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Philippine Air Force
Hukbong Himpapawid ng Pilipinas
Ejército Aérea del Filipinas
Seal of the Philippine Air Force.svg
Seal of the Philippine Air Force
Founded1 July 1947; 75 years ago (1947-07-01)
Country Philippines
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Size
  • 17,600 active personnel[1]
  • 16,000 reserve personnel[1]
  • 204 aircraft
Part ofArmed Forces of the Philippines
HeadquartersColonel Jesus Villamor Air Base, Pasay, Metro Manila
Motto(s)"Guardians of our Precious Skies, Bearers of Hope"
Colors Air Force Blue 
MarchPhilippine Air Force Hymn[2]
Engagements
Websitewww.paf.mil.ph Edit this at Wikidata
Commanders
Commander-in-ChiefPresident Ferdinand R. Marcos, Jr.
Secretary of National DefenseJose Faustino Jr.
Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces of the PhilippinesGen. Andres C. Centino, PA
Commanding General of the Philippine Air ForceLt. Gen. Connor Anthony D. Canlas Sr., PAF[3]
Vice Commander, Philippine Air ForceMaj. Gen. Arthur M. Cordura
Chief of Air StaffMaj. Gen. Stephen P. Parreño
Sergeant Major of the Air ForceCMSgt Roy Alvin D. Sabado, PAF[4]
Insignia
Roundel
Roundel of the Philippines.svg
Roundel of the Philippines – Low Visibility.svg
Aircraft flown
AttackA-29B, AS-211, OV-10A/C, SF-260TP/MP
FighterFA-50PH
HelicopterBell 412EP, UH-1H/D, W-3A, S-70A-5/i, S-76A/AUH-76
Attack helicopterT129B, AH-1S, AW109E Power, MD520MG,
ReconnaissanceAero Commander, Cessna 208, ScanEagle, Hermes 450, Hermes 900
TrainerSF-260FH, T-41B/D
TransportFokker F27, C-130, Aero Commander, Cessna 208 IPTN NC-212, F27, N-22B, C-295M

The Philippine Air Force (PAF) (Tagalog: Hukbong Himpapawid ng Pilipinas, lit.'Army of the Air of the Philippines') (Spanish: Ejército Aérea del Filipinas, lit.'Ejército de la Aérea de la Filipinas') is the aerial warfare service branch of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. Initially formed as part of the Philippine Army (Philippine Army Air Corps), the PAF is responsible for both defending the Philippine airspace, and conducting aerial operations throughout the Philippines, such as close air support operations, combat air patrols, aerial reconnaissance missions, airlift operations, helicopter tactical operations and aerial humanitarian operations. The PAF is headquartered at the Villamor Air Base in Pasay, and is headed by the Chief of the Air Force, who also serves as the branch's highest-ranking military officer.

History

Main article: Military history of the Philippines

Philippine Commonwealth and Independence

Early years and World War II

The forerunners of the Philippine Air Force was the Philippine Militia, otherwise known as Philippine National Guard (PNG). On March 17, 1917, Senate President Manuel L. Quezon enacted a bill (Militia Act 2715) for the creation of the Philippine Militia. It was enacted in anticipation that there would be an outbreak of hostilities between United States and Germany.[5]

By the end of the First World War, the US Army and Navy began selling aircraft and equipment to the Philippine Militia Commission. The Commission then hired the services of the Curtiss Flying School to provide flight training to 33 students at Camp Claudio, Parañaque.

The early aviation unit was, however, still lacking enough knowledge and equipment to be considered as an air force and was then limited only to air transport duties.[5] On January 2, 1935, Philippine Military Aviation was activated when the 10th Congress passed Commonwealth Act 1494 that provided for the organization of the Philippine Constabulary Air Corps (PCAC). PCAC was renamed the Philippine Army Air Corps (PAAC) in 1936. It started with only three planes on its inventory. In 1941, PAAC had a total of 54 aircraft including pursuit (fighters) light bombers, reconnaissance aircraft, light transport and trainers.[5] They later engaged the Japanese when they invaded the Philippines in 1941–42, and were reformed in 1945 after the country's liberation.

Post-WWII and AFP restructuring

PAF P-51 Mustang
PAF P-51 Mustang

The PAF became a separate military service on July 1, 1947, when President Manuel Roxas issued Executive Order No. 94. This order created the Philippine Naval Patrol and the Air Force as equal branches of the Philippine Army and the Philippine Constabulary under the now Armed Forces of the Philippines[6] becoming Southeast Asia's third air force as a result.

The main aircraft type in the earlier era of the PAF was the P-51 Mustang, flown from 1947 to 1959. Ground attack missions were flown against various insurgent groups, with aircraft hit by ground fire but none shot down. In the 1950s the Mustang was used by the Blue Diamonds aerobatic display team.[7] These would be replaced by the jet-powered North American F-86 Sabres in the late 1950s, assisted by Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star and Beechcraft T-34 Mentor trainers.

The PAF saw its first international action in the Congo under the UN peacekeeping mission in 1960.

Cold War Era

Marcos rule and People Power Revolution

A squadron of F-86F Sabre of the Philippine Air Force
A squadron of F-86F Sabre of the Philippine Air Force

During the 70s, the PAF was actively providing air support for the AFP campaign against the MNLF forces in Central Mindanao, aside from doing the airlifting duties for troop movements from Manila and Cebu to the warzone. Traditional workhorses like the UH-1H choppers, L-20 “Beaver” aircraft, and C-47 gunships were mainly used in the campaign. In the same decade, the PAF Self-Reliance Development Group, the forerunner of the Air Force Research and Development Center (AFRDC) was created. The Center enabled the PAF to create prototypes of aircraft aside on going into partnership with the private sector for some of its requirements.[8]

In late 1977, the Philippine government purchased 35 secondhand U.S. Navy F-8Hs that were stored at Davis-Monthan AFB in Arizona. Twenty-five of them were refurbished by Vought and the remaining 10 were used for spare parts. As part of the deal, the U.S. would train Philippine pilots in using the TF-8A. They were mostly used for intercepting Soviet bombers. The F-8s were grounded in 1988 and were finally withdrawn from service in 1991 after they were badly damaged by the Mount Pinatubo eruption, and have since been offered for sale as scrap.[9]

On February 24, 1986, at the height of the "EDSA Revolution", the 15th Strike Wing defected to the Ramos-Enrile camp, taking their squadrons of S-76 “Sikorsky” that later dictated the EDSA People Power Revolution which effectively ended the Marcos rule.

1986–1990 Coup attempts

A Vought F-8H Crusader (ex U.S. Navy BuNo 148649) of the Philippine Air Force in flight.
A Vought F-8H Crusader (ex U.S. Navy BuNo 148649) of the Philippine Air Force in flight.

The following years remained hostile for the Philippines, a series of bloody coup attempts led by then-Col Gregorio Honasan of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement, involved thousands of renegade troops, including elite units from the army and marines, in a coordinated series of attacks on Malacanang and several major military camps in Manila and surrounding provinces, including Sangley and Villamor Air Base, using the T-28 aircraft for aerial assaults. President Corazon Aquino found it necessary to request United States support to put down the uprising. As a result, a large US special operations force was formed and named Operation Classic Resolve, as USAF F4 fighter aircraft stationed at Clark Air Base patrolled above rebel air bases, and two aircraft carriers were positioned off the Philippines. The US operation soon caused the coup to collapse. Additional US forces were then sent to secure the American embassy in Manila. The military uprisings resulted in an estimated US$1.5 billion loss to the Philippine Economy.[10]

US Military departure from the Philippines

The Cold War Era has reached its endpoint as tensions between the two ideological rivals, the United States and the Soviet Union, have simmered down as a result of the dissolution of the latter and the massive change of political system among its allies.

An aerial photo of Clark Airbase in Central Luzon
An aerial photo of Clark Airbase in Central Luzon

The fate of the US military bases in the country was greatly affected by these circumstances, aside from the catastrophic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 which engulfed the installations with ash and lahar flows. The nearby Clark Air Base was eventually abandoned afterwards, while the Philippine Senate voted to reject a new treaty for Subic Naval Complex, its sister American installation in Zambales. This occurrence had effectively ended the century-old US military presence in the country, even as President Corazon Aquino tried to extend the lease agreement by calling a national referendum, leaving a security vacuum in the region and terminated the inflows of economic and military aid into the Philippines. [11] [12]

Contemporary Era

AFP modernization efforts and Asian Financial Crisis

The importance of territorial defense capability was highlighted in the public eye on 1995 when the AFP published photographs of Chinese structures on Mischief Reef in the Spratlys.

The PAF MD-520MG displayed at the Mall of Asia.
The PAF MD-520MG displayed at the Mall of Asia.

Initial attempts to improve the capabilities of the Armed Forces happened when a law was passed in the same year for the sale of redundant military installations and devote 35 percent of the proceeds for the AFP upgrades. Subsequently, the legislature passed the AFP Modernization Act. The law sought to modernize the AFP over a 15-year period, with minimum appropriation of 10-billion Pesos per year for the first five years, subject to increase in subsequent years of the program. The modernization fund was to be separate and distinct from the rest of the AFP budget.

However, the Asian Financial Crisis struck the region on 1997. This has greatly affected the AFP Modernization Program due to the government's austerity measures meant to turn the economy around after suffering from losses incurred during the financial crisis.[13]

A C-295M assigned to the Tactical Operations Group 5 taxis at Legazpi Airport
A C-295M assigned to the Tactical Operations Group 5 taxis at Legazpi Airport

Several air assets acquired by the Philippine Air Force thru the original AFP Modernization Program of 1995 were the AW109 armed scout helicopters, and airlift assets like the Airbus C295 and CASA C212 Aviocar.

A decade of neglect

F-5A, now retired from the Philippine Air Force
F-5A, now retired from the Philippine Air Force
The AS-211 Warrior jet trainer/light attack aircraft, which served as "gap stopper" for the PAF in its air defense operations
The AS-211 Warrior jet trainer/light attack aircraft, which served as "gap stopper" for the PAF in its air defense operations

Since the retirement of the Northrop F-5s in September 2005 without a planned replacement, the Philippine Air Force was left without fighter jets. The PAF resorted to the Aermacchi S-211 trainer jets to fill the void left by the F-5's. These S-211's were later upgraded to light attack capability and used for air and sea patrol and also performed counter-insurgency operations from time to time.[14] The only active fixed wing aircraft to fill the roles were the SF-260 trainers with light attack capability, the OV-10 Bronco light attack and reconnaissance aircraft and the AS-211 warriors (upgraded S-211).

South China Sea arbitration case and revised AFP Modernization Program

The incidents with Chinese presence in the South China Sea prompted the Philippines to proceed with formal measures while challenging the Chinese activities in some of the sea features in the disputed island chain. Hence, the South China Sea Arbitration Case was filed by the Philippines in 2013 at the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS).[15]

Reminiscent to what occurred in 1995, the Congress passed the Revised AFP Modernization Act of 2012, this was meant to replace the older AFP Modernization Act of 1995 signed during former Pres. Fidel V. Ramos’ term, when its 15-year program effectivity expired in 2010.[16]

Two FA-50 Golden Eagle light multi-role fighter/LIFTs escorting a Philippine Airlines flight carrying President Benigno S. Aquino III
Two FA-50 Golden Eagle light multi-role fighter/LIFTs escorting a Philippine Airlines flight carrying President Benigno S. Aquino III

Major air assets acquired in this new modernization program iteration are 12 FA-50 Light Fighters, while those programmed for future procurements are the Multi-Role Fighters and the Maritime Patrol Aircraft, among other equipment.[17]

Flight Plan 2028

In response to regional strategic challenges and perceived internal weaknesses, the PAF has embarked on a transformation process to enhance its capabilities. Flight Plan 2028 is administered by the Air Force Strategy Management Office (AFSMO), and aims to:

The plan calls for a reorienting of the Philippine Air Force from a primarily internal security role to a territorial defence force. It will require substantial organisational, doctrinal, training, strategic and equipment transformation.

US-Philippine Enhanced Defence Cooperation Agreement

In April 2014, the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement was signed by the representatives of the Philippine and US Governments, aimed at bolstering the military alliance of both countries. The agreement allows the United States to rotate troops into the Philippines for extended stays and allows the U.S. to build and operate temporary facilities on Philippine military bases for both American and Philippine forces' use.[18] [19]

Both parties agreed to determine the military installations across the Philippines as covered by the pact, including the former US Subic Bay Naval Base and Clark Air Base, as well as several locations on Cebu, Luzon, and Palawan. [20]

As of 2016, four PAF bases and one Army camp have been determined by the United States and the Philippines to be utilized under the agreement. The Air Force Bases are Basa Air Base, Antonio Bautista Air Base, Benito Ebuen Air Base, and Lumbia Airfield.[21]

Organization

The Philippine Air Force is commanded by the Chief of the Air Force, holding the rank of Lieutenant General, and is assisted by the Vice Chief of the Philippine Air Force, and the Chief of Air Staff, in charge of organizational and administrative matters, both holders of the rank of Major General. The Philippine Air Force consists of three tactical commands, three support commands, seven air wings including one separate search and rescue wing, one engineering brigade, one air control and warning wing, one air weather group and one special operations unit.

T129B ATAK Helicopter of the Philippine Air Force (PAF)
T129B ATAK Helicopter of the Philippine Air Force (PAF)

Tactical Commands and Air Wings

The three Tactical Commands are in the direct control of the PAF Leadership while serving his function in the command chain of the AFP. These units are jointly reactivated and reorganized on July 21, 2017, while effectively replacing the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Air Divisions as part of the PAF Flight Plan 2028.[22]

Support commands

The three Support Commands are in charge for the overall combat, logistics, education, training, doctrine development, reservist management and administrative support in the PAF's operations.

Separate units

Aerobatic teams

The Philippine Air Force Blue Diamonds "Sabre" emblem on a F-86F Sabre, circa 1962.
The Philippine Air Force Blue Diamonds "Sabre" emblem on a F-86F Sabre, circa 1962.

The Philippine Air Force had a number of aerobatic teams among which the PAF Blue Diamonds was the first to be founded, and was one of the oldest formal aerobatics teams in the world. The proceeding units listed are at inactive status due to the retirement of their aircraft, most notably the Northrop F-5 Freedom Fighters.

Rank structure

Main article: Military ranks of the Philippines

Officers

Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
 Philippine Air Force[31]
PAF GEN Svc.svg
PAF LTGEN Svc.svg
PAF MGEN Svc.svg
PAF BGEN Svc.svg
PAF COL Svc.svg
PAF LTC Svc.svg
PAF MAJ Svc.svg
PAF CPT Svc.svg
PAF 1LT Svc.svg
PAF 2LT Svc.svg
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain First lieutenant Second lieutenant

Enlisted

Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
 Philippine Air Force[31]
PAF CMSG FD.svg
PAF SMSG FD.svg
PAF MSGT FD.svg
PAF TSG FD.svg
PAF SSG FD.svg
PAF SGT FD.svg
PAF A1C FD.svg
PAF A2C FD.svg
PAF AR FD.svg
Chief master sergeant Senior master sergeant Master sergeant Technical sergeant Staff sergeant Sergeant Airman first class Airman second class Airman

Bases

The Philippine Air Force has nine major air bases and several radar, communications, and support facilities located throughout the archipelago. Shared facilities with commercial airports being used as detachments by the Tactical Operations Command were not included here.

Luzon
Colonel Jesus Villamor Air Base Pasay, Metro Manila
Clark Air Base Angeles City
Colonel Ernesto Rabina Air Base Capas, Tarlac
Cesar Basa Air Base Floridablanca, Pampanga
Basilio Fernando Air Base Lipa, Batangas
Danilo Atienza Air Base Cavite City, Cavite
Wallace Air Station San Fernando, La Union
Paredes Air Station Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte
Gozar Air Station Lubang, Occidental Mindoro
Parañal Air Station Jose Panganiban, Camarines Norte
Visayas
Benito Ebuen Air Base Mactan, Cebu
Guiuan Airfield Guiuan, Eastern Samar
Antonio Bautista Air Base Puerto Princesa, Palawan
Mt. Salakot Air Station Puerto Princesa, Palawan
Mindanao
Edwin Andrews Air Base Zamboanga City
Rajah Buayan Air Station General Santos
Lumbia Airfield Cagayan de Oro, Misamis Oriental

Equipment

Main article: List of equipment of the Philippine Air Force

The Philippine Air Force has made use of its existing equipment to fulfill its mandate while modernization projects are underway. The Republic Act No. 7898 declares the policy of the State to modernize the military to a level where it can effectively and fully perform its constitutional mandate to uphold the sovereignty and preserve the patrimony of the republic. The law, as amended, has set conditions that should be satisfied when the defense department procures major equipment and weapon systems for the air force.

These are acquisition projects of the government that have been signed and awaiting delivery for the modernization of the air force.

References

  1. ^ a b International Institute for Strategic Studies (February 25, 2021). The Military Balance 2021. London: Routledge. p. 294. ISBN 9781032012278.
  2. ^ "Filipinas Heritage Library | Philippine Air Force March". www.filipinaslibrary.org.ph. Retrieved December 31, 2020.
  3. ^ Bolledo, Jairo (December 7, 2021). "Connor Anthony Canlas is new Air Force chief". Rappler. Retrieved December 30, 2021.
  4. ^ Schafer, Megan (May 23, 2019). "COMPACAF visit enhances relationship with Philippine Air Force". Pacific Air Forces Public Affairs. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  5. ^ a b c "History". Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on July 10, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
  6. ^ "PAF History". paf.mil.ph. Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012. Retrieved June 24, 2012.
  7. ^ Hellstroem, Leif (May–June 1998). "Philippine Front Line: P-51 Mustangs with the Philippine Air Force". Air Enthusiast. Vol. 75. pp. 52–61.
  8. ^ "PAF History". paf.mil.ph. Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on December 5, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  9. ^ "F-8 History". MILAVIA. Archived from the original on October 18, 2015. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  10. ^ "Operation Classic Resolve". globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  11. ^ Shenon, Philip (September 16, 1991). "PHILIPPINE SENATE VOTES TO REJECT U.S. BASE RENEWAL". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 19, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  12. ^ "CLOSURE OF U.S. MILITARY BASES IN THE PHILIPPINES: IMPACT AND IMPLICATIONS" (PDF). dtic.mil. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 29, 2018. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  13. ^ "Flashback: The AFP's modernization plans in 1995". October 15, 2011. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  14. ^ John Pike. "SIAI-Marchetti AS-211 Warrior". globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  15. ^ McDorman, Ted L. (November 18, 2016). "The South China Sea Arbitration". The South China Sea Arbitration. 20 (17). Archived from the original on March 21, 2018.
  16. ^ Montero, Max (June 29, 2016). "A Comprehensive Review of Accomplishments and Balances of the AFP Modernization Program Under RA 7898 and RA 110349 Horizon 1 Phases as of June 2016". MaxDefense Philippines. Retrieved June 29, 2017.
  17. ^ Mogato, Manuel (December 17, 2014). "Philippines to get frigates, gunboats, helicopters as tension simmers". Reuteurs. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  18. ^ Dizon, Nikko (December 13, 2015). "Filipinos asked: Who do you want on your side?". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
  19. ^ "Q&A on the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement". Official Gazette. April 28, 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  20. ^ "US seeks access to Philippine bases as part of Asia pivot". The Sydney Morning Herald. April 25, 2015. Archived from the original on March 22, 2018. Retrieved January 22, 2021.
  21. ^ Cahiles, Gerg (March 21, 2016). "U.S., Philippines announce five military bases for EDCA". CNN Philippines. Archived from the original on March 21, 2018. Retrieved January 4, 2022.
  22. ^ "Air Force Holds Joint Ceremony for the Deactivation of Air Defense Wing, 1AD, 2AD & 3AD; Reactivation of ADC and Tactical Operations Command; and Activation of Air Mobility Command". paf.mil.ph. Philippine Air Force. July 21, 2017. Archived from the original on September 29, 2017. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  23. ^ a b c d "booth-adc - Philippine Air Force Symposium Site". pafsymposium.com. June 27, 2021.
  24. ^ "580th Control and Warning Group Reactivates into a Wing". Philippine Air Force. November 7, 2016. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  25. ^ "205th Unit". 205th Tactical Helicopter Wing, Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  26. ^ "Mission and Function". 220th Airlift Wing, Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on December 22, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  27. ^ "Mission Function". 250th Presidential Airlift Wing, Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  28. ^ "Mission & Function". 505th Search and Rescue Group, Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  29. ^ "About Us". 15th Strike Wing, Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  30. ^ "Mission Function". 355th Aviation Engineering Wing, Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 17, 2016.
  31. ^ a b "Ranks". paf.mil.ph. Philippine Air Force. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2021.
  32. ^ "Air Force gets a lift with new C-130H from US". cnn. Retrieved November 12, 2021.
  33. ^ "Medium Lift Aircraft (Phase 2) Acquisition Project of the Philippine Air Force". Philippine Defense Resource. June 13, 2020. Retrieved June 23, 2021.
  34. ^ "2 of PAF's 6 Turkish-made attack choppers now in PH". Philippine News Agency. March 9, 2022. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
  35. ^ Mendoza, John Eric. "Lorenzana, Polish firm inks contract for 32 Black Hawk choppers". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
  36. ^ "Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) Acquisition Project of the Philippine Air Force". Philippine Defense Resource. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  37. ^ "Air Surveillance Radar Phase 2 Acquisition Project of the Philippine Air Force". PH Defense Resource. January 12, 2020. Retrieved July 12, 2021.