This article is currently affected by the ongoing 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. Any given information provided here may become quickly dated or inaccurate due to the developing situation. Be aware that truly accurate information may not be available until significant time has passed or the war is over.

Russian Air Force
Военно-воздушные силы России
Voyenno-vozdushnye sily Rossii
Great emblem of the Russian Air Force.svg
Emblem of the Russian Air Force
Founded1912[1]
1992 (current form)
Country Russia
TypeAir force
RoleAerial warfare
Part ofRussian Aerospace Forces
HeadquartersMoscow
MarchRussian: Авиамарш
"Air March" [2][3][4]
Anniversaries12 August
Engagements
Websitestructure.mil.ru/structure/forces/air.htm Edit this at Wikidata
Commanders
Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Defence Forces President Vladimir Putin
Commander of the Aerospace Forces Army General Sergei Surovikin
Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Air Force Lieutenant general Sergey Dronov
Insignia
Flag
Flag of the Russian Air Force.svg
Roundel
Roundel of Russia.svg
Roundel (1992–2010)
Roundel of Russia (1991–2010).svg
Patch
Patch of the Russian Aerospace Forces.svg
Middle emblem
Middle emblem of the Russian Aerospace Forces.svg
Insignia
Малая эмблема Военно-воздушных сил России.png
Aircraft flown
AttackSu-25SM, Su-24M, Su-34
BomberMiG-31K, Tu-22M3, Tu-95, Tu-160
Electronic
warfare
A-50/A-50U, Il-22PP, Il-80
FighterMiG-29, MiG-35, Su-27, Su-30, Su-35, Su-57
HelicopterKa-60, Mi-8, Mi-17, Mi-26
Attack helicopterMi-24/Mi-35M, Mi-28N, Ka-50, Ka-52
InterceptorMiG-31
TrainerAero L-39 Albatros, Yak-130
TransportIl-62, Il-76, Il-86, Il-112, An-26, An-124, An-140, An-148, An-22
TankerIl-78

The Russian Air Force (Russian: Военно-воздушные силы России, tr. Voyenno-vozdushnye sily Rossii, VVS) is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merging of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.[5] The modern Russian Air Force was originally established on 7 May 1992 following Boris Yeltsin's creation of the Ministry of Defence. However, the Russian Federation's air force can trace its lineage and traditions back to the Imperial Russian Air Service (1912–1917) and the Soviet Air Forces (1918–1991).

The Russian Navy has its own independent air arm, the Russian Naval Aviation, which is the former Soviet Aviatsiya Voyenno-morskogo Flota (lit. "Aviation of the military-sea fleet"), or AVMF.

History

Further information: Imperial Russian Air Service and Soviet Air Forces

Historical Air Forces of Russia

Russian Empire

Emperor's Military Air Fleet (1909–1917)

Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

Workers and Peasants Red Air Fleet (1918–1991)

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
 Commonwealth of Independent States

Military Air Forces of the USSR (1918–1992)

Aviation of the Military Maritime Fleet (1918–1992)

Anti-Air Defence Troops (1948–1992)

Strategic Rocket Forces (1959–1992)

Russian Federation

Military Air Forces of the Russian Federation (1991–present)

Aviation of the Military Maritime Fleet (1991–present)

Strategic Rocket Forces (1991–present)

1991–2000

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union into its fifteen constituent republics in December 1991, the aircraft and personnel of the Soviet Air Forces—the VVS were divided among the newly independent states. General Pyotr Deynekin, the former deputy commander-in-chief of the Soviet Air Forces, became the first commander of the new organisation on 24 August 1991. Russia received the majority of the most modern fighters and 65% of the manpower. The major commands of the former Soviet VVS—the Long-Range Aviation, Military Transport Aviation and Frontal Aviation were renamed, with few changes, Russian VVS commands.

However, many regiments, aircraft, and personnel were claimed by the republics they were based in, forming the core of the new republics' air forces. Some aircraft in Belarus and Ukraine (such as Tupolev Tu-160s) were returned to Russia, sometimes in return for debt reductions, as well as a long-range aviation division based at Dolon in Kazakhstan.

During the 1990s, the financial stringency was felt throughout the armed forces made its mark on the Russian Air Forces as well.[6] Pilots and other personnel could sometimes not get their wages for months, and on occasion resorted to desperate measures: four MiG-31 pilots at Yelizovo in the Far East went on hunger strike in 1996 to demand back pay which was several months overdue, and the problem was only resolved by diverting unit money intended for other tasks.[7] As a result of the cutbacks, infrastructure became degraded as well, and in 1998, 40% of military airfields needed repair.

The VVS participated in the First Chechen War (1994–1996) and the Second Chechen War (1999–2002). These campaigns also presented significant difficulties for the VVS including the terrain, lack of significant fixed targets and insurgents armed with Stinger and Strela-2M surface-to-air missiles.

The former Soviet Air Defence Forces remained independent for several years under Russian control, only merging with the Air Forces in 1998. The decree merging the two forces was issued by President Boris Yeltsin on 16 July 1997. During 1998 altogether 580 units and formations were disbanded, 134 reorganised, and over 600 given a new jurisdiction.[8] The redistribution of forces affected 95% of aircraft, 98% of helicopters, 93% of anti-aircraft missile complexes, 95% of the equipment of radiotechnical troops, 100% of anti-aircraft missiles and over 60% of aviation armament. More than 600,000 tons of material changed location and 3,500 aircraft changed airfields. Military Transport Aviation planes took more than 40,000 families to new residence areas.

The short-lived operational commands were abolished. Two air armies, the 37th Air Army (long-range aviation) and the 61st Air Army (former Military Transport Aviation), were established directly under the Supreme Command. The former frontal aviation and anti-aircraft forces were organised as Air Force Armies and Anti-Aircraft Defense Armies under the military district commanders.

There were initially four such armies with headquarters in St.Petersburg (Leningrad Military District), Rostov-on-Don (North Caucasus Military District), Khabarovsk (Far East Military District), and Chita (Siberian Military District). Two military districts had separate Air and Air Defence Corps. When the Transbaikal Military District and Siberian Military District were merged, the 14th Air and Air Defence Forces Army was formed to serve as the air force formation in the area.

The number of servicemen in the air force was reduced to about 185,000 from the former combined number of 318,000. 123,500 positions were abolished, including almost 1,000 colonel positions. The resignation of 3000 other servicemen included 46 generals of which 15 were colonel generals. On 29 December 1998 Colonel General Anatoly Kornukov, a former Air Defence Forces officer and new commander-in-chief of the merged force, succeeding Deynekin, reported to the Russian defence minister that the task had 'in principle been achieved'.[9] General Kornukov established the new headquarters of the force in Zarya, near Balashikha, 20 km east of the centre of Moscow, in the former PVO central command post, where the CIS common air defence system is directed from.

2001–2010

In 1999 Vladimir Putin became Prime Minister of Russia and then President in 2000; he continued to hold one or the other of these offices through every year since.

In December 2003 the aviation assets of the Russian Ground Forces—mostly helicopters—were transferred to the VVS, following the shooting down of a Mi-26 helicopter in Chechnya on 19 August 2002 that claimed 19 lives. The former Army Aviation was in its previous form intended for the direct support of the Ground Forces, by providing their tactical air support, conducting tactical aerial reconnaissance, transporting airborne troops, providing fire support of their actions, electronic warfare, setting of minefield barriers and other tasks. The former Army Aviation was subsequently managed by the Chief of the Department of Army Aviation.[10] In 2010, it was announced that the 2003 decision to transfer Ground Force Aviation to the Air Force was reversed, with the transfer back to the Ground Forces to occur sometime in 2015 or 2016.[11]

During the 2000s, the Air Forces continued to suffer from a lack of resources for pilot training. In the 1990s Russian pilots achieved approximately 10% of the flight hours of the United States Air Force. The 2007 edition of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) Military Balance listed pilots of tactical aviation flying 20–25 hours a year, 61st Air Army pilots (former Military Transport Aviation), 60 hours a year, and Army Aviation under VVS control 55 hours a year.[12]

In 2007 the Russian Air Force resumed the Soviet-era practice of deploying its strategic bomber aircraft on long-range patrols. This ended a 15-year unilateral suspension due to fuel costs and other economic difficulties after the collapse of the Soviet Union.[13][14] Patrols towards the North Pole, the Atlantic and the Pacific Ocean were reinstated, bringing the planes often close to NATO territory, including in one instance flying over the Irish Sea between the United Kingdom and Ireland.[15]

During the 2008 South Ossetian War, the Russian Air Force suffered losses of between four and seven aircraft due to Georgian anti-aircraft fire. The 2008 Russian military reforms were promptly announced following the war, which according to Western experts were intended to address many inadequacies discovered as a result. The reforms commenced during early 2009, in which air armies were succeeded by commands, and most air regiments becoming air bases.[16] Aviation Week & Space Technology confirmed that the reorganisation would be completed by December 2009 and would see a 40 percent reduction in aircrew numbers.[17]

In February 2009, the Russian newspaper Kommersant reported that 200 of the 291 MiG-29s currently in service across all Russian air arms were unsafe and would have to be permanently grounded.[18] This action would remove from service about a third of Russia's total fighter force, some 650 aircraft. On 5 June 2009, the Chief of the General Staff, Nikolai Makarov said of the Russian Air Force that "They can run bombing missions only in daytime with the sun shining, but they miss their targets anyway".[19] Maj. Gen. Pavel Androsov said that Russia's long-range bombers would be upgraded in 2009 with the aim of being able to hit within 20 meters of their targets.[20]

Also in September 2009 it was reported that an East European network of the Joint CIS Air Defense System was to be set up by Russia and Belarus.[21] This network was intended to protect the airspace of the two countries as defined in the supranational 1999 Union State treaty. Its planned composition was to include five Air Force units, 10 anti-aircraft units, five technical service and support units and one electronic warfare unit. It was to be placed under the command of a Russian or Belarusian Air Force or Air Defence Force senior commander.

In July 2010, Russian jet fighters made the first nonstop flights from European Russia to the Russian Far East.[22] By August 2010, according to the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Air Force Aleksandr Zelin, the average flight hours of a pilot in Russian tactical aviation had reached 80 hours a year, while in army aviation and military transport aviation it exceeded 100 hours a year.[23] On 15 August 2010, the Russian Air Force temporarily grounded its fleet of Su-25 ground attack aircraft to conduct an investigation into a crash that happened during a training mission. The Russian Defence Ministry said that the plane crashed on 6 August 2010, 60 km to the north-west of Step air base in Siberia, according to RIA Novosti.

2011–2020

According to the instructions of the General Staff of the Armed Forces on 1 September 2011, the unmanned aircraft of the Russian Air Force and the personnel operating them moved under the command structure of the Russian Ground Forces.[24]

As of 2012, the Russian Air Force operated a total of 61 air bases, including 26 air bases with tactical aircraft, of which 14 are equipped with fighter aircraft. In terms of flight hours, pilots in the Western Military District averaged 125 hours over the 2012 training year. Pilots from the Kursk air base achieved an average of 150 hours, with transport aviation averaging 170 hours.[25]

In February 2014, during the early periods of Russia's annexation of Crimea, the Russian Air Force's assets of the Southern Military District were activated and flown to the peninsula for supporting the rest of the operations.[26]

On 1 August 2015, the Russian Air Force, along with the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces and the Air Defense Troops, were merged into a new branch of the armed forces, now officially called the Russian Aerospace Forces.[5]

On 30 September 2015, the Russian Air Force launched a military intervention in Syria, in Syria's Homs region.[27] On 24 November 2015, during a bombing mission, a Turkish Air Force F-16 shot down a Russian Sukhoi Su-24 that Turkey claimed had violated its airspace.[28][29]

In March 2020, the indiscriminate bombing of civilian targets by the Russian Air Force in Syria has been described as "amounting to war crime" by a United Nations Human Rights Council report.[30]

On 9 November 2020, a Russian Mil Mi-24 attack helicopter was shot down mistakenly by the Azerbaijani Armed Forces during the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh war killing 2 crew members and injuring 1 more. Days later, after the signing of the ceasefire agreement, Russian peacekeepers were deployed to Nagorno-Karabakh with aviation for patrolling its borders.[31]

2021–present

This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2022)

Modernization plans and programs carried out since the 2010s are being continued into 2021 as a part of Russia's State Armament Program for 2018–2027.[32][33]

Main article: 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine § Air and naval engagements

On 24 February 2022, the Russian Air Force was deployed in support of the invasion of Ukraine. The Russian Air Force had reportedly deployed about 300 combat aircraft within range of Ukraine.[34] Aircraft have also been deployed in Belarus for sorties over Ukraine.

On 25 February 2022, Ukrainian forces reportedly destroyed several aircraft and set a Russian airbase on fire in the Millerovo air base attack.[35]

On 13 March 2022, Russian forces launched cruise missile attacks on Yavoriv military base near the Polish border.

The Russian Air Force has generally been noted by its relative absence from the invasion and has as of 25 March 2022 failed to subdue Ukrainian air defenses or the Ukrainian Air Force.[36][34] It has, as of April 1, 2022, also failed to achieve air supremacy.[37] Failure to achieve this has been attributed to the lack of SEAD operations on the part of the Russian Air Force likely due to the lack of flying hours for Russian pilots as well as the lack of dedicated SEAD units and precision-guided munitions within the Russian Air Force.[38] [39] These weaknesses have been compounded by the mobility of Ukrainian air defenses with the extensive use of MANPADS as well as NATO reportedly sharing early warning information with Ukrainian forces. The VVS has also suffered at least 67 aircraft losses, and as many as 200, as of 10 May.[39][40]

Russia's air war was largely a failure. An American intelligence analyst said that less than 40% of the 2,154 missiles fired by Russia hit their targets, such as the Zatoka bridge which sustained over eight air attacks before being disabled. The Russian air force reportedly flew over 20,000 sorties in the war, fewer than 3,000 of which entered Ukrainian airspace, possibly due to fear of Ukraine's sustained air defense.[41]

The Russian Air Force has struck civilian targets during the invasion prompting an International Criminal Court investigation in Ukraine.[42][43][44] Notably, it has struck a hospital in Mariupol as well as a theatre.[45][46]

Russian pilots in Ukraine are having to use civilian GPS units “taped to the dashboards”. [47]

Leadership

Main article: Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Air Force

The Commander of the Russian Air Force Lt. Gen. Sergey Dronov
The Commander of the Russian Air Force Lt. Gen. Sergey Dronov

Previously the highest military office until 1 August 2015.

Commander-in-chief of the Russian Air Force Years
General Pyotr Deynekin (19 August 1992 – 22 January 1998)
General Anatoly Kornukov (22 January 1998 – 21 January 2002)
General Vladimir Mikhaylov (21 January 2002 – 9 May 2007)
Colonel General Aleksandr Zelin (9 May 2007 – 27 April 2012)
Colonel General Viktor Bondarev (6 May 2012 – 1 August 2015)
Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Aerospace
Forces and Commander of the Russian Air Force
Years
Lieutenant General Andrey Yudin (1 August 2015 – August 2019)
Lieutenant General Sergey Dronov (August 2019 – Present)

Since the merger between the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces on 1 August 2015, the commander of the Russian Air Force as part of the new Russian Aerospace Forces is titled Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Aerospace Forces and Commander of the Russian Air Force.[5] Lieutenant General Andrey Yudin became the first holder of the position until he was succeeded by Lieutenant General Sergey Dronov in August 2019.[48]

Structure

The organisation of the Russian Air Force in 2002[49]
The organisation of the Russian Air Force in 2002[49]

In 2009 the structure of the Russian Air Force was completely changed to a command-air base structure from the previous structure of air army-air division or corps-air regiment. The VVS is now divided to 4 operational commands, the Aerospace Defense Operational Strategic Command (seemingly primarily made up of the former Special Purpose Command), the Military Transport Aviation Command, and the Long-Range Aviation Command.[50] This listing is a composite; the available new information covers frontline forces, and the forces of central subordination are as of approximately August 2008. Warfare.ru maintains what appears to be a reasonably up to date listing, and Combat Aircraft magazine in June 2010 listed their organisation's estimate of the new order of battle.[needs update]

This listing appears to be as of June 2009:[needs update]

Regional air armies

Military Transport Aviation Command

Headquarters: Moscow

Long-Range Aviation Command

Headquarters Moscow

Forces of Central Subordination

Warehouses, Storage and Maintenance Depots, Aircraft Repair Plants

See also: ru:Список_авиационных_заводов_России

(Russian: List of Aircraft Factories in Russia)

Training and Research Organisations

Medical and athletic facilities

The list of Soviet Air Force bases shows a number which are still active with the Russian Air Force.

With the Air Force now fusing into one joint service branch the personnel from the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces and their respective facilities, the following now report to the Aerospace Forces HQ:

Early warning of missile attack:

Voronezh radar at Lekhtusi, Armavir, Kaliningrad, Mileshevka, Yeniseysk, Barnaul[56]
Daryal radar at Pechora
Volga radar at Hantsavichy
Dnepr radar at Balkhash, Irkutsk and Olenegorsk
Oko early warning satellites

Space surveillance:

Okno in Tajikistan
Krona in Zelenchukskaya and Nakhodka
RT-70 in Yevpatoria (since the 2014 Crimean crisis, the status of Crimea, and thus of the city of Yevpatoria which is located on Crimea, is under dispute between Russia and Ukraine; Ukraine and the majority of the international community considers Crimea and Yevpatoria an integral part of Ukraine, while Russia, on the other hand, considers Crimea and Yevpatoria an integral part of Russia[57]) and Galenki (together with Roscosmos)

Missile defence:

A-135 anti-ballistic missile system
Don-2N radar
A-235 anti-ballistic missile system (future; after 2020)

Satellite systems:

Liana space reconnaissance and target designation system (3 electronic reconnaissance satellites 14F145 "Lotus-C1")[58]

Equipment

Main article: List of active Russian military aircraft

The precise quantitative and qualitative composition of the Russian Air Force is unknown and figures include both serviceable and unserviceable aircraft as well as those placed into storage or sitting in reserve. FlightGlobal estimated that there were about 3,947 aircraft in inventory in 2015.[60] According to the Russian Defense Ministry, the share of modern armament in the Air Force had reached about 35% during 2014.[61][62] The figure was raised to 66% by late 2016[63] and to 72% by late 2017.[64]

Estimates provided by the IISS show that Russian Air Force combat pilots average 60 to 100 flight hours per year and pilots flying transport aircraft average 120 flight hours per year.[65]

Squadrons

As of 2014:[65]

Radars

The Russian Air Force operates several Nebo-M radars, that combine meter, decimeter and centimeter range. First two Nebo-M regiments were deployed in 2017 to Saint Petersburg and Kareliya.[66] In 2018, further two regiments were deployed to Crimea[67] and Penza.[68][69] In 2019, a regiment was delivered to Volga region.[70] In 2020, two regiments were deployed to the Far East and Naryan Mar,[71][72] while another one was announced to be planned to be delivered to Volga region.[citation needed]

Additionally, the air force operates radars that work in meter range only. Such systems are Nebo-UM (first units were delivered in 2018 to Voronezh[73] and Novosibirsk,[citation needed] and in 2020 to Rostov-on-Don[74]) as well as Rezonans-NE radars that have been constructed in the Arctic in Zapolyarniy, Indiga, Shoyna and Nova Zemlya, with another in Gremikha under construction.[75][76]

The air force also uses centimeter-range radar Podlet that was first delivered in 2020 to the Far East.[citation needed]

Ranks and insignia

Main article: Air Force ranks and insignia of the Russian Federation

The Russian Air Force inherited the ranks of the Soviet Union, although the insignia and uniform were slightly altered and the old Tsarist crown and double-headed eagle were re-introduced. The Russian Air Force uses the same rank structure as the Russian Ground Forces.

Rank group General/flag officers Field/senior officers Junior officers Officer cadet
Flag of the Russian Aerospace Forces.svg
Russian Aerospace Forces
[77]
Russia-Airforce-OF-9-2013.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-8-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-7-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-6-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-5-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-4-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-3-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-2-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-1c-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-1b-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-1a-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OF-(D)-2010.svg
Генера́л а́рмии
Generál ármii
Генера́л-полко́вник
Generál-polkóvnik
Генера́л-лейтена́нт
Generál-leytenánt
Генера́л-майо́р
Generál-mayór
Полко́вник
Polkóvnik
Подполко́вник
Podpolkóvnik
Майо́р
Majór
Kапита́н
Kapitán
Старший лейтена́нт
Stárshiy leytenánt
Лейтенант
Leytenant
Mла́дший лейтена́нт
Mládshiy leytenánt
Курсант
Kursant
Rank group Senior NCOs Junior NCOs Enlisted
Flag of the Russian Aerospace Forces.svg
Russian Aerospace Forces
[77]
Russia-Airforce-OR-9b-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OR-9a-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OR-8-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OR-6-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OR-5-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OR-4-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OR-2-2010.svg
Russia-Airforce-OR-1-2010.svg
Ста́рший пра́порщик
Stárshiy práporshchik
Пра́порщик
Práporshchyk
Старшина́
Starshyná
Ста́рший сержа́нт
Stárshiy serzhánt
Сержа́нт
Serzhánt
Мла́дший сержа́нт
Mládshiy serzhánt
Ефре́йтор
Efréĭtor
Рядово́й
Ryadovóy

Aircraft procurement

Production of the Russian aerospace industry for the Russian Armed Forces, by year of manufacture (first flight):

Fixed-wing aircraft
Type Prev. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Total Total ordered
An-140-100 2 3 2 1[78] 1[79] 9
An-148-100E 2 2 4 3 2 3 15 15
A-100 1[80] 1
Diamond DA42T 35[81]
Il-76MD-90A 1 1[82] 6[83] 27[83]
L-410UVP 3[84] 18[84]
MiG-29KR/KUBR 2/2 8/2 10/0 20/4 24
MiG29SMT/UBT 28/6 3/2 11/0 42/8 50
MiG-35S/UB 1S/1UB 3S/1UB [85] 2 8
Su-27SM3 4 8 4 6 22
Su-30M2 2 2 3 8 3 2 20 20
Su-30SM 2 14 21 27 21 17 14 4 120
Su-34 3 4 6 10 14 18 18 16 16 12 8 4 [85] 6 [86] 135 157
Su-35S 2 8 24 12 12 10 10 10 [85] 10 [85] 3[87] 103 128
Su-57 1 2 2[88] 5[89][90] 78
Tu-154M 2 2
Tu-214R/ON/PU-SBUS 1/0/0 0/1/0 0/1/0 1/0/0 0/0/2[91] 2/2/2 6
Yak-130 3 6 3 15 18 20 14 10 6 14 4 [85] 2 [92] 115 138
Total 41 16 20 36 67 109 89 76 56 57 20 23 19 629
Sources: [93][94][95][96][97][98][99]
Helicopters
Type Prev. 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Total Total ordered
Ansat-U 6 2 5 6 6 6 6 3 10[100] 50[101]
Ka-31 1–2 1–2
Ka-52[102] 3 4 12 21 14 12[103] 66
Ka-226 10–11 10–11
Mi-8/Mi-17 10
Mi-26T 4 7 4 4 1[104] 3 23
Mi-28N/UB/NM 13/0/0 11/0/0 12/0/0 15-18/0/0 14/1/0 3/4/2[105][106][107] 66–69
Mi-24/Mi-35M 6 10–29 28 16 4/6[105][108] 70–89
Total 250–274
Sources: [109][110][111][112]

Future of the Russian Air Force

Aircraft Origin Class Role Status Notes
Beriev A-100 Russia Jet AWACS 2 prototypes Replacement for A-50[80]
Ilyushin Il-78MD-90A Russia Jet Tanker 1 prototype Replacement for Il-78[113] 10 ordered, production starting in 2021.[114]
Ilyushin Il-112V Russia Propeller Transport 2 prototypes Replacement for An-26 & An-72
Ilyushin Il-276 Russia Jet Transport In development Replacement for An-12
Ilyushin Il-106 PAK VTA Russia Jet Transport In development Future super-heavy transport airplane[115][116]
Kamov Ka-60/62 Russia Rotorcraft Transport 2 prototypes Certification of the Ka-62 expected to begin until the end of 2018[117]
Mikoyan MiG-41 Russia Jet Interceptor In study New long-range interceptor, to replace the MiG-31 after 2025[118]
Mil Mi-38T Russia Rotorcraft Transport 4 prototypes Serial production expected after 2020[119]
Sukhoi Okhotnik Russia Jet Stealth UCAV 2 prototypes Stealth UCAV, encompassing some technologies of the Su-57[120]
Tupolev PAK DA Russia Jet Stealth bomber In development Future stealth strategic bomber, first flight expected in mid-2020s[121]
Tupolev Tu-160M2 Russia Jet Bomber 1 prototype 10 on order[122]
Yakovlev Yak-152 Russia Propeller Trainer 4 prototypes 150 on order for GVP 2018–2027[123][124]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "100 лет ВВС России: взлет или упадок?". BBC News Russian. 3 August 2012.
  2. ^ Norwegian Baron (25 July 2016). "Russian Federation (1991–****) Military March "Авиамарш"". Archived from the original on 27 May 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2016 – via YouTube.
  3. ^ Sizuoka1987 (29 May 2016). "【ロシア軍歌】 航空行進曲 Авиамарш 【歌詞付き】". Archived from the original on 18 November 2018. Retrieved 4 October 2016 – via YouTube.
  4. ^ La Banda Militare: Italian and International Military Music (22 September 2013). "Авиамарш (Марш Авиаторов) 2". Archived from the original on 6 October 2015. Retrieved 4 October 2016 – via YouTube.
  5. ^ a b c Russia creates new Aerospace Force service branch Archived 27 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine, janes.com, 4 August 2015
  6. ^ Austin & Muraviev, The Armed Forces of Russia in Asia, Tauris, 2000, p.235
  7. ^ Jeroen Brinkman, 'Russian Air Force in Turmoil,' Air Forces Monthly, No.105, December 1996, p.2, cited in Austin & Muraviev, 2000
  8. ^ General Heikki Nikunen, The Current State of the Russian Air Force Archived 15 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine, last updated 2005
  9. ^ Piotr Butowski, 'Russia's new air force enters a tight manoeuvre,' Jane's Intelligence Review, May 1999, p.14
  10. ^ Piotr Butowski, 'Russia Rising,' Air Forces Monthly, July 2007, p.83
  11. ^ Moscow Defense Brief #2, 2010 page 23
  12. ^ Routledge/IISS, IISS Military Balance 2007, p.200
  13. ^ "BBC NEWS, ',Russia restarts Cold War', 17 August 2007, patrols". BBC News. 17 August 2007. Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  14. ^ Russia restores Soviet-era strategic bomber patrols – Putin −2 Archived 19 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine Russian News & Information Agency
  15. ^ "BBC NEWS, RAF intercepted Russian planes, 30 April 2008". BBC News. 30 April 2008. Archived from the original on 3 December 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  16. ^ Warfare.ru, Air Force: structure accessed May 2009
  17. ^ "Russian Military Aircrew Numbers Tumble". Aviationweek.com. 16 December 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2011.[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ Reuters.com, One-third Russian fighter jets old and unsafe: report Archived 15 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine Friday, 6 February 2009 5:40 am EST
  19. ^ "Russian Military Weakness Increases Importance of Strategic Nuclear Forces". Cdi.org. 11 June 2009. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  20. ^ "Russia upgrades bomber-ALCM force for 21st century". Upi.com. 5 January 2009. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
  21. ^ "18 September 2009". Asbarez.com. 10 February 1995. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
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References

Further reading

Further sources include: