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Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1a rank.

Australia

The rank of second lieutenant existed in the military forces of the Australian colonies and Australian Army until 1986.

In the colonial forces, which closely followed the practices of the British military, the rank of second lieutenant began to replace ranks such as ensign and cornet from 1871.

New appointments to the rank of second lieutenant ceased in the regular army in 1986.[1] Immediately prior to this change, the rank had been effectively reserved for new graduates from the Officer Cadet School, Portsea which closed in 1985. (Graduates of the Australian Defence Force Academy (ADFA) and the Royal Military College, Duntroon (RMC-D) are commissioned as lieutenants.).[2][3] The rank of second lieutenant is only appointed to officers in special appointments such as training institutions, university regiments and while under probation during training. Trainees undertaking Special Service Officer (SSO) training are also appointed at higher rank (as second lieutenants) than General Service Officer (GSO) trainees who start off at the rank of officer cadet (ADFA/Australian Army Reserve officer trainees) or staff cadet (Royal Military College, Duntroon).[4]

Ranks equivalent to second lieutenant are acting sub-lieutenant in the Royal Australian Navy and pilot officer in the Royal Australian Air Force.

Canada

The Canadian Forces adopted the rank with insignia of a single gold ring around the service dress uniform cuff for both army and air personnel upon unification in 1968 until the late 2000s.[5][6] For a time, naval personnel used this rank but reverted to the Royal Canadian Navy rank of acting sub-lieutenant, though the CF green uniform was retained until the mid-1980s. Currently, the Canadian Army insignia for second lieutenant is a pip and the Royal Canadian Air Force insignia for lieutenant is one thick braid. The equivalent rank for the Royal Canadian Navy is acting sub-lieutenant. Also known as an Ensign in the Foot Guards units (Canadian Grenadier Guards & Governor General's Foot Guards).

France

A second-lieutenant is equivalent to a junior commissioned officer (the French army does not use the terms commissioned or non-commissioned). During classes at officer training schools such as Saint Cyr the cadets rise quickly through the non-commissioned ranks of private, corporal, sergeant and reach the rank of aspirant which is the first officer rank. After additional training at specialised schools they get the bar of second-lieutenant. The insignia consists of a metal-colored bar in accordance with the color of the ceremonial uniform buttons and hat symbol.

For example, for the infantry, gold being the metal of the ceremonial dress buttons, the symbol on the béret being a golden grenade with two crossed rifles, and the symbol on the képi being a single golden grenade, therefore the insignia of a sous-lieutenant is a gold-colored bar.

For cavalry or forest rangers (light infantry mobilised from the Water and Forests Corp), ceremonial dress buttons were silver, as was the hunting horn on the forest commissioned officer's képi, therefore the insignia of a sous-lieutenant is a silver-colored bar.

Indonesia

Main article: Indonesian military ranks

In Indonesia, "second lieutenant" is known as letnan dua (letda) which is the most junior ranked officer in the Indonesian Military. Officers in the Indonesian National Armed Forces are commissioned through one of four major commissioning programs. Upon graduation the candidates are promoted to the rank of second lieutenant, thus becoming commissioned officers. The four programs are:

New Zealand

Like many other Commonwealth countries, the rank structures of the New Zealand Defence Force usually follow British traditions. Hence the New Zealand Army maintains a rank of second lieutenant and the Royal New Zealand Air Force has its exact equivalent, pilot officer.

However, the Royal New Zealand Navy breaks with British tradition and uses the name ensign for its most junior commissioned officer rank (rather than the usual equivalents, such as acting sub-lieutenant or second lieutenant).

Pakistan

The Pakistan Army follows the British pattern of ranks. A second lieutenant is represented by one metal pip on each shoulder in case of "khaki uniform" and one diamond star on the chest in case of camouflage combat dress. However a second lieutenant in the Pakistan Army is usually promoted to lieutenant 6 months after commissioning. Test for 2nd lieutenant is held every year twice in Pakistan. It is the smallest rank among commissioned officers.

Philippines

In the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the rank of second lieutenant is the lowest commissioned officer rank used by the Philippine Army, Philippine Air Force and the Philippine Marine Corps. It stands below the rank of First Lieutenant.

Singapore

In Singapore, the rank of second lieutenant (2LT) is awarded to officer cadets who have graduated from the completion of their officer cadet course, and is the lowest commissioned rank in the Singapore Armed Forces, below the rank of lieutenant and above the rank of chief warrant officer. The rank insignia of a second lieutenant is a bar.[7]

United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries

The rank of second lieutenant (2Lt) was introduced throughout the British Army in 1877 to replace the short-lived rank of sub-lieutenant, although it had long been used in the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, Fusilier and Rifle regiments. At first the rank bore no distinct insignia. In 1902, a single Bath star was introduced; the ranks of lieutenant and captain had their number of stars increased by one to (respectively) two and three. The rank is also used by the Royal Marines.

New British Army officers are normally commissioned as second lieutenants at the end of their commissioning course at RMA Sandhurst, and continue with specific training with their units. Progression to lieutenant rank usually occurs after about a year. In the British armed forces, second lieutenant is a rank which is not used as a form of address. Instead a second lieutenant named, for example, Smith is addressed and referred to as Mr Smith, with the exception that the alternative titles ensign (Foot Guards) and cornet (in the Blues and Royals[8] and Queen's Royal Hussars[9]) are still used. In the Royal Air Force, the comparable rank is pilot officer. The Royal Navy has no exact equivalent rank, and a second lieutenant is senior to a Royal Navy midshipman but junior to a sub-lieutenant.

United States

Second lieutenant insignia from left to right: USA, USMC, USAF, USSF

In the United States, second lieutenant is the normal entry-level rank for most commissioned officers in the Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, and Space Force. It is equivalent to the rank of ensign in the Navy and Coast Guard. In the Army and Marine Corps, a second lieutenant typically leads a platoon-size element (16 to 44 soldiers or marines). In the Army, until December 1917, the rank bore no insignia other than a brown sleeve braid on blouses and an officer's cap device and hat cord.[citation needed] In December 1917, a gold-colored bar similar to the silver-colored bar of a first lieutenant was introduced. In US military slang, the rank is sometimes called "butterbar" in reference to the insignia.[10]

Gallery

Army

Marines

Navy

Air Force

See also

References

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  3. ^ "General Service Officer". Defence Jobs. Defence Force Recruiting. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ Navy marks centennial by reinstating 'executive curl' "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 26 October 2014. Retrieved 26 October 2014.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Canadian Army goes back to the future with return to British-style ranks and designations "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 11 September 2017.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "CMPB | Ranks and drill commands". Central Manpower Base (CMPB). Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  8. ^ "The Household Cavalry Command Structure - Forms of Address". householdcavalry.info. Enasec Ltd. Archived from the original on 25 March 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2016. In The Blues And Royals, the most junior Officer rank (equivalent to 2nd Lieutenant) is known as "Cornet".
  9. ^ "The Armed Forces".
  10. ^ Dalzell, Tom (2009). The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American Slang and Unconventional English. Taylor & Francis. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-415-37182-7.
  11. ^ a b "Ranks". Government of Botswana. Archived from the original on 26 August 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  12. ^ "ރޭންކް ސްޓްރަކްޗަރ". mndf.gov.mv (in Divehi). Maldives National Defence Force. Archived from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2021.
  13. ^ a b "De rangonderscheidingstekens van de krijgsmacht" (PDF) (in Dutch). Ministry of Defence (Netherlands). 19 December 2016. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  14. ^ "Ranks". marines.mil. U.S. Marine Corps. Retrieved 13 June 2021.
  15. ^ "Postos e Graduações". marinha.mil.br (in Portuguese). Brazilian Navy. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  16. ^ a b "Pangkat Harian". tni.mil.id (in Indonesian). Indonesian National Armed Forces. Archived from the original on 24 November 2020. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  17. ^ "Rank Insignia". afm.gov.mt. Armed Forces of Malta. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  18. ^ "Grados Militares". ccffaa.mil.pe (in Spanish). Joint Command of the Armed Forces of Peru. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
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  22. ^ "Postos e Graduações". fab.mil.br (in Portuguese). Brazilian Air Force. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  23. ^ "Ranks and appointment". canada.ca. Government of Canada. Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  24. ^ "Flyvevåbnets Gradstegn" (PDF). forsvaret.dk (in Danish). Danish Defence. 2021. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  25. ^ "Insignias". mide.gob.do (in Spanish). Ministry of Defense (Dominican Republic). Retrieved 28 May 2021.
  26. ^ "Air Corps Rank Markings". military.ie. Defence Forces (Ireland). Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
  27. ^ "Defense Act of 2008" (PDF). 3 September 2008. p. 8. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
  28. ^ "Ranks". paf.mil.ph. Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on 18 October 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2021.
  29. ^ "RDF Insignia". mod.gov.rw. Government of the Republic of Rwanda. Retrieved 12 June 2021.
  30. ^ "Rank Insignia". af.mil.za. Department of Defence (South Africa). Archived from the original on 1 January 2019. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
  31. ^ "Air Force Instruction 36-2903" (PDF). Department of the Air Force. 25 June 2021. p. 108. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  32. ^ Hudson, Rex A.; Meditz, Sandra W., eds. (1992). "Chapter 5. National Security". Uruguay: A Country Study (PDF) (2nd ed.). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. pp. 222–223. ISBN 0-8444-0737-2. Retrieved 13 June 2021.