The Indonesian National Armed Forces (TNI) uses a simplified ranking system for the three branches of Indonesian Army, Indonesian Navy and Indonesian Air Force. Most of the ranks are similar with differences for the rank titles of the high-ranking officers. Exception exists, however, in the ranks of the service members of the Indonesian Marine Corps. While Indonesian Marine Corps is a branch of the Navy, the rank titles of the Marine Corps are the same as those of the Army, but it still uses the Navy's style insignia (for lower-ranking enlisted men, blue replaces the red colour).

As said above, all services maintain the same rank insignia and title, with the main difference for officers are that high-ranking officers use their special titles, while officers below that rank use the similar title but followed by their respective branch/corps abbreviation. For example, an Army colonel with Infantry branch use the title "Kolonel INF.", which "INF" means "Infanteri" or "Infantry"; A Navy colonel with Supply Corps background use the title "Kolonel Laut (S)", in which "S" means "Suplai" or "Supply". Also, an Air Force Colonel with Electronical Engineering Corps background use the title "Kolonel (Lek)", in which "Lek" means "Elektronika" or "Electronics". There are no differences with enlisted personnel's title for Army and Air Force, but the Navy still use the personnel's branch/corps abbreviation behind the title.[1]

High-ranking officers use stars as their insignia, middle-rank officers use jasmine buds and lower-rank officer use bars. High-rank NCOs use wavy bars, NCOs use yellow chevrons, high-rank enlisted men use red chevrons (blue for Navy and Marine Corps) and lower-rank enlisted men use red bars (blue for Navy and Marine Corps).

Rank title

Ranks before 1957

The following ranks were used at the beginning of the establishment of the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR, People's Security Armed Forces) in late 1945, the basis of the present day Indonesian National Armed Forces. This first rank system, with insignia following the former Imperial Japanese practice, was used until 1957.[2]

The TKR's Ground, Air and Naval Forces, later the Indonesian Army, Air Force, and Navy, used these ranks. (The same Army ranks were also used by the nascent Indonesian Marine Corps.)

Commissioned officer ranks

The rank insignia of commissioned officers.

Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Army &
Marine Corps
General
Lieutenant General
Major General
Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Major
Captain
First Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Letnan muda tkr.png
Djenderal Letnan djenderal Djenderal major Kolonel Letnan kolonel Major Kapten Letnan I Letnan II Letnan muda
Navy
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Laksamana I Laksamana II Laksamana III Kolonel laut Letnan kolonel laut Major laut Kapten laut Letnan laut Letnan muda laut Adjudan
Air Force
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Laksamana udara Laksamana muda udara Komodor udara Komodor muda udara Opsir udara I Opsir udara II Opsir udara III Opsir muda udara I Opsir muda udara II Opsir muda udara II
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet

Other ranks

The rank insignia of non-commissioned officers and enlisted personnel.

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
Army &
Marine Corps
Sersan major tkr.png
Sersan tkr.png
Kopral tkr.png
Pradjurit klas 1 tkr.png
Pradjurit klas 2 tkr.png
Sersan major Sersan Kopral Pradjurit I Pradjurit II
Navy
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Sersan major Sersan Kopral Kelasi I Kelasi II
Air Force
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Blank.svg
Sersan major Sersan Kopral Pradjurit I Pradjurit II
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted

Ranks between 1957–73

The rank system was updated by yet another Government Regulation on 22 June 1957.[3] The Army received the Brigadier General rank, the Navy flag officer ranks were replaced by new ones (Admiral, Vice Admiral, Rear Admiral and Commodore replacing Admiral 1st Class, Admiral 2nd Class and Admiral 3rd Class) and the Air Force flag officer ranks replaced to be similar with Navy (with special title "Udara"). The ranks remained Army-style in the Army and Navy and army-style ranks were formally introduced into the air force. NCOs and Enlisted ranks and ratings became different per service branch. Although the government regulation did not specifically mention rank to be used in the Naval Commando Corps, the rank system of Army was begun to be used in the Naval Commando Corps (Marine Corps today).

Rank Category Indonesian Army,
Naval Commando Corps
Indonesian Navy Indonesian Air Force
Generals,
flag officers,
air marshals
Jenderal
(General)
Laksamana
(Admiral)
Laksamana Udara
(Air Admiral)
Letnan Jenderal
(Lieutenant General)
Laksamana Madya
(Vice Admiral)
Laksamana Madya Udara
(Air Vice Admiral)
Jenderal Mayor
(Major General)
Laksamana Muda
(Rear Admiral)
Laksamana Muda Udara
(Air Rear Admiral)
Brigadir Jenderal
(Brigadier General)
Komodor
(Commodore)
Komodor Udara
(Air Commodore)
Field officers Kolonel
(Colonel)
Kolonel Laut
(Captain)
Kolonel Udara
(Colonel)
Letnan Kolonel
(Lieutenant Colonel)
Letnan Kolonel Laut
(Commander)
Letnan Kolonel Udara
(Lieutenant Colonel)
Mayor
(Major)
Mayor
(Lieutenant Commander)
Mayor Udara
(Major)
Junior grade officers Kapten
(Captain)
Kapten
(Lieutenant)
Kapten Udara
(Captain)
Letnan I
(First Lieutenant)
Letnan
(Lieutenant junior grade)
Letnan Udara I
(First Lieutenant)
Letnan II
(Second Lieutenant)
Letnan Muda
(Ensign)
Letnan Udara II
(Second Lieutenant)
Warrant officers and non-commissioned personnel Pembantu Letnan I
(Chief Warrant Officer)
Pembantu Letnan
(Warrant Officer)
Letnan Muda Udara I
(Warrant Officer First Class)
Pembantu Letnan Calon Perwira
(Warrant Officer First Class)
Pembantu Letnan II
(Warrant Officer Second Class)
Ajudan
(Adjutant)
Letnan Muda Udara II
(Warrant Officer Second Class)
Sersan Major
(Sergeant Major)
Sersan Major I
(Master Chief Petty Officer)
Sersan Major Udara
(Sergeant Major)
Sersan Mayor II
(Senior Chief Petty Officer)
Sersan Kepala
(Staff Sergeant)
Sersan I (Chief Petty Officer) Sersan Udara I (Flight Sergeant)
Sersan I
(Sergeant First Class)
Sersan II
(Sergeant)
Sersan II
(Petty Officer First Class)
Sersan Udara II
(Sergeant)
Enlisted personnel,
ratings
Kopral Kepala (Master Corporal) Kopral
(Petty Officer Second Class)
Kopral Udara I
(Corporal)
Kopral I
(Corporal)
Kopral II
(Lance Corporal)
Kopral Udara II
(Lance Corporal)
Prajurit Kader
(Specialist)
Kelasi I (Seaman) Prajurit Udara I
(Airman First Class)
Prajurit I
(Private First Class)
Prajurit II
(Private)
Kelasi II
(Seaman Apprentice)
Prajurit Udara II
(Airman)
Kelasi III
(Seaman Recruit)

Changes between 1973–90

Government Regulation No. 24/ 1973,[4] updated the rank system once again, the changes were as follows:

Changes between 1990–97

During this period, there are minor changes of rank system in all branch of the armed forces, which are removal of rank of senior warrant officer and new enlisted ranks introduced (Master Corporal and Petty Officer 1st Class and Master Private, Seaman and Senior Airman). Those changes are based on Government Regulation No.6/ 1990.[5]

Changes between 1997–2010

Government Regulation No. 32/ 1997 regarding the rank system of armed forces[6] was issued. The primary difference with previous regulation are new five-star honorary rank for all branches of the armed forces was introduced and warrant officers rank was re-introduced.

In 2000, with the Indonesian National Police having regained its independence from the armed forces, the TNI rank system ceased to be used.

Current ranks 2010–present

Five-star honorary rank for all branches of the armed forces are no longer regulated on the latest regulation.[1]

The ranks and rank insignia used today come from the Armed Forces rank regulations of 1990 and 1997, themselves revisions of the first rank regulations published in 1973 to use the current system. All three branches have the same rank titles at the same paygrades, except for the Perwira Tinggi (General Officers, Flag Officers, and Air Officers) and the Tamtama (Lower Rank Enlisted) of the Navy and Air Force.

Rank insignia

All branches of the armed forces maintain the same rank insignia, with minor color difference in insignia background. Since, all services have at least three type of uniform (Service dress uniform (Pakaian Dinas Harian / PDH), Full dress uniform (Pakaian Dinas Upacara / PDU), and Field uniform (Pakaian Dinas Lapangan / PDL)), there are three different insignia style corresponding to type of uniform. Aside from type of the uniform above, The Navy has uniform for wear in oversea service, officially known as Black Navy. When wearing such uniform, officers wear their ranks as gold stripes on their lower sleeves. The number and width of the stripes for each rank is similar to that of the United States Navy.

The rank insignia for same services are also differentiated by red piping (command) or no piping (staff) at the sides of the boards.

Note: Indonesia is not a member of NATO, so there is no official equivalence between the Indonesian military ranks and those defined by NATO. The displayed parallel is approximate and for illustration purposes only.

Commissioned officers

The following are the rank insignia for commissioned officers for the army, navy and air force respectively.[7][8][9]

Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Indonesian Army[10]
Grand General
General
Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Major
Captain
First Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Jenderal besar Jenderal Letnan jenderal Mayor jenderal Brigadir jenderal Kolonel Letnan kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan satu Letnan dua
Army rank insginia
on PDU
Pdu jendbesartni.png
Pdu jendtni komando.png
Pdu letjendtni komando.png
Pdu mayjendtni komando.png
Pdu brigjendtni komando.png
Pdu koloneltni komando.png
Pdu letkoltni komando.png
Pdu mayortni komando.png
Pdu kaptentni komando.png
Pdu lettutni komando.png
Pdu letdatni komando.png
Army rank insginia
on PDL
Pdl 5tni.png
Pdl 4tni komando.png
Pdl 3tni komando.png
Pdl 2tni komando.png
Pdl 1tni komando.png
Pdl koltni komando.png
Pdl letkoltni komando.png
Pdl mayortni komando.png
Pdl kaptentni komando.png
Pdl lettutni komando.png
Pdl letdatni komando.png
 Indonesian Navy[10]
23-TNI Navy-FADM.svg
22-TNI Navy-ADM.svg
21-TNI Navy-VADM.svg
20-TNI Navy-RADM.svg
19-TNI Navy-CDRE.svg
18-TNI Navy-CAPT.svg
17-TNI Navy-CDR.svg
16-TNI Navy-LCDR.svg
15-TNI Navy-LT.svg
14-TNI Navy-LTJG.svg
13-TNI Navy-ENS.svg
Laksamana besar Laksamana Laksamana madya Laksamana muda Laksamana pertama Kolonel Letnan kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan satu Letnan dua
Navy rank insginia
on PDU
Pdu laksamanabesartni.png
Pdu laksamanatni komando.png
Pdu laksdyatni komando.png
Pdu laksdatni komando.png
Pdu laksmatni komando.png
Pdu koloneltni komando.png
Pdu letkoltni komando.png
Pdu mayortni komando.png
Pdu kaptentni komando.png
Pdu lettutni komando.png
Pdu letdatni komando.png
Navy rank insginia
on PDL
Pdl 5tni.png
Pdl 4tni komando.png
Pdl 3tni komando.png
Pdl 2tni komando.png
Pdl 1tni komando.png
Pdl koltni komando.png
Pdl letkoltni komando.png
Pdl mayortni komando.png
Pdl kaptentni komando.png
Pdl lettutni komando.png
Pdl letdatni komando.png
Navy sleeve rank
on Black Navy uniform
No insignia
Generic-Navy-(star)-O11.svg
Generic-Navy-(star)-O10.svg
Generic-Navy-(star)-O9.svg
Generic-Navy-(star)-O8.svg
Generic-Navy-(star)-O7.svg
Generic-Navy-(star)-O5.svg
Generic-Navy-(star)-O4.svg
Generic-Navy-(star)-O3.svg
Generic-Navy-(star)-O2.svg
Generic-Navy-(star)-O1.svg
 Indonesian Air Force[10]
Grand General
General
Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Major
Captain
First Lieutenant
Second Lieutenant
Marsekal besar Marsekal Marsekal madya Marsekal muda Marsekal pertama Kolonel Letnan kolonel Mayor Kapten Letnan satu Letnan dua
Air Force rank insginia
on PDU
Pdu marsekalbesartni.png
Pdu marsekaltni komando.png
Pdu marsdyatni komando.png
Pdu marsdatni komando.png
Pdu marsmatni komando.png
Pdu koloneltni komando.png
Pdu letkoltni komando.png
Pdu mayortni komando.png
Pdu kaptentni komando.png
Pdu lettutni komando.png
Pdu letdatni komando.png
Air Force rank insginia
on PDL
Pdl 5tni.png
Pdl 4tni komando.png
Pdl 3tni komando.png
Pdl 2tni komando.png
Pdl 1tni komando.png
Pdl koltni komando.png
Pdl letkoltni komando.png
Pdl mayortni komando.png
Pdl kaptentni komando.png
Pdl lettutni komando.png
Pdl letdatni komando.png
Rank group General/flag officers Senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet

Enlisted

The rank insignia for enlisted personnel for the army, navy and air force respectively.[7][8][9]

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
 Indonesian Army[10]
12-TNI Army-CWO.svg
11-TNI Army-WO.svg
Serma pdh ad.png
Serka pdh ad.png
Sertu pdh ad.png
Serda pdh ad.png
Kopka pdh ad.png
Koptu pdh ad.png
Kopda pdh ad.png
Praka pdh ad.png
Pratu pdh ad.png
Prada pdh ad.png
Pembantu letnan satu Pembantu letnan dua Sersan mayor Sersan kepala Sersan satu Sersan dua Kopral kepala Kopral satu Kopral dua Prajurit kepala Prajurit satu Prajurit dua
Army rank insginia
on PDU
Pdu peltutni komando.png
Pdu peldatni komando.png
Pdu sermatni komando.png
Pdu serkatni komando.png
Pdu sertutni komando.png
Pdu serdatni komando.png
Pdu kopkatni komando.png
Pdu koptutni komando.png
Pdu kopdatni komando.png
Pdu prakatni.png
Pdu pratutni.png
Pdu pradatni.png
Army rank insginia
on PDL
Pdl peltutni komando.png
Pdl peldatni komando.png
Pdl sermatni komando.png
Pdl serkatni komando.png
Pdl sertutni komando.png
Pdl serdatni komando.png
Pdl kopkatni komando.png
Pdl koptutni komando.png
Pdl kopdatni komando.png
Pdl prakatni.png
Pdl pratutni.png
Pdl pradatni.png
 Indonesian Navy[10]
12-TNI Navy-CWO.svg
11-TNI Navy-WO.svg
Serma pdh al.png
Serka pdh al.png
Sertu pdh al.png
Serda pdh al.png
Kopka pdh al.png
Koptu pdh al.png
Kopda pdh al.png
Kelasi kepala pdh al.png
Kelasi satu pdh al.png
Kelasi dua pdh al.png
Pembantu letnan satu Pembantu letnan dua Sersan mayor Sersan kepala Sersan satu Sersan dua Kopral kepala Kopral satu Kopral dua Kelasi kepala Kelasi satu Kelasi dua
Navy rank insginia
on PDU
Pdu peltutni komando.png
Pdu peldatni komando.png
Pdu sermatni komando.png
Pdu serkatni komando.png
Pdu sertutni komando.png
Pdu serdatni komando.png
Pdu kopkatni al komando.png
Pdu koptutni al komando.png
Pdu kopdatni al komando.png
Pdu kelasikepalatni.png
Pdu kelasisatutni.png
Pdu kelasiduatni.png
Navy rank insginia
on PDL
Pdl peltutni komando.png
Pdl peldatni komando.png
Pdl sermatni komando.png
Pdl serkatni komando.png
Pdl sertutni komando.png
Pdl serdatni komando.png
Pdl kopkatni al komando.png
Pdl koptutni al komando.png
Pdl kopdatni al komando.png
Pdl kelasikepalatni.png
Pdl kelasisatutni.png
Pdl kelasiduatni.png
 Indonesian Air Force[10]
12-TNI Air Force-CWO.svg
11-TNI Air Force-WO.svg
Serma pdh au.png
Serka pdh au.png
Sertu pdh au.png
Serda pdh au.png
Kopka pdh au.png
Koptu pdh au.png
Kopda pdh au.png
Praka pdh au.png
Pratu pdh au.png
Prada pdh au.png
Pembantu letnan satu Pembantu letnan dua Sersan mayor Sersan kepala Sersan satu Sersan dua Kopral kepala Kopral satu Kopral dua Prajurit kepala Prajurit satu Prajurit dua
Air Force rank insginia
for PDU
Pdu peltutni komando.png
Pdu peldatni komando.png
Pdu sermatni komando.png
Pdu serkatni komando.png
Pdu sertutni komando.png
Pdu serdatni komando.png
Pdu kopkatni komando.png
Pdu koptutni komando.png
Pdu kopdatni komando.png
Pdu prakatni.png
Pdu pratutni.png
Pdu pradatni.png
Air Force rank insginia
on PDL
Pdl peltutni komando.png
Pdl peldatni komando.png
Pdl sermatni komando.png
Pdl serkatni komando.png
Pdl sertutni komando.png
Pdl serdatni komando.png
Pdl kopkatni komando.png
Pdl koptutni komando.png
Pdl kopdatni komando.png
Pdl prakatni.png
Pdl pratutni.png
Pdl pradatni.png
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Peraturan Pemerintah RI Nomor 39 Tahun 2010 tentang Administrasi Prajurit Tentara Nasional Indonesia" [Government Regulation No 39 Year 2010 on Administration of Armed Forces Personnel]. No. 39 of 2010 (PDF) (in Indonesian).
  2. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah RI tentang Peraturan Gaji Militer 1949 , Lampiran A". Government Regulation No. 21 of 1949 (in Indonesian).
  3. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah No.24 Tahun 1957 tentang Peraturan Pangkat-pangkat Militer dalam Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia". Government Regulation No. 24 of 1957 (in Indonesian).
  4. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah No.24 Tahun 1973 Tentang Kepangkatan Militer/Polisi Dalam Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia". Government Regulation No. 24 of 1973 (in Indonesian).
  5. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah No.6 Tahun 1990 Tentang Administrasi Prajurit Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia". Government Regulation No. 6 of 1990 (in Indonesian).
  6. ^ "Peraturan Pemerintah No.32 Tahun 1997 Tentang Administrasi Prajurit Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia". Government Regulation No. 32 of 1997 (in Indonesian).
  7. ^ a b "Pangkat Harian". tni.mil.id. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Pangkat Upacara". tni.mil.id. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Pangkat Lapangan". tni.mil.id. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  10. ^ a b c d e f "Pangkat Harian". tni.mil.id (in Indonesian). Indonesian National Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2021.