's Mobile Brigade Corps [41][107]
Muhammad Zainuddin Abdul Madjid [id] 1898 1997 2017 Islamic scholar and Nahdlatul Wathan founder [88]
Mustopo 1913 1986 2007 Leader during the Battle of Surabaya, established Dr. Moestopo Dental College [3][108]
Muwardi 1907 1948 1964 Handled security for the Proclamation of Independence, established a hospital in Surakarta [4][109]
Nani Wartabone 1907 1986 2003 Independence activist and politician, helped put down the Permesta rebellion [3][110]
I Gusti Ngurah Made Agung 1876 1906 2015 Balinese fighter against the Dutch colonials [41]
I Gusti Ngurah Rai 1917 1946 1975 Balinese military leader during National Revolution [3][111]
Nuku Muhammad Amiruddin 1738 1805 1995 Sultan of Tidore, led several naval battles against Dutch colonial forces [3][112]
Nur Ali 1914 1992 2006 Islamic leader and educator, led student soldiers during the National Revolution [3][113]
Teuku Nyak Arif 1899 1946 1974 Acehnese politician and resistance leader, first governor of Aceh [114]
Opu Daeng Risaju 1880 1964 2006 Early woman politician, fought against the Dutch during the National Revolution [3][115]
Oto Iskandar di Nata 1897 1945 1973 Politician and independence activist [4][116]
Pajonga Daeng Ngalle Polobangkeng 1901 1958 2006 Coordinated attacks in South Sulawesi during the National Revolution, promoted integration [3][117]
Paku Alam VIII 1910 1998 2022 Vice Governor of Yogyakarta, independence activist, and politician [7]
Pakubuwono VI 1807 1849 1964 Susuhunan of Surakarta, rebelled against Dutch colonial forces [4][118]
Pakubuwono X 1866 1939 2011 Susuhunan of Surakarta, supported various projects which furthered Native Indonesian interests [12][119]
Pangeran Muhammad Noor 1901 1979 2018 Banjar Prince, guerrilla fighter, 1st Governor of Kalimantan & former Minister of Public Works [18]
Pattimura 1783 1817 1973 Guerrilla from Maluku who fought against Dutch colonial forces [4][120]
Pierre Tendean 1939 1965 1965 Soldier in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][121]
Pong Tiku 1846 1907 2002 Torajan noble, fought against Dutch colonialists [3][122]
Raden Ajeng Kartini 1879 1904 1964 Javanese women's rights figure [4][123]
Raden Aria Wangsakara 1721 2021 Indonesian cleric and nobleman, regarded as the founder of Tangerang and defended the region from Dutch attack in the early 18th century [28][124]
Raden Eddy Martadinata 1921 1966 1966 Admiral in the Navy and diplomat, killed in a helicopter crash [4][125]
Raden Mas Suryopranoto 1871 1959 1959 Education and workers' rights figure, brother of Ki Hajar Dewantara [4][126]
Raden Mas Tumenggung Ario Suryo 1896 1948 1964 First Governor of East Java during the National Revolution [4][127]
Raden Panji Suroso 1893 1981 1986 Politician and independence activist, first Governor of Central Java [3][128]
Raden Said Sukanto Cokrodiatmojo 1908 1993 2020 First Chief of the Indonesian National Police [37]
Sudirman 1916 1950 1964 Commander in Chief of the Indonesian Armed Forces for most of the National Revolution [l][4][129]
Raden Suleiman Effendi Kusumahatmaja 1898 1952 1965 First Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Indonesia [4][130]
Raja Ali Haji 1809 c. 1870 2004 Historian and poet from Riau [3][131]
Raja Haji Fisabilillah 1727 1784 1997 Warrior from Riau who fought against Dutch colonial forces [3][132]
Rajiman Wediodiningrat 1879 1952 2013 First head of the People's Representative Council [89]
Ranggong Daeng Romo 1915 1947 2001 Led troops in two battles against Dutch forces during the National Revolution [3][133]
Rasuna Said 1910 1965 1974 Women's rights advocate and nationalist [3][134]
Rubini Natawisastra [id] 1906 1944 2022 Medical doctor, killed during Mandor affair [7]
Robert Wolter Mongisidi 1925 1949 1973 Guerrilla fighter in Makassar during the National Revolution, executed by the Dutch [4][135]
Rohana Kudus 1884 1972 2019 First female journalist, activist for education and women's emancipation. [11]
Saharjo 1909 1963 1963 Minister of Justice, pioneered legal reform in the country [4][136]
Salahuddin bin Talabuddin [id] 1874 1948 2022 North Maluku politician and supporter of Indonesian independence, executed by the Dutch [7]
Sam Ratulangi 1890 1949 1961 Minahasa politician and supporter of Indonesian independence [4][137]
Samanhudi 1878 1956 1961 Businessman, established Sarekat Islam [4][138]
Sardjito [id] 1889 1970 2019 First rector of Gadjah Mada University [11]
Silas Papare 1918 1978 1993 Fought for Papua's independence from the Dutch, promoted Papuan integration in Indonesia [3][139]
Sisingamangaraja XII 1849 1907 1961 Batak leader who fought a lengthy guerrilla campaign against Dutch colonial forces [4][132]
Siswondo Parman 1918 1965 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][140]
Siti Hartinah 1923 1996 1996 Wife of president Suharto, active in social work, established Taman Mini Indonesia Indah [3][141]
Syam'un 1894 1949 2018 Islamic scholar, guerrilla fighter for independence. [18]
Siti Walidah 1872 1946 1971 Founder of Aisyiyah, Muhammadiyah figure, wife of Ahmad Dahlan, [m][4][142]
Slamet Riyadi 1927 1950 2007 Brigadier General in the Army, killed while putting down a rebellion in Sulawesi [3][143]
Sugiyono Mangunwiyoto 1926 1965 1965 Colonel in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][144]
Soeharto Sastrosoeyoso [id] 1908 2000 2022 Medical doctor, founder of Indonesian Medical Association [7]
Suharso 1912 1971 1973 Medical pioneer in prosthetics [4][145]
Sukarjo Wiryopranoto 1903 1962 1962 Independence figure, diplomat, and politician [4][146]
Sukarni 1916 1971 2014 Youth leader and activist [16]
Sukarno 1901 1970 2012 First President of Indonesia, Independence activist, orator, read the Proclamation of Independence [k][101][102]
Sultan Agung 1591 1645 1975 Sultan of Mataram, fought against encroachment by the Dutch East India Company [3][147]
Andi Sultan Daeng Raja 1894 1963 2006 Independence activist and politician [3][148]
Supeno 1916 1949 1970 Government minister, killed while fighting against the Dutch during the National Revolution [4][149]
Supomo 1903 1958 1965 First Minister of Justice, helped write the Constitution [4][150]
Suprapto 1920 1965 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][151]
Supriyadi 1925 1945 1975 Leader of a rebellion against the Japanese occupation forces in Blitar [n][3][152]
Sutan Mohammad Amin Nasution 1904 1993 2020 First governor of North Sumatra [37]
Sutan Syahrir 1909 1966 1966 Politician, first Prime Minister of Indonesia [4][153]
Sutomo 1888 1938 1961 Javanese educator, established Budi Utomo [o][4][154]
Sutomo 1920 1981 2008 Military officer who led troops in the Battle of Surabaya [p][3][155]
Sutoyo Siswomiharjo 1922 1965 1965 General in the Army, killed by the 30 September Movement [4][156]
Syafruddin Prawiranegara 1911 1989 2011 First governor of Bank Indonesia [12]
Syarif Kasim II 1893 1968 1998 Sultan of Siak, promoted integration of the East Sumatran kingdoms [3][149]
Tahi Bonar Simatupang 1920 1990 2013 General who served as chief of staff from 1950 to 1954 [89]
Tuanku Tambusai 1784 1882 1995 Islamic leader from Riau who fought against Dutch colonial forces in the Padri War [3][157]
Tan Malaka 1884 1949 1963 Minang politician and communist activist [4][158]
Thaha Syaifuddin 1816 1904 1977 Sultan of Jambi, led an armed revolution against Dutch colonial forces [3][159]
Tirtayasa 1631 1683 1970 Guerrilla from Banten who fought against the Dutch [4][160]
Tirto Adhi Suryo 1880 1918 2006 Early journalist, exiled for his anti-Dutch editorials [3][161]
Tengku Amir Hamzah 1911 1946 1975 Langkat royal family member, poet, nationalist; victim of the East Sumatra Social Revolution [3][162]
Teuku Umar 1854 1899 1973 Acehnese guerrilla leader, fought against Dutch colonial forces; husband of Cut Nyak Dhien [4][163]
Tombolotutu [id] 1857 1901 2021 Monarch of the Kingdom of Moutong (now in Parigi Moutong Regency, Central Sulawesi) who fought a guerilla campaign against Dutch colonial government from 1898-1901 [28][29]
Untung Surapati 1660 1706 1975 Led several rebellions against the Dutch East India Company [3][164]
Urip Sumoharjo 1893 1948 1964 Early leader of Indonesian Armed Forces, second in command to Sudirman [4][165]
Usmar Ismail 1921 1971 2021 Indonesian journalist and film director, regarded as the Father of Indonesian Cinema [28][166]
Wage Rudolf Supratman 1903 1938 1971 Composer of the national anthem "Indonesia Raya" [4][167]
Wahid Hasyim 1914 1953 1964 Leader of Nahdlatul Ulama, first Minister of Religion of Indonesia [4][168]
Wahidin Sudirohusodo 1852 1917 1973 Doctor and leader in Budi Utomo [4][169]
Wilhelmus Zakaria Johannes 1895 1952 1968 Medical pioneer in radiology [4][170]
Yos Sudarso 1925 1962 1973 Navy Commodore, killed in a confrontation with the Dutch over Netherlands New Guinea [4][171]
Yusuf Tajul Khalwati 1626 1699 1995 Islamic leader, led a guerrilla rebellion against the Dutch East India Company [3][172]
Zainal Mustafa 1907 1944 1972 Islamic leader who fought against the Japanese occupation forces [4][173]
Zainul Arifin 1909 1963 1963 Politician and guerrilla fighter, killed by an assassin targeting Sukarno [4][174]

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Original: "'... perbuatan nyata yang dapat dikenang dan diteladani sepanjang masa bagi warga masyarakat lainnya."
  2. ^ Original: "... berjasa sangat luar biasa bagi kepentingan bangsa dan negara."
  3. ^ Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 of 2009 gives provisions for persons who died before Indonesia's independence in 1945, allowing those who "fought against colonialism in an area that is now part of Indonesia" (Original: "berjuang melawan penjajahan di wilayah yang sekarang menjadi wilayah Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia") to receive the title.
  4. ^ Based on the original:
    1. Warga Negara Indonesia yang telah meninggal dunia dan semasa hidupnya:
      1. Telah memimpin dan melakukan perjuangan bersenjata atau perjuangan politik/ perjuangan dalam bidang lain mencapai/ merebut /memper tahankan/mengisi kemerdekaan serta mewujudkan persatuan dan kesatuan bangsa.
      2. Telah melahirkan gagasan atau pemikiran besar yang dapat menunjang pembangunan bangsa dan negara.
      3. Telah menghasilkan karya besar yang mendatangkan manfaat bagi kesejahteraan masyarakat luas atau meningkatkan harkat dan martabat bangsa Indonesia.
    2. Pengabdian dan Perjuangan yang dilakukannya berlangsung hampir sepanjang hidupnya (tidak sesaat) dan melebihi tugas yang diembannya.
    3. Perjuangan yang dilakukan mempunyai jangkauan luas dan berdampak nasional.
    4. Memiliki konsistensi jiwa dan semangat kebangsaan/nasionalisme yang tinggi.
    5. Memiliki akhlak dan moral yang tinggi.
    6. Tidak menyerah pada lawan/musuh dalam perjuangannya.
    7. Datam riwayat hidupnya tidak pernah melakukan perbuatan tercela yang dapat merusak nilai perjuangannya.
  5. ^ The Indonesian language has undergone several spelling reforms since the country declared its independence in 1945. As of 2020, the Indonesian Spelling System, issued in 2015, is the official spelling system in Indonesia.
  6. ^ Some sources give his birth year as 1886 or 1890.
  7. ^ Also known by the Sundanese name Danudirja Setiabudi
  8. ^ Also known as Harun Tahir
  9. ^ Year of birth uncertain. Some sources, such as Encyclopædia Britannica, give 1590.
  10. ^ Also known as Usman bin Haji Muhammad Ali.
  11. ^ a b Previously declared a Proclamation Hero in 1986
  12. ^ 1916 is the date recognised by the Indonesian government. The actual date may be different. Several sources, for example, give 1912 (Said 1991, p. 80).
  13. ^ Generally noted as Nyai Ahmad Dahlan, meaning "wife of Ahmad Dahlan"
  14. ^ Date of death uncertain; he disappeared in 1945.
  15. ^ Most often referred to as Dr. Sutomo
  16. ^ Also known as Bung Tomo

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 of 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d Indonesian State Secretariat, Prosedur.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br Indonesian State Secretariat, Daftar Nama Pahlawan (2).
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz Indonesian State Secretariat, Daftar Nama Pahlawan (1).
  5. ^ JCG, Abdul Muis.
  6. ^ a b Artaria 2002, p. 539.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "President Jokowi Bestows National Hero Titles to Five Figures". Cabinet Secretariat of Republic of Indonesia. 7 November 2022. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  8. ^ Mirnawati 2012, p. 254.
  9. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 251–252.
  10. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 2–3.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Antara, Jokowi confers National Hero titles on first UGM rector, five figures.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g The Jakarta Post 2011, Govt Gives.
  13. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 64–66.
  14. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 185–187.
  15. ^ Mirnawati 2012, pp. 93–94.
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