View of Khabarovsk looking down the Ussuriysky Boulevard
View of Khabarovsk looking down the Ussuriysky Boulevard
Coat of arms of Khabarovsk
Anthem: Anthem of Khabarovsk[3]
Location of Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk is located in Russia
Location of Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk is located in Khabarovsk Krai
Khabarovsk (Khabarovsk Krai)
Coordinates: 48°29′N 135°05′E / 48.483°N 135.083°E / 48.483; 135.083
Federal subjectKhabarovsk Krai[2]
FoundedMay 31, 1858[4]
City status since1880[5]
 • BodyCity Duma[6]
 • Mayor[6]Sergey Kravchuk[7]
 • Total400 km2 (200 sq mi)
72 m (236 ft)
 • Total577,441
 • Estimate 
618,150 (+7%)
 • Rank26th in 2010
 • Density1,400/km2 (3,700/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity of krai significance of Khabarovsk[1]
 • Capital ofKhabarovsk Krai,[2] city of krai significance of Khabarovsk[11]
 • Urban okrugKhabarovsk Urban Okrug[12]
 • Capital ofKhabarovsk Urban Okrug,[12] Khabarovsky Municipal District[13]
Time zoneUTC+10 (MSK+7 Edit this on Wikidata[14])
Postal code(s)[15]
680000–680003, 680006, 680007, 680009, 680011–680015, 680017, 680018, 680020–680023, 680025, 680026, 680028–680033, 680035, 680038, 680040–680043, 680045, 680047, 680051, 680052, 680054, 680055, 680700, 680880, 680890, 680899, 680921, 680950, 680960–680967, 680970, 680999, 901183, 901185
Dialing code(s)+7 4212
OKTMO ID08701000001
City DayLast Sunday of May[4]

Khabarovsk (Russian: Хабаровск [xɐˈbarəfsk] ) is the largest city and the administrative centre of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia,[2] located 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the China–Russia border, at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, about 800 kilometers (500 mi) north of Vladivostok. As of the 2021 Russian census, it had a population of 617,441.[18] The city was the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia from 2002 until December 2018, when the status was given to Vladivostok.[19] It is the largest city in the Russian Far East, having overtaken Vladivostok in 2015.[citation needed] It was known as Khabarovka until 1893.[5] As is typical of the interior of the Russian Far East, Khabarovsk has an extreme climate with strong seasonal swings resulting in strong, cold winters and relatively hot and humid summers.


Native villages near the site of the future Khabarovsk according to an English map of 1773. The village closest to today's Khabarovsk is labeled "Hitcha". Maack's "Cape Kyrma" site (thought by B.P. Polyakov to be the site of Stepanov's Kosogorsky Ostrog) is "Heremo"

Earliest record

Historical records indicate that a city was founded on the site in the eighth century. The Tungusic peoples are indigenous to the city's vicinity. The city was named Boli (伯力; Bólì) in Chinese when it was part of the Chinese empire. During the Tang dynasty, Boli was the capital of Heishui Protectorate, called Heishui Duhufu. [20] In AD 722, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang (唐玄宗) established Heishui Protectorate and gave self-rule to Heishui Mohe tribes. The seat of this administrative region was then established near today's Khabarovsk.[21][22]

17th-century Russian exploration

In the mid-17th century, the Amur Valley became the scene of hostilities between the Russian Cossacks, who tried to expand into the region and collect tribute from the natives, and the rising Manchu Qing dynasty, who were intent on securing the region for themselves.[citation needed]

Khabarov's Achansk

Monument to Yerofey Khabarov in Khabarovsk.

The Russian explorers and raiders of the 1650s set up a number of more or less fortified camps (ostrogs) on the Amur. Most of them were in use for only a few months and later destroyed. It is usually thought that the first such camp in the general area of today's Khabarovsk was the fortified winter camp named Achansk (Ачанск) or Achansky gorodok (Ачанский городок), built by the Cossacks of Yerofey Khabarov in September 1651 after they had sailed to the area from the upper Amur. The fort was named after the local tribe whom Khabarov's people called "Achans".[23][24] On October 8 the fort was unsuccessfully attacked by joint forces of Achans and Duchers (who had good reasons to hate the Cossacks, due to their rather heavy-handed tribute-extraction tactics[25]), while many Russians were away fishing.[24] In late November, Khabarov's people undertook a three-day campaign against the local chief Zhakshur (Жакшур) (whose name is also known in a more Russian version, Zaksor (Заксор)), collecting a large amount of tribute and announcing that the locals were now subjects of the Russian Czar. A similar campaign was waged later in winter against the Ducher chief Nechiga (Нечига), farther away from Achansk.[24]

On March 24 (or 26), 1652, Fort Achansk was attacked by Manchu cavalry, led by Ninguta's commander Haise, reinforced by Ducher auxiliaries, but the Cossacks stood their ground in a day-long battle and even managed to seize the attackers' supply train.[24] Once the ice on the Amur broke in the spring of 1652, Khabarov's people destroyed their fort and sailed away.[24]

The exact location of Khabarov's Achansk has long been a subject for debate among Russian historians and geographers.[25][26] A number of locations, both upstream and downstream of today's Khabarovsk, have been proposed since Richard Maack, one of the first Russian scholars to visit the region, identified Achansk in 1859 with the ruins on Cape Kyrma, which is located on the southern (Chinese) shore of the Amur, upstream of Khabarovsk.[25] The most widely accepted point of view is probably that of Boris Polevoy, who believed that Khabarov's Achansk was located in the Nanai village later known as Odzhal-Bolon (Russian: Оджал-Болонь), located on the left bank of the Amur, closer to Amursk than to Khabarovsk. One of his arguments was that both Khabarov's Achan (sometimes also spelt by the explorer as Otshchan, Отщан), and Wuzhala (乌扎拉) of the Chinese records of the 1652 engagement are based on the name of the Nanai clan "Odzhal" (Оджал), corresponding to the 20th-century name of the village as well. (The name of the clan was also written as "Uzala", as in the name of its best-known member, Dersu Uzala).[25]

Polevoy's view appeared to gain wide support among the Russian geographer community; petitioned by the Amur Branch of the Russian Geographical Society, the Russian Government renamed the village of Odzhal to Achan in 1977, to celebrate its connection with Khabarov's raid.[25]

As to the Cape Kyrma ruins, thought by Maack to be the remains of Achansk, B.P. Polevoy identified them as the remains of another ostrog – namely, Kosogorsky Ostrog, where Onufriy Stepanov stayed a few years later.[26]

Qing Empire

After the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) between the Tsardom of Russia and the Qing Empire, the area became an uncontested part of China for the next century and a half. Modern historical maps of the Qing period published in China mark the site of future Khabarovsk as Bólì (Chinese: 伯力). All of the middle and lower Amur region was nominally part of the Jilin Province, run first out of Ninguta and later out of Jilin City.[27]

French Jesuits who sailed along the Ussuri and the Amur Rivers in 1709 prepared the first more or less precise map of the region. According to them, the indigenous Nanai people were living on the Ussuri and on the Amur down to the mouth of the Dondon River (i.e., in the region including the site of the future Khabarovsk). These people were known to the Chinese as Yupi Dazi ("Fish skin Tartars").[28]

From Khabarovka to Khabarovsk

Khabarovsk – residence of the governor-general of Amur region 1895

In 1858, the area was ceded to Russia under the Treaty of Aigun. The Russians founded the military outpost of Khabarovka (Хаба́ровка),[29] named after Yerofey Khabarov. The post later became an important industrial center for the region. Town status was granted in 1880. In 1893, it was given its present name: Khabarovsk.[5]

In 1894, a department of the Russian Geographical Society was formed in Khabarovsk and to found libraries, theatres and museums in the city. Since then, Khabarovsk's cultural life has flourished. Much of the local indigenous history has been well preserved in the Regional Lore Museum and Natural History Museum and in places like near the Nanai settlement of Sikachi-Alyan, where cliff drawings from more than 13,000 years ago can be found. The Khabarovsk Art Museum exhibits a rare collection of old Russian icons.[27]

In 1916, the Khabarovsk Bridge across the Amur was completed, allowing Trans-Siberian trains to cross the river without using ferries (or temporary rail tracks over the frozen river in winter). During the Russian Civil War, Khabarovsk was occupied by Japan in September 1918.[30]

Soviet era

Khabarovsk (1950)

After the defeat of Japan in World War II, Khabarovsk was the site of the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials, in which twelve former members of the Japanese Kwantung Army and Unit 731 were put on trial for the manufacture and use of biological weapons during World War II.[27]

Chinese Emperor Puyi, captured by Soviet troops in Manchuria, was relocated to Khabarovsk and lived there from 1945 up to 1950, when he was returned to China.[31]

When Japan fell in September 1945 the United States reached an agreement with Stalin to build two U.S. Naval Advance Bases (Fleet Weather Centrals) in the USSR.[32] The U.S. built one 10 miles (16 km) outside Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on the Kamchatka Peninsula with the code name TAMA.[33] The other was 20 miles (32 km) outside Khabarovsk in buildings provided by the Soviets, code-named MOKO.[33] For mail Khabarovsk was assigned U.S.Navy number 1168, FPO San Francisco.[34] The American use of these two bases was short-lived.[citation needed]

On 5 November 1956, the first phase of the city tram was commissioned. The Khabarovsk television studio began broadcasting in 1960. On 1 September 1967, the Khabarovsk Institute of Physical Education, now the Far Eastern State Academy of Physical Culture, opened. On 14 January 1971 Khabarovsk was awarded the Order of October Revolution. In 1975 the first stage of the urban trolley opened. In 1976 the city hosted an international ice hockey tournament with the ball for the prize of the newspaper Sovietskaya Rossia. In 1981 the Bandy World Championship was played in the city.[27]

Russian Federation

In 1996, Khabarovsk held its first mayoral elections. Paul D. Filippov, whose candidacy was supported by Governor Viktor Ishayev, was defeated. In 1998, reconstruction of the central square of Khabarovsk was completed. In May 2000, President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, decreed that new federal districts be formed, and Khabarovsk became the center of the Far Eastern Federal District.[27]

In 2006, the Center for Cardiovascular Surgery, a high-tech medical center, was constructed according to a Russian national health project. In 2008, the train station was completely renovated, and the adjacent square was reconstructed to include fountains and an underground passage. In 2009, Khabarovsk hosted the EU-Russia summit. In 2010, the city hosted a meeting of the Great Circle of Ussuri Cossacks. On 3 November 2012, Khabarovsk was awarded the honorary title of "City of Military Glory".[27]

On 9 July 2020, the governor of the region, Sergei Furgal, was arrested and flown to Moscow. The 2020 Khabarovsk Krai protests began on 11 July 2020 in support of Furgal.[35]


Flag of the city of Khabarovsk.

The flag of Khabarovsk displays a bear on the right (Red side) and a Siberian tiger on the left (blue side), holding a yellow shield with a blue reversed pall and a red fish. The flag is a representation of the coat of arms of Khabarovsk.[36] The flag was adopted on 30 October 2007 and is 2:3 in ratio.[27]


The city is located 30 kilometers (19 mi) from the China–Russia border, at the confluence of the Amur and Ussuri Rivers, about 800 kilometers (500 mi) north of Vladivostok.[27]


Khabarovsk experiences a monsoonal dry-winter humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwb borders on Dwa).[27]

The average annual precipitation is 696 millimeters (27.4 in), mainly concentrated in the summer. In a few years, November to March hardly receive any precipitation. The driest year was 2001 with only 381 millimeters (15.0 in) of precipitation and the wettest was 1981 when 1,105 millimeters (43.5 in) of precipitation fell. The wettest month was August 1981 with a total precipitation of 434 millimeters (17.1 in). Due to high summer humidity, overnight lows remain mild to warm during several months. Snowfall is common, though light, with an average maximum snow height of 16 centimeters (6.3 in). During peak winter, highs above freezing are very rare.[27]

The city's extreme climate sees daily average high and low temperatures vary by around 50 °C (90 °F) over the course of the year. The average temperature in January is −19.2 °C (−2.6 °F) and the average for July is +21.4 °C (70.5 °F). Extremes have ranged from −40 °C (−40 °F) in January 2011 to +36.4 °C (97.5 °F) in June 2010.[37]

Climate data for Khabarovsk (1991–2020, extremes 1878–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 0.6
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −14.9
Daily mean °C (°F) −19.2
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −23.1
Record low °C (°F) −40.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 13
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 14
Average rainy days 0 0 1 10 16 15 15 17 15 11 2 0 102
Average snowy days 14 11 11 6 1 0 0 0 0.1 4 12 14 73
Average relative humidity (%) 75 72 68 63 65 74 79 83 78 67 69 73 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147 181 231 213 242 262 248 217 212 189 159 145 2,446
Source 1:[37]
Source 2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[38]
Map including Khabarovsk (AMS, 1950)

Administrative and municipal status

Khabarovsk is the administrative center of the krai[2] and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Khabarovsky District,[16] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of krai significance of Khabarovsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Khabarovsk is incorporated as Khabarovsk Urban Okrug.[12]


Historical population
1897 14,971—    
1926 49,704+232.0%
1939 199,172+300.7%
1959 322,744+62.0%
1970 435,962+35.1%
1979 527,848+21.1%
1989 600,623+13.8%
2002 583,072−2.9%
2010 577,441−1.0%
2021 617,441+6.9%
Source: Census data

Ethnic composition (2010):[39]

Economy and infrastructure

Khabarovsk monument to Nikolay Muravyov-Amursky (obverse) and Khabarovsk Bridge over the Amur River (reverse) are prominently featured on the 5000 ruble banknote

Primary industries include iron processing, steel milling, Khabarovsk shipyard, Daldizel, machinery, petroleum refining, flour milling, pharmaceutical industry, meatpacking and manufacturing of various types of heavy and light machinery.[27]

A high-speed international fiber-optic cable connects the city of Khabarovsk with the city of Fuyuan in China.[citation needed]

On March 28, 2024, a person reported radiation reading to the city's authorities.[40][41] In April 2024, the city declared a state of emergency because of the radiation leak.[42] The source of the radiation was "removed and placed in a protective container" and taken to a radioactive waste storage facility.[43]


Trolleybus near Lenina Square
Amur waterfront
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The city is a principal railway center and is located along the Trans-Siberian Railway; the rail distance of Khabarovsk railway station from Moscow is 8,523 kilometers (5,296 mi).

Khabarovsk is served by the Khabarovsk Novy Airport with international flights to East Asia, Southeast Asia, European Russia, and Central Asia.

Road links include the Trans-Siberian Highway (M58 and M60 Highways), and water transport links are provided by the Amur River and Ussuri River.

Public transport includes: tram (8 routes); trolleybus (4 routes); bus and fixed-route taxi (marshrutka, approximately 100 routes).

Transborder travel to China in winter ice road in summer boat on Amur river to Fuyuan (and train to Harbin)

In 2021, the construction of a paid high-speed bypass of the city was completed.


There are the following institutions of higher education in Khabarovsk:[44][45]


The Cathedral of the Saviour's Transfiguration
Ice sculptures on the central square of Khabarovsk

A key street in Khabarovsk is the broad Amursky Boulevard with its many shops and a local market. The city's five districts stretch for 45 kilometers (28 mi) along the Amur River. The similar boulevard – Ussuryisky is located between the two main streets Muravyov-Amursky and Lenin street and runs to the city's artificial lakes (Gorodskie Prudi) with the sport complex Platinum Arena. The lakes are famous for their fountains with the light show. The Military History Museum of the Far Eastern Military District is located in the city, the only such museum in the Russian Far East.[46]

Recently,[when?] there have been renovations in the city's central part, rebuilding with historical perspective. There is a walking tour from the Lenin Square to Utyos on Amur via Muravyov-Amursky Street, where visitors find traditional Russian cuisine restaurants and shops with souvenirs.[citation needed] There are a number of night clubs and pubs in this area. In Wintertime ice sculptures are on display on the cities squares and parks. Artists come from as far as Harbin in China.

Unlike Vladivostok, the city has never been closed to foreigners, despite it being the headquarters of the Far East Military District, and retains its historically international flavor. Once the capital of the Soviet Far East (from 1926 to 1938), since the demise of the Soviet Union, it has experienced an increased Asian presence. It is estimated that over one million Chinese travel to and through Khabarovsk yearly, and foreign investment by Japanese and Korean corporations have grown in recent years. The city has a multi-story shopping mall and about a dozen hotels.

Aleksandr Fedosov, the Khabarovsk Krai Minister of Culture, estimates that the city became more attractive to tourists following the 2015 Bandy World Championship.[47]

Khabarovsk is the closest major city to Birobidzhan, which is the administrative center of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Russia, located on the Trans-Siberian Railway, close to the border with China. The Jewish Autonomous Oblast is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China. Its administrative center is the town of Birobidzhan, and it is the only region in the world in which Yiddish is the official language. Khabarovsk provides the closest major airport to Birobidzhan, which is Khabarovsk Novy Airport (KHV / UHHH), 198 km from the center of Birobidzhan.[citation needed]


The Khabarovsk Honour Guard.

The headquarters of the Russian Ground Forces's Eastern Military District is located at 15 Serysheva Street. The district was preceded by the Far Eastern Military District, which was located in the same location. The following component units of the district are stationed in the city:

All 5 of these units make up the Khabarovsk Garrison. The Russian Navy's Pacific Fleet maintains a presence in the city as well. There is also an airbase located 3 km (1.9 mi) to the east of the city. The main public relations asset for the military in the city is the Military History Museum of the Far Eastern Military District and the district military band.[citation needed]


Stamp depicting 1981 Bandy World Championship in Khabarovsk
A corner during the final of the 2015 Bandy World Championship

International events

The city was a host to the 1981 Bandy World Championship. It also hosted the 2015 Bandy World Championship, which was visited by Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev.[52] 21 teams were expected,[53] which would have been 4 more than the then record-making 17 (now it's 18) from the 2014 tournament. In the end, China was the only newcomer, while Canada and Ukraine withdrew, the latter for political reasons. Khabarovsk organised the 2018 tournament as well, but not Division B that time around, which was held in Chinese Harbin.[54] The event was named by the Federal Agency for Tourism as one of the best 200 events of the year.[47]

A delegation from the 2022 Winter Olympics organising committee visited Khabarovsk to watch matches in the bandy league to study the plans if the sport was to be added to the Games program.[55]

Notable people

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Khabarovsk is twinned with:[56]


See also



  1. ^ a b c d Resolution #143-pr
  2. ^ a b c d Law #109
  3. ^ Decision #856
  4. ^ a b Charter of Khabarovsk, Article 2
  5. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 503. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  6. ^ a b Charter of Khabarovsk, Article 19
  7. ^ Official website of Khabarovsk. Sergei Anatolyevich Kravchuk Archived December 10, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, Mayor of Khabarovsk (in Russian)
  8. ^ Official website of Khabarovsk. Brief Reference Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  10. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  11. ^ Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 08 401», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 08 401, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  12. ^ a b c Law #177
  13. ^ Law #264
  14. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  15. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  16. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 08 255», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 08 255, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  17. ^ Khabarovsk Krai Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения Хабаровского края по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2015 года Archived March 5, 2016, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  18. ^ "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  19. ^ "Путин перенес столицу Дальневосточного федерального округа во Владивосток". Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  20. ^ hellotravel,
  21. ^ 《新唐書·北狄傳》記載:「黑水西北又有思慕部,益北行十日得郡利部,東北行十日得窟說部,亦號屈設,稍東南行十日得莫曳皆部。」。(The "New Tang Dynasty Book of Beidi" records: "There is also a tribe called "Dream Tribe" in the northwest of Heishui, Yibei travels on the 10th days to the "County Tribe", and the northeast travels on the 10th days to the "Cave Tribe". 10th days to the "Mo Mo Tribe")
  22. ^ 黑龙江古代道路交通史 (in Chinese). 人民交通出版社出版, 发行. 1988. ISBN 978-7-114-00315-8.
  23. ^ Археологи обнаружили на Амуре таинственный городок. Возможно, это первое русское поселение в данном регионе Archived May 25, 2006, at the Wayback Machine (Mysterious fort found by archaeologists on the Amur. Possibly, this is the first Russian settlement in this region) (in Russian)
  24. ^ a b c d e Оксана Гайнутдинова (Oksana Gaynutdinova) Загадка Ачанского городка Archived August 13, 2007, at the Wayback Machine (The mystery of Fort Achansk)
  25. ^ a b c d e B.P. Polevoy (Б.П. Полевой), Изветная челобитная С. В. Полякова 1653 г. и ее значение для археологов Приамурья (S.V. Polyakov's denouncing letter (1653), and its significance for the archaeologists of the Amur Valley), in: Русские первопроходцы на Дальнем Востоке в XVII-XIX вв. (Историко-археологические исследования) (First Russian explorers in the Far East in the 17th–19th centuries: Historical and archaeological research – B.P.Polevoy's preface to the document), vol. 2, Vladivostok, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1995. (This article also contains references to Polevoy's earlier publications) (in Russian)
  26. ^ a b Б.П. Полевой (B.P. Polevoy) О подлинном местоположении Косогорского острога 50-х гг. XVII века (About the true location of the Kosogorsky Ostrog of the 1650s) (in Russian)
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Tang Prize | Laureates | Yoshinobu Shiba". Retrieved January 12, 2024.
  28. ^ Du Halde, Jean-Baptiste (1735). Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise. Vol. IV. Paris: P.G. Lemercier. p. 7. Numerous later editions are available as well, including one on Google Books
  29. ^ Campbell, Heather. "Khabarovsk". The Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved October 6, 2022.
  30. ^ "Campaign in Far East: Japanese Occupy Kharbarovsk". The Northern Star. Reuters. September 9, 1918. Retrieved February 23, 2021 – via National Library of Australia.
  31. ^ [bare URL PDF]
  32. ^ The 114th CB cruise book, 1946, U.S.Navy Seabee Museum Archives, Port Hueneme, Ca, p.123-125 [1]
  33. ^ a b Yanks in Siberia: U.S. Navy Weather Stations in Soviet East Asia, 1945, G. Patrick March, Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 57, No. 3 (Aug., 1988), pp. 327–342, Published by: University of California Press.[2]
  34. ^ US Navy Abbreviations of World War II, the Navy Department Library, U.S. Navy web site, Published:Thu Jul 23 14:45:40 EDT 2015 [3]
  35. ^ "Anti-Putin Protests in Russia's Far East Gather Steam". VOA News. July 25, 2020.
  36. ^ "флаг хабаровска".
  37. ^ a b "" (in Russian). Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  38. ^ "Habarovsk/Novy (Khabarovsk) Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
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