Yoshkar-Ola

Йошка́р-Ола́
Other transcription(s)
 • MariЙошкар-Ола
Top: Wall clock display in the Yoshkar-Ola National Art Gallery; middle left: Yoshkar-Ola City Hall; middle right: Flower-style lantern in Obolensky-Nogotkov Square; bottom left: Monument to Obolensky-Nogotkov] bottom right: Monument to Tsar Cannon in the National Art Gallery
Flag
Coat of arms
Anthem: Song About Yoshkar-Ola[2]
Location of Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Location of Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola (European Russia)
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola (Europe)
Coordinates: 56°39′N 47°53′E / 56.650°N 47.883°E / 56.650; 47.883Coordinates: 56°39′N 47°53′E / 56.650°N 47.883°E / 56.650; 47.883
CountryRussia
Federal subjectMari El[1]
Founded1584[3][4]
City status since1781[3]
Government
 • BodyCity Assembly of Yoshkar-Ola[5]
 • Head[7]Yevgeny Maslov (acting)[6]
Elevation
100 m (300 ft)
Population
 • Total248,782
 • Estimate 
(2018)[9]
268,272 (+7.8%)
 • Rank74th in 2010
 • Subordinated tocity of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola[1]
 • Capital ofMari El Republic[10]
 • Capital ofcity of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola[1]
 • Urban okrugYoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug[11]
 • Capital ofYoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug[11]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[12])
Postal code(s)[13]
424000–424008, 424010, 424016, 424019, 424020, 424026, 424028, 424030–424034, 424036–424040, 424045, 424700, 424899, 424950, 424999
Dialing code(s)+7 8362
OKTMO ID88701000001
City DayAugust 6[14]
Websitewww.i-ola.ru

Yoshkar-Ola (Mari and Russian: Йошкар-Ола) is the capital city of the Mari El Republic, Russia.

Yoshkar-Ola means red city in Mari and was formerly known as Tsaryovokokshaysk (Царёвококшайск) before 1919, as Krasnokokshaysk (Краснококшайск) between 1919 and 1927 (both after the Malaya Kokshaga River, which runs through the city) and Charla (Чарла) (old Mari). Yoshkar-Ola was established as a military fortress in 1584, following the Russian conquest of the Mari region.

It is currently one of the centers of the Finno-Ugric people and the administrative center of the Yoshkar-Ola city district.

Demographics

Population: 248,782 (2010 Census);[8] 256,719 (2002 Census);[15] 241,601 (1989 Census).[16]

History

Yoshkar-Ola was established as a military fortress in 1584, following the Russian conquest of the Mari region.

During the Soviet era, especially after World War II, the city was a regional industrial and transport center and grew to its current size. The collapse of the Soviet Union removed support for state enterprises, and led to the shutdown of most manufacturing activity in the area. Much of the city's economic activity was supported by shuttle traders who would transport (often counterfeit) goods from the bustling markets of Moscow to Yoshkar-Ola's bazaars. The sharp decline in living standards led to the emigration of specialized professionals to larger cities in Russia.

Yoshkar Ola
Yoshkar Ola

Administrative and municipal status

Yoshkar-Ola is the capital of the republic.[10] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola —an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola is incorporated as Yoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug.[11]

Transport

Yoshkar-Ola is linked to other cities and regions in Russia by a series of train and bus routes. The local train station is currently served by a daily train to and from the capital Moscow with other short-service trains running to and from Kazan. Moscow and various other nearby towns and regions can also be reached by buses departing from the local bus station. The Yoshkar-Ola Airport is also located 9 km north of the city and handles small aircraft Moscow-bound flights (Vnukovo International Airport) since April 2012.

Destinations within the city limits can be reached through a network of buses, trolleys, and route taxis, or marshrutkas.

Climate

Climate of Yoshkar-Ola is very similar to Nizhny Novgorod or Kirov. The city is situated in a temperate continental climate. The winters are long and cold with much snow, with average January temperatures from −10 to −15 °C (14 to 5 °F), and record low of about −48 °C (−54 °F). On the other hand, city enjoys very warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry or rainy conditions with July as the hottest month, when average high is +25 °C (77 °F), and the temperatures may stay around +35 °C (95 °F) for weeks.

Education

Yoshkar-Ola is home to 88 educational institutions, among them several institutions of higher education, including:

There are also 30 schools for primary students aged between 7 and 18 and 52 kindergartens. Additionally, Yoshkar-Ola has many private educational centers offering different qualifications and trainings in such disciplines as foreign languages, computer science and many others.

Military

4th Kiev-Zhitomir Rocket Division of the 27th Guards Missile Army of the Strategic Rocket Forces is located nearby.[17]

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Yoshkar-Ola is twinned with:[18]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #22-Z
  2. ^ Official website of Yoshkar-Ola. Symbols of Yoshkar-Ola (in Russian)
  3. ^ a b Great Russian Encyclopedia, pp. 301–302
  4. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 1
  5. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 24
  6. ^ Official website of Yoshkar-Ola. Mayor of the City of Yoshkar-Ola (in Russian)
  7. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 44
  8. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  10. ^ a b Constitution of the Mari El Republic, Article 16
  11. ^ a b c Law #15-Z
  12. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  13. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 6
  15. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  16. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  17. ^ 14th Kievsko-Zhitomirskaya order of Kutuzov Missile Division
  18. ^ "Города-побратимы". i-ola.ru (in Russian). Yoshkar-Ola. Retrieved February 4, 2020.

Sources