Indonesian Army
Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat
TNI-AD
Insignia of the Indonesian Army.svg
Insignia of Indonesian Army
Founded5 October 1945; 77 years ago (1945-10-05)
Country Indonesia
Allegiance
Indonesian Presidential Seal gold.svg
President of Indonesia
TypeArmy
Role
Size300,000[1]
Part of Indonesian National Armed Forces
HeadquartersGambir, Jakarta
Motto(s)Kartika Eka Paksi
(Sanskrit, lit.'Unmatchable Bird with Noble Goals')
Colours  Army green
MarchMars Kartika Eka Paksi
Anniversaries15 December (Hari Juang Kartika)
EngagementsIndonesian National Revolution
Madiun Affair
APRA coup d'état
Makassar Uprising
Invasion of Ambon
Darul Islam Rebellion
Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation
East Timor Invasion
Counter-insurgency in Aceh
Counter-insurgency in Maluku
Papua conflict
Operation Madago Raya
Operation Nemangkawi
Websitewww.tniad.mil.id
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief
Indonesian Presidential Seal gold.svg
President Joko Widodo
Chief of Staff of the Army General Dudung Abdurachman
Vice Chief of Staff of the Army Lieutenant General Agus Subiyanto
Insignia
Flag
Flag of the Indonesian Army.svg
Army Aviation Roundel
Roundel of Indonesia – Army Aviation.svg
Roundel of Indonesia – Army Aviation – Low Visibility.svg
Army Ensign & Fin flash
Flag of Indonesia.svg

The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat (TNI-AD), lit.'Indonesian National Military-Land Force') is the land branch of the Indonesian National Armed Forces. It has an estimated strength of 300,000 active personnel.[1] The history of the Indonesian Army has its roots in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" first emerged as a paramilitary and police corps.[2]

Since the nation's independence movement, the Indonesian Army has been involved in multifaceted operations ranging from the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, to the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh, Maluku, and Papua. The army's operations have not been without controversy; it has been periodically associated with human rights violations, particularly in West Papua, East Timor and Aceh.[3][4]

The Indonesia Army is composed of a headquarters, 15 military regional command (Kodam), a strategic reserve command (Kostrad), a special forces command (Kopassus), and various adjunct units. It is headed by the Chief of Staff of the Army (Kepala Staf Angkatan Darat – KSAD or KASAD).

History

Formation

In the week following the Japanese surrender of 1945, the Giyūgun (PETA) and Heiho groups were disbanded by the Japanese. Most PETA and Heiho members did not yet know about the declaration of independence. Command structures and membership vital for a national army were consequently dismantled. Thus, rather than being formed from a trained, armed, and organised army, the Republican armed forces began to grow in September from usually younger, less trained groups under the national People's Security Agency built around charismatic leaders in the regions.[5] Creating a rational military structure that was obedient to central authority from such disorganisation, was one of the major problems of the revolution, a problem that remains through to contemporary times.[6] In a meeting between former KNIL and former PETA Division Commanders, organised by chief of staff (KSO) of People's Security Agency, Oerip Soemohardjo, a thirty-year-old former school teacher and PETA member, Sudirman, was elected 'commander-in-chief' in Yogyakarta on 12 November 1945.[7][8]

Aware of the limitations of the military in the face of the Dutch aggression, the people and government of Indonesia had no choice but to fight foreign threats to the young nation's independence. Thus, in 1947, the People's War Doctrine in which all the power of the national armed forces and the community and resources were deployed to confront the Dutch aggression, was officially implemented within the army and the wider armed forces as the national military strategy. Thus, the integrity and existence of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia has been able to be maintained by military force with the people. By 1947, the young Army (then named Tentara Republik Indonesia - Angkatan Darat) was organized into 10 infantry divisions, 7 Javanese and 3 Sumatran.

In accordance with the decision of the Round Table Conference (RTC), at the end of 1949 the United States of Indonesia (RIS) came into being. Correspondingly, the TNI's ground forces thus formed part of the Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia Serikat (APRIS) (later the Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia or APRI when the republic became unitary in 1950). It would be the merger of the TNI and the former KNIL and all military personnel of the two forces, plus the independent paramilitary groups (laskar) which fought the war on the side of the independence movement.

Action against rebellions

Indonesian Army soldiers in Sinai, 1957. They were part of the Garuda Contingent working under the UNEF
Indonesian Army soldiers in Sinai, 1957. They were part of the Garuda Contingent working under the UNEF

The period is also called the period of liberal democracy is characterized by various rebellions in the country. In 1950 most of the former members of the Colonial Army launched an uprising in Bandung which is known as the Legion of Ratu Adil / APRA uprising and was led by former KNIL officer Raymond Westerling. The army also needed to confront the uprising in Makassar led by Andi Azis and the Republic of South Maluku (RMS) in Maluku. Meanwhile, DaruI Islam in West Java widened its influence to South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi and Aceh. In 1958 the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia / People's Struggle (PRRI / Permesta) started a rebellion in large parts of Sumatra and North Sulawesi endangering the national integrity. As part of the National Armed Forces the Army helped defeat all these uprisings, increasing its prestige in the eyes of the government and the people. Future Chief of Staff of the Army Ahmad Yani was instrumental in one of these first victories against rebels in Central Java.

On 17 November 1952, General Nasution was suspended as army chief of staff following army indiscipline over command and support that threatens the government. From the 1950s, the military articulated the doctrines of dwifungsi and hankamrata, the military roles in the country's socio-political development as well as security; and a requirement that the resources of the people be at the call of the armed forces and police if the State warrants it. On 5 July 1959, Sukarno, with armed forces support and the advice of Nasution, issued a decree dissolving the Constituent Assembly and reintroducing the Constitution of 1945 with strong presidential powers. By 1963, he also assumed the additional role of Prime Minister, which completed the structure of 'Guided Democracy', and was named "President for Life", also with army assistance, the year after.

At the same time, the Indonesian government started sending their troops on UN peacekeeping missions. The first batch of soldiers were sent to Sinai, Egypt and were known as Garuda Contingent 1. Garuda Contingent I began its first deployment January 8, 1957 to Egypt. Garuda Contingent I consisted of the combined personnel of the 15th Army Infantry Regiment Territorial Command (TT) IV / Diponegoro, as well as one company of the 18th Infantry Regiment TC V / Brawijaya in Malang. This contingent was led by Lt. Col. of Infantry Hartoyo which was later replaced by Lieutenant Colonel of Infantry Suadi Suromihardjo, while his deputy was Major of Infantry Soediono Suryantoro. The contingent departed on January 8, 1957, on board the Douglas C-124 Globemaster II transport aircraft of the United States Air Force for Beirut, the Lebanese capital. From Beirut the contingent was divided by two, the majority heading to Abu Suweir and partly to Al Sandhira. Furthermore, the El Sandhira troops moved into Gaza, the border area of Egypt and Israel, while the command is in Rafah. This contingent returned to Indonesia on September 29, 1957. Garuda Contingent I had a total number of 559 army personnel of all ranks.

1960 onwards

Members of the Sarawak People's Guerilla Force (SPGF), North Kalimantan National Army (NKNA) and the Indonesian Army (TNI-AD) during the Indonesian-Malaysian Confrontation
Members of the Sarawak People's Guerilla Force (SPGF), North Kalimantan National Army (NKNA) and the Indonesian Army (TNI-AD) during the Indonesian-Malaysian Confrontation

The army was heavily involved in the Indonesian killings of 1965–1966. The killings were an anti-communist purge following a failed coup of the 30 September Movement. The most widely accepted estimates are that more than 500,000 people were killed. The purge was a pivotal event in the transition to the "New Order"; the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) was eliminated as a political force. The failed coup released pent-up communal hatreds which were fanned by the Indonesian Army, which quickly blamed the PKI. Communists were purged from political, social, and military life, and the PKI itself was banned. The massacres began in October 1965, in the weeks following the coup attempt, and reached their peak over the remainder of the year before subsiding in the early months of 1966. They started in the capital, Jakarta, and spread to Central and East Java and, later, Bali. Thousands of local vigilantes and army units killed actual and alleged PKI members. Although killings occurred across Indonesia, the worst were in the PKI strongholds of Central Java, East Java, Bali, and northern Sumatra. It is possible that over one million people were imprisoned at one time or another.

Sukarno's balancing act of "Nasakom" (nationalism, religion and communism) had been unravelled. His most significant pillar of support, the PKI, had been effectively eliminated by the other two pillars—the army and political Islam; and the army was on the way to unchallenged power. In March 1968, Suharto was formally elected president.

The killings are skipped over in most Indonesian history books and have received little introspection by Indonesians and comparatively little international attention. Satisfactory explanations for the scale and frenzy of the violence have challenged scholars from all ideological perspectives. The possibility of a return to similar upheavals is cited as a factor in the "New Order" administration's political conservatism and tight control of the political system. Vigilance against a perceived communist threat remained a hallmark of Suharto's thirty-year presidency. The CIA described the massacre as "one of the worst mass murders of the 20th century, along with the Soviet purges of the 1930s, the Nazi mass murders during the Second World War, and the Maoist bloodbath of the early 1950s."[9]

Later army operations have not been without controversy however.[3] Involvement in UN Peacekeeping operations continued, but in 2010, the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon was strongly criticized after two soldiers from Indonesia were filmed fleeing a clash on the Israeli-Lebanon border in a taxi.[10]

The size of the Army has expanded over the years; in July 1976 the Army was estimated to consist of solely 180,000 personnel, one armoured cavalry brigade, part of Kostrad (one tank battalion, plus support units), 14 infantry brigades (90 infantry, 1 para, 9 artillery, 11 anti-aircraft, and 9 engineer battalions) of which three of the brigades were in Kostrad, two airborne brigades totalling six battalions, also part of Kostrad, one independent tank battalion, 7 independent armoured cavalry battalions, and four independent para-commando battalions.[11]

Organisation

Indonesian Army Infantry soldiers from Kostrad and Raider Infantry during a ceremony
Indonesian Army Infantry soldiers from Kostrad and Raider Infantry during a ceremony

The Indonesian Army is currently organized into 15 military regions which are spread throughout the Indonesian archipelago. They are placed under the jurisdiction of the army headquarters. Three are based in Sumatra, four are based in Java, two are based in Kalimantan, one based in Lesser Sunda Islands, two based in Sulawesi, one based in Maluku and two based in Papua. The Komando Cadangan Strategis Angkatan Darat (Kostrad, strategic reserve forces) and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus, the Army special force) are independent formations and directly subordinate to the chief of staff. The army headquarters is under coordination with the armed force Headquarters. The highest-ranking officer within the army is the Chief of Staff of the Army which has the rank of a four-star General and is responsible to the Commander of the Armed Forces.

The Indonesian Army and its relation to the Armed Forces General Headquarters and the other military branches are structured into the following in accordance with the provisions of Presidential Regulation No. 66/ 2019 on the Organization of the Indonesian National Armed Forces:[12]

Leadership elements

Leadership support elements

Service element

Central executive agencies

The following agencies are called Badan Pelaksana Pusat, translated as Central Executive Agencies, and directly subordinated under the Army Headquarters. Agencies with affix Pusat (Centers), Akademi (Academies), and Sekolah (Schools or Colleges) are headed by two-star Major General, while agencies with affix Dinas (Services/Departments) and Direktorat (Directorates) are headed by a one-star Brigadier General. Exceptions are made for the Army Territorial Forces Center, Army Military Police Center, and Army Central Hospital as they are all headed by a three-star Lieutenant General.

Centers

  1. Infantry Forces Center (Pusat Kesenjataan Infanteri)
  2. Cavalry Forces Center (Pusat Kesenjataan Kavaleri)
  3. Air Defense Artillery Forces Center (Pusat Kesenjataan Artileri Pertahanan Udara)
  4. Field Artillery Forces Center (Pusat Kesenjataan Artileri Medan)
  1. Army Territorial Forces Center (Pusat Teritorial TNI Angkatan Darat)
  2. Army Military Police Center (Pusat Polisi Militer TNI Angkatan Darat)
  3. Army Aviation Center (Pusat Penerbangan TNI Angkatan Darat)
  4. Army Medical Center (Pusat Kesehatan TNI Angkatan Darat)
  5. Army Combat Engineering Center (Pusat Zeni TNI Angkatan Darat)
  6. Army Signals Center (Pusat Perhubungan TNI Angkatan Darat);
  7. Army Ordnance Center (Pusat Peralatan TNI Angkatan Darat);
  8. Army Logistics and Transportation Center (Pusat Pembekalan dan Angkutan TNI Angkatan Darat);
  9. Army Intelligence Center (Pusat Intelijen TNI Angkatan Darat)
  10. Army Ciphering and Cyber Operations Center (Pusat Sandi dan Siber TNI Angkatan Darat)

Central Hospitals

  1. Gatot Soebroto Army Central Hospital (Rumah Sakit Pusat Angkatan Darat Gatot Soebroto)

Academies and Schools

  1. Indonesian Military Academy (Akademi Militer)
  2. Army Command and General Staff College (Sekolah Staf dan Komando TNI Angkatan Darat)
  3. Army Officer Candidate School (Sekolah Calon Perwira TNI Angkatan Darat)

Directorates

  1. Army Adjutancy General Directorate (Direktorat Ajudan Jenderal TNI Angkatan Darat);
  2. Army Topography Directorate (Direktorat Topografi TNI Angkatan Darat);
  3. Army Military Justice Directorate (Direktorat Hukum TNI Angkatan Darat); and
  4. Army Finance Directorate (Direktorat Keuangan TNI Angkatan Darat).

Services

  1. Army Physical Fitness and Sport Service (Dinas Jasmani TNI Angkatan Darat);
  2. Army Mental Guidance and Chaplaincy Service (Dinas Pembinaan Mental TNI Angkatan Darat)
  3. Army Psychology Service (Dinas Psikologi TNI Angkatan Darat)
  4. Army Research and Development Service (Dinas Penelitian dan Pengembangan TNI Angkatan Darat)
  5. Army Historical Heritage Service (Dinas Sejarah TNI Angkatan Darat)
  6. Army Information and Data Processing Service (Dinas Informasi dan Pengolahan Data TNI Angkatan Darat)
  7. Army Public Relations Service (Dinas Penerangan TNI Angkatan Darat)
  8. Army Worthiness Service (Dinas Penerangan TNI Angkatan Darat)
  9. Army Procurement Service (Dinas Pengadaan TNI Angkatan Darat)

Principal Commands under the Army Headquarters

Army Strategic Reserve Command

Soldiers from Kostrad
Soldiers from Kostrad

The Army Strategic Reserve Command (Komando Cadangan Strategis Angkatan Darat), better known by its abbreviation Kostrad is the Indonesian Army's strategic operational command. It is a corps-level command which has around 40,000 troops, organized into three divisions.[13] It also supervises operational readiness among all commands and conducts defence and security operations at the strategic level in accordance with policies of the TNI commander. Green berets are worn by its personnel, and it is the main basic warfare combat unit of the Indonesian Army.

While Kopassus is the elite-special forces of the Indonesian Army, Kostrad is still maintained as the first-line combat unit of the TNI below the Kopassus.[14] Despite its nomenclature as reserve units, it is also used as main combat force, deployed for certain circumstances and is also capable for semi-special ops because mainly airborne infantry units are part of this corps. Kostrad contains Infantry (including Airborne) units, Artillery, Cavalry, and other military combat units. The three division's composition and its headquarters are:

Army Doctrine, Education and Training Development Command

The Army Doctrine, Education and Training Development Command (Komando Pembinaan Doktrin, Pendidikan, dan Latihan TNI Angkatan Darat, abbreviated into Kodiklatad) is charged in providing training to all officers, warrant officers, NCOs and enlisted personnel of the Army. The Command HQ is based in Bandung, and organized into the following:

Army Special Force Command

The Special Force Command (Komando Pasukan Khusus) or Kopassus for short, composed of an estimated 5,530 personnel organized into five brigade-level groups:

Except for the Special Force Education and Training Center, every Kopassus groups are tasked with maintaining its combat and operational readiness at any given moment.[15] Each group is headed by a Colonel and all groups are qualified as airborne commandos. Kopassus is known for its roles in high-risk operations such as the Woyla hijacking and the Mapenduma hostage crisis. However, Kopassus is also known for its alleged human right abuses in East Timor and Papua. Personnel of the unit are distinguished by their red berets, similar to most paratrooper and special forces units in the world.

Army territorial commands

Further information: Regional Military Command

The Military Area Commands (Komando Daerah Militer, or KODAM) as of 2021
The Military Area Commands (Komando Daerah Militer, or KODAM) as of 2021

The territorial Regional Military Command (Komando Daerah Militer) and its units below hierarchically serve as the main operational organization of the Indonesian Army. These military territories were established by General Sudirman (the then-Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces), following the model of the Nazi German Wehrkreis system. The system was later codified in Surat Perintah Siasat No.1, signed into doctrine in November 1948.

The hierarchy of Indonesian Army territorial command is as follows:

There are currently fifteen Kodams established across Indonesia, with all but two commands numbered.

  1. KODAM I/Bukit Barisan covers northern and central Sumatra, except Aceh
  2. KODAM II/ Sriwijaya covers southern Sumatra
  3. KODAM III/Siliwangi covered western Java, except Jakarta metro area
  4. KODAM IV/Diponegoro covered central Java
  5. KODAM V/Brawijaya covered eastern Java
  6. KODAM VI/Mulawarman covered eastern Kalimantan;
  7. KODAM IX/Udayana covered the lesser Sunda islands
  8. KODAM XII/Tanjungpura covered western and central Kalimantan
  9. KODAM XIII/Merdeka covered northern and eastern Sulawesi
  10. KODAM XIV/Hasanuddin covered southern and western Sulawesi
  11. KODAM XVI/Pattimura covered the Moluccas;
  12. KODAM XVII/Cenderawasih covered western Papua;
  13. KODAM VIII/Kasuari covered eastern Papua;
  14. KODAM Jayakarta covers Jakarta metro area
  15. KODAM Iskandar Muda covers Aceh
Jayakarta Military Area Command headquarters.
Jayakarta Military Area Command headquarters.

The Army's structure underwent various reorganizations throughout its early years. From 1946 to 1952 the Army was organized into a number of set combined arms divisions. These were further consolidated in 1951, and then dispersed in 1952. From 1952 to 1958–59, the Army was organized into seven Territorial Armies (Tentara & Teritorium) composed of regiments and independent formations in the battalion level and below. In August 1958, the Indonesian Army reconsolidated its territorial organization. There were then established sixteen regional commands, which retained earlier divisional titles; the Siliwangi Division, for example, became Kodam VI/Siliwangi.[16] The RCs, then as in today, were subdivided administratively into Areas (the former territorial regiments), Districts (the former regimental battalions) and District Sectors, and operationally composed of a number of specialty battalions and in some regional commands, an infantry brigade.

A reorganisation in 1985 made significant changes in the army chain of command. The four multiservice Regional Defence Commands (Kowilhans) and the National Strategic Forces Command (Kostranas) were eliminated from the defence structure, re-establishing the Regional Military Command (Kodam) as the key organisation for strategic, tactical, and territorial operations for all services.[17] The chain of command flowed directly from the ABRI commander in chief via the Chief of Staff of the Army to the ten territorial commands' commanders, and then to subordinate army territorial commands.

The territorial commands incorporate provincial and district commands each with a number of infantry battalions, sometimes a cavalry battalion, artillery, or engineers, and there are an increasing number of infantry brigades being activated.[18] Some have Raider battalions attached either under divisional control, under brigades, or as territorial infantry.

Army Branches/Corps

Combat elements

Indonesian Army Infantry soldiers
Indonesian Army Infantry soldiers

Further information: Indonesian Army infantry battalions

Further information: Indonesian Army infantry brigades

Further information: Division (military) § Indonesia

There are today 5 types of Infantry battalions in the Indonesian Army, which are:

  1. Para-Raider Infantry Battalion (abbreviated Yonif Para Raider) are Airborne infantry battalions part of Kostrad which are also capable in Air assault and Raid operations.
  2. Mechanized-Raider Infantry Battalion (abbreviated Yonif Mekanis Raider) are Raider infantry battalions which are Mechanized that are special operations-capable which also can carry out urban warfare and ground mechanized infantry operations.
  3. Raider Infantry Battalion (abbreviated Yonif Raider) are infantry battalions which are basically trained for Raid warfare and Air assault operations.
  4. Mechanized Infantry Battalion (abbreviated Yonif Mekanis) are mobilized infantry battalions, equipped with APCs and IFVs.
  5. Infantry Battalion (abbreviated Yonif) are light Infantry battalions.

All infantrymen of the Indonesian National Armed Forces have capabilities in Jungle warfare, including infantrymen from the Indonesian Marine Corps and Paskhas corps.

Combat support elements

The 1st (Falatehan) Air Defense Artillery Regiment of the Kodam Jaya military district
The 1st (Falatehan) Air Defense Artillery Regiment of the Kodam Jaya military district
Leopard 2 tanks during parade at the ceremony of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Day
Leopard 2 tanks during parade at the ceremony of the Indonesian National Armed Forces Day

Support elements

Administrative Assistance Units

Indonesian Military Policemen
Indonesian Military Policemen

Chief of Staff of the Army

Main article: Chief of Staff of the Indonesian Army

Rank structure

Main article: Indonesian military ranks

In the army, as well as in other armed forces branches in Indonesia, the rank consists of three group of ranks: Perwira for officers, Bintara for NCOs, and Tamtama for enlisted.

The proper title to address of rank are as follows and applicable to all branch of TNI, all flag officers (generals, admirals, and air marshals) use their rank followed by "(TNI)", while senior and junior officers use their rank followed by respective branch/corps abbreviation. For example, an Army colonel with Infantry branch use the title "Kolonel INF" (read as Kolonel Infanteri), while an Army Major General from Infantry branch use the title "Mayor Jenderal (TNI)". Enlisted personnel are not required to put their respective branch/corps specialty.[21]

Note: Indonesia is not a member of NATO, so there is not an official equivalence between the Indonesian military ranks and those defined by NATO. The displayed parallel is approximate and for illustration purposes only.

Officers

Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Indonesian Army[22]
Grand General
General
Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Major
Captain
First Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Jenderal besar Jenderal Letnan jenderal Mayor jenderal Brigadir jenderal Kolonel Letnan kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan satu Letnan dua

Enlisted

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
 Indonesian Army[22]
12-TNI Army-CWO.svg
11-TNI Army-WO.svg
Serma pdh ad.png
Serka pdh ad.png
Sertu pdh ad.png
Serda pdh ad.png
Kopka pdh ad.png
Koptu pdh ad.png
Kopda pdh ad.png
Praka pdh ad.png
Pratu pdh ad.png
Prada pdh ad.png
Pembantu letnan satu Pembantu letnan dua Sersan mayor Sersan kepala Sersan satu Sersan dua Kopral kepala Kopral satu Kopral dua Prajurit kepala Prajurit satu Prajurit dua

Equipment and weaponry

Main article: List of equipment of the Indonesian Army

Photo gallery

See also

Notes

References

  1. ^ a b IISS Military Balance 2012, 248. Figure may have not been updated by IISS since 2006 at least.
  2. ^ Daves, Joseph H (2013) The Indonesian Army from Revolusi to Reformasi ISBN 978-1492930938, p 15
  3. ^ a b Schwarz, Adam (1994) A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s Allen & Unwin ISBN 1-86373-635-2, p 215
  4. ^ Hill-Smith, Charlie (2009) Strange Birds in Paradise: A West Papuan Story
  5. ^ Ricklefs (1991), pages 214 – 215
  6. ^ Friend (2003), page 35
  7. ^ Reid (1974), page 78
  8. ^ "Bapak Tentara yang Dilupakan". Historia (in Indonesian). Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  9. ^ David A. Blumenthal and Timothy L. H. McCormack (2007). The Legacy of Nuremberg: Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance? (International Humanitarian Law). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9004156917 pp. 80–81.
  10. ^ "Criticism as Two Indonesian Soldiers Flee Lebanese, Israeli Battle in Taxi". The Jakarta Globe. 5 August 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  11. ^ IISS, The Military Balance 1976-77, p.55, ISBN 0-900492-98-8
  12. ^ "Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 66 Tahun 2019 Tentang Susunan Organisasi Tentara Nasional Indonesia" [Presidential Decree Number 66 Year 2019 Regarding Organization of Indonesian National Armed Forces]. Presidential decree No. 66 of 2019 (PDF) (in Indonesian). President of Indonesia.
  13. ^ International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Military Balance 2008, 382.
  14. ^ "Kostrad Exercise Chakra II forms 1.071 fighters (Latihan Cakra II Kostrad Cetak 1,071 Petarung)", Fery Setiawan, COMMANDO magazine 6th edition vol. XII 2016, p. 17, 2016
  15. ^ For further authoritative details on Kopassus, see Ken Conboy (2003) KOPASSUS Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, ISBN 979-95898-8-6.
  16. ^ Ken Conboy, Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces, Equinox Publishing, Jakarta/Singapore, 2003, p.79
  17. ^ Library of Congress Country Study, Indonesia, November 1992, Organization of the Armed Forces
  18. ^ The Military Balance 2006, International Institute for Strategic Studies
  19. ^ IISS Military Balance 2007, Routledge for the IISS, London, p.352
  20. ^ a b "usurped title". Archived from the original on 14 February 2018. ((cite web)): Cite uses generic title (help)CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  21. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 39 Tahun 2010 Tentang Administrasi Prajurit Tentara Nasional Indonesia" [Government Regulation No 39 Year 2010 Regarding Administration of Armed Forces Personnel]. No. 39 of 2010 (PDF) (in Indonesian). Government of Indonesia.
  22. ^ a b "Pangkat Harian". tni.mil.id (in Indonesian). Indonesian National Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2021.

Bibliography

Further reading