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Ulan-Ude
Улан-Удэ
Other transcription(s)
 • BuryatУлаан Үдэ
Ulan-Ude City Center
Ulan-Ude City Center
Flag
Coat of arms
Location of Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude is located in Russia
Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude
Location of Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude is located in Republic of Buryatia
Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude (Republic of Buryatia)
Coordinates: 51°50′N 107°36′E / 51.833°N 107.600°E / 51.833; 107.600Coordinates: 51°50′N 107°36′E / 51.833°N 107.600°E / 51.833; 107.600
CountryRussia
Federal subjectBuryatia
Founded1666
City status since1775
Government
 • BodyCity Council of Deputies[1]
 • Mayor[1]Igor Shutenkov[1]
Area
 • Total347.6 km2 (134.2 sq mi)
Elevation
500 m (1,600 ft)
Population
 • Total404,426
 • Estimate 
(2018)[3]
434,869 (+7.5%)
 • Rank45th in 2010
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,000/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity of republic significance of Ulan-Ude[4]
 • Capital ofRepublic of Buryatia
 • Capital ofcity of republic significance of Ulan-Ude[4]
 • Urban okrugUlan-Ude Urban Okrug[5]
 • Capital ofUlan-Ude Urban Okrug[5]
Time zoneUTC+8 (MSK+5 Edit this on Wikidata[6])
Postal code(s)[7]
6700xx
Dialing code(s)+7 3012
OKTMO ID81701000001
City DaySeptember's first Saturday
Websiteulan-ude-eg.ru
Verkhneudinsk, 1885
Verkhneudinsk, 1885

Ulan-Ude (/ʊˌlɑːn ˈdə/; Buryat: Улаан-Үдэ, Ulaan-Üde, [ʊˌlaːɴ‿ˈʉdə]; Russian: Улан-Удэ; Mongolian: Улаан-Үд, Ulaan-Üd, [ʊˌɮaːɴ‿ˈut(ə)]) is the capital city of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia; it is located about 100 kilometers (62 mi) southeast of Lake Baikal on the Uda River at its confluence with the Selenga. According to the 2010 Census, 404,426 people lived in Ulan-Ude;[2] up from 359,391 recorded in the 2002 Census,[8] making the city the third-largest in the Russian Far East by population.

Names

Ulan-Ude was first called Udinskoye (Удинское, [ˈudʲɪnskəjə]) for its location on the Uda River. It was founded as a small fort in 1668.[9] From around 1735, the settlement was called Udinsk (Удинск, [ʊˈdʲinsk]) and was granted town status under that name in 1775.[citation needed] It was renamed Verkhneudinsk (Верхнеудинск, [vʲɪrxnʲɪˈudʲɪnsk]; "Upper Udinsk") in 1783, to differentiate it from Nizhneudinsk ("Lower Udinsk") lying on a different Uda River near Irkutsk which was granted town status that year.[citation needed]

The descriptors "upper" and "lower" refer to the positions of the two cities relative to each other, rather than the location of the cities on their respective Uda rivers. Verkhneudinsk lies at the mouth of its river, while Nizhneudinsk is along the middle stretch. The current name was given to the city on 27 July 1934 and means "red Uda" in Buryat, reflecting the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Geography

Ulan-Ude lies 5,640 kilometers (3,500 mi) east of Moscow and 100 kilometers (62 mi) southeast of Lake Baikal. It is 600 meters (2,000 ft) above sea level at the foot of the Khamar-Daban and Ulan-Burgas mountain ranges, next to the confluence of the Selenga River and its tributary, the Uda, which divides the city.[10]

Hydrography

Ulan-Ude is traversed by two rivers, the Selenga and Uda. The Selenga provides the greatest inflow to Baikal Lake, supplying 50% of all rivers in its basin. The Selenga brings about 30 cubic kilometers (7 cubic miles) of water into the lake per year, exerting a major influence on the lakewater's renewal and its sanitary condition. Selenga is the habitat of the most valuable fish species such as Omul, Siberian sturgeon, Siberian taimen, Thymallus and Coregonus.[citation needed]

Uda is the right inflow of the Selenga river. The length of the watercourse is 467 kilometers (290 miles).

History

This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.Find sources: "Ulan-Ude" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2018)
Coat of arms of Verkhneudinsk in 1790
Coat of arms of Verkhneudinsk in 1790

The first occupants of the area where Ulan-Ude now stands were the Evenks and, later, the Buryat Mongols. Ulan-Ude was settled in 1666 by the Russian Cossacks as the fortress of Udinskoye. Due to its favorable geographical position, it grew rapidly and became a large trade center which connected Russia with China and Mongolia and, from 1690, was the administrative center of the Transbaikal region.

By 1775, it was known as Udinsk, and in 1783 it was granted city status and renamed Verkhneudinsk. After a large fire in 1878, the city was almost completely rebuilt. The Trans-Siberian Railway reached the city in 1900 causing an explosion in growth. The population, which was 3,500 in 1880, reached 126,000 in 1939.[11]

From 6 April to October 1920 Verkhneudinsk was the capital of the Far Eastern Republic (Дальневосточная Республика), also known as the Chita Republic.[12] It was a nominally independent state that existed from April 1920 to November 1922 in the easternmost part of the Russian Far East. On 27 July 1934, the city was renamed Ulan-Ude.

Administrative and municipal status

Ulan-Ude
Ulan-Ude

Ulan-Ude is the capital of the republic.[13] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of republic significance of Ulan-Ude — an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[4] As a municipal division, the city of Ulan-Ude is incorporated as Ulan-Ude Urban Okrug.[5]

Demographics

Center of Ulan-Ude from a bird's eye view
Center of Ulan-Ude from a bird's eye view

According to the 2010 Census, 404,426 people lived in Ulan-Ude;[2] up from 359,391 recorded in the 2002 Census.[8] In terms of population, it is the third-largest city in eastern Siberia.

Historical population figures for Ulan-Ude[14]
Year 1923 1926 1939 1959 1970 1979 1989 2002 2010 2021
Population 21,600 28,900 125,700 174,300 253,600 299,800 352,530[15] 374,854 404,426 437,514[16]

The ethnic makeup of the city's population in 2010:[17]

The city is the center of Tibetan Buddhism in Russia and the important Ivolginsky datsan is located 23 km (14 mi) from the city.

Transportation

Ulan-Ude railway station on the Trans-Siberian Railway

Ulan-Ude is located on the main line (Trans-Siberian line) of the Trans-Siberian Railway between Irkutsk and Chita at the junction of the Trans-Mongolian line (the Trans-Mongolian Railway) which begins at Ulan Ude and continues south through Mongolia to Beijing in China.

The city also lies on the M55 section of the Baikal Highway (part of the Trans-Siberian Highway), the main federal road to Vladivostok.[citation needed] Air traffic is served by the Ulan-Ude Airport (Baikal), as well as the smaller Ulan-Ude Vostochny Airport. Intracity transport includes tram, bus, and marshrutka (share taxi) lines.[citation needed]

Culture

Gate of the Ulan-Ude Ethnographic Museum
A Russian Old Believer church moved to the ethnographic museum in Ulan-Ude
A Russian Old Believer church moved to the ethnographic museum in Ulan-Ude
Hambyn-Hure Datsan
Hambyn-Hure Datsan

Until 1991, Ulan-Ude was closed to foreigners. There are old merchants' mansions richly decorated with wood and stone carving in the historical center of Ulan-Ude, along the river banks which are exceptional examples of Russian classicism. The city has a large ethnographic museum which recalls the history of the peoples of the region. There is a large and highly unusual statue of the head of Vladimir Lenin in the central square: the largest in the world. Built in 1970 for the centennial of Lenin's birth and weighing 42 tons, as of 2018 it continued to tower over the main plaza at 7.7 meters (25 ft).[18]

Sights

This section relies largely or entirely on a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.Find sources: "Ulan-Ude" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2018)
The largest head of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin ever built was in Ulan-Ude as of 2018
The largest head of Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin ever built was in Ulan-Ude as of 2018
Odigitrievsky Cathedral
Odigitrievsky Cathedral

The Ethnographic Museum of the peoples of Transbaikal is one of Russia's largest open-air museums. The museum contains historical finds from the era of the Slab Grave Culture and the Xiongnu until the mid 20th century, including a unique collection of samples of wooden architecture of Siberia – more than forty architectural monuments.

Odigitrievsky CathedralEastern Orthodox Church Diocese of the Buryat, was the first stone building in the city and is a Siberian baroque architectural monument. The cathedral is considered unique because it is built in a zone of high seismic activity in the heart of the city on the banks of the River Uda River where it flows into the Selenga.

One of the attractions of Ulan-Ude is a monument in the town square — the square of the Soviets — in the form of the head of Lenin (sculptors G.V. Neroda, J.G. Neroda, architects Dushkin, P.G. Zilberman). The monument, weighing 42 tons and with a height of 7.7 meters (25 ft), was opened in 1971 in honor of the centenary of Lenin's birth.[18] The Voice of Nomads international music and culture festival is held annually at various sites in the city.

Economy

The Ulan-Ude Aviation Plant is based in Ulan-Ude.

Mongol Rally

Ulan-Ude serves as the endpoint for the Mongol Rally.

Climate

Ulan-Ude can be described as possessing a humid steppe climate (Köppen climate classification BSk), bordering on a humid continental climate (Dwb) and a subarctic climate (Dwc). The climate is characterised by long, dry, cold winters and short but very warm summers. Precipitation is low and heavily concentrated in the warmer months.

Climate data for Ulan-Ude (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1847–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
7.9
(46.2)
18.4
(65.1)
28.7
(83.7)
35.6
(96.1)
40.0
(104.0)
40.6
(105.1)
39.7
(103.5)
32.2
(90.0)
24.7
(76.5)
11.3
(52.3)
5.2
(41.4)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) −17.6
(0.3)
−10.6
(12.9)
0.4
(32.7)
10.7
(51.3)
18.6
(65.5)
25.5
(77.9)
27.5
(81.5)
24.2
(75.6)
16.8
(62.2)
6.9
(44.4)
−5.2
(22.6)
−14.8
(5.4)
6.9
(44.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) −22.8
(−9.0)
−17.5
(0.5)
−6.7
(19.9)
3.4
(38.1)
10.9
(51.6)
17.9
(64.2)
20.6
(69.1)
17.7
(63.9)
10.0
(50.0)
0.8
(33.4)
−10.3
(13.5)
−19.4
(−2.9)
0.4
(32.7)
Average low °C (°F) −27.2
(−17.0)
−23.5
(−10.3)
−13.0
(8.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
3.8
(38.8)
11.1
(52.0)
14.6
(58.3)
12.3
(54.1)
4.6
(40.3)
−4.0
(24.8)
−14.4
(6.1)
−23.2
(−9.8)
−5.2
(22.6)
Record low °C (°F) −54.4
(−65.9)
−44.9
(−48.8)
−40.4
(−40.7)
−28.0
(−18.4)
−15.1
(4.8)
−3.9
(25.0)
1.2
(34.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
−11.4
(11.5)
−27.9
(−18.2)
−38.0
(−36.4)
−48.8
(−55.8)
−54.4
(−65.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5
(0.2)
3
(0.1)
3
(0.1)
6
(0.2)
18
(0.7)
34
(1.3)
64
(2.5)
63
(2.5)
27
(1.1)
7
(0.3)
9
(0.4)
11
(0.4)
250
(9.8)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 12
(4.7)
12
(4.7)
4
(1.6)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
3
(1.2)
9
(3.5)
12
(4.7)
Average rainy days 0 0.04 1 6 10 14 16 15 13 7 1 0 83
Average snowy days 15 11 9 8 2 0.03 0 0 1 8 17 18 89
Average relative humidity (%) 77 75 66 53 49 57 64 69 68 68 76 78 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 115 155 225 248 287 288 270 247 211 167 113 92 2,418
Source 1: Погода и Климат[19]
Source 2: NOAA[20]

Notable people

Twin towns - sister cities

Panorama of Ulan-Ude. View from Mount Komushka
Panorama of Ulan-Ude. View from Mount Komushka

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Ulan-Ude is twinned with:[21]

A panorama view of Ulan-Ude

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c "Baikal24".
  2. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Resolution #431
  5. ^ a b c Law #985-III
  6. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  9. ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Verkhne-Udinsk" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 27 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 1023.
  10. ^ transsibirskaya.com
  11. ^ britannica.com
  12. ^ Bisher, Jamie (June 2005). White Terror: Cossack Warlords of the Trans-Siberian. pp. 302–03. ISBN 9781135765958.
  13. ^ "Russia's federal constituent entities". Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation. Retrieved March 5, 2021.
  14. ^ "Исторические предпосылки формирования современной этнической структуры г.Улан-Удэ". Ethonet.ru. Archived from the original on February 13, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  15. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  16. ^ "2021". August 5, 2021.
  17. ^ "Russian Census 2010" (PDF). July 27, 2018.
  18. ^ a b Памятник В. И. Ленину (in Russian). Monulent.ru. Retrieved April 17, 2018.
  19. ^ "Climate Ulan-Ude". Pogoda.ru.net. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  20. ^ "ULAN-UDE/MUHINO 1961–1990". NOAA. Retrieved November 7, 2021.
  21. ^ "Города-побратимы". ulan-ude-eg.ru (in Russian). Ulan-Ude. Retrieved February 1, 2020.
  22. ^ "Sister Cities - City of Berkeley, CA". www.cityofberkeley.info. Retrieved September 25, 2020.

Sources