Yoshkar-Ola
Йошка́р-Ола́
Other transcription(s)
 • Meadow MariЙошкар-Ола
View of the Brugge Embankment, with the Mari El Republican Puppet Theatre on the left.
View of the Brugge Embankment, with the Mari El Republican Puppet Theatre on the left.
Flag of Yoshkar-Ola
Coat of arms of Yoshkar-Ola
Anthem: Song About Yoshkar-Ola[2]
Location of Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola is located in Mari El
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Location of Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola is located in European Russia
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola (European Russia)
Yoshkar-Ola is located in Europe
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola
Yoshkar-Ola (Europe)
Coordinates: 56°39′N 47°53′E / 56.650°N 47.883°E / 56.650; 47.883Coordinates: 56°39′N 47°53′E / 56.650°N 47.883°E / 56.650; 47.883
CountryRussia
Federal subjectMari El[1]
Founded1584[3][4]
City status since1781[3]
Government
 • BodyCity Assembly of Yoshkar-Ola[5]
 • Head[7]Yevgeny Maslov (acting)[6]
Elevation
100 m (300 ft)
Population
 • Total248,782
 • Estimate 
(2018)[9]
268,272 (+7.8%)
 • Rank74th in 2010
 • Subordinated tocity of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola[1]
 • Capital ofMari El Republic[10]
 • Capital ofcity of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola[1]
 • Urban okrugYoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug[11]
 • Capital ofYoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug[11]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[12])
Postal code(s)[13]
424000–424008, 424010, 424016, 424019, 424020, 424026, 424028, 424030–424034, 424036–424040, 424045, 424700, 424899, 424950, 424999
Dialing code(s)+7 8362
OKTMO ID88701000001
City DayAugust 6[14]
Websitewww.i-ola.ru

Yoshkar-Ola (Mari and Russian: Йошкар-Ола) is the capital city of the Mari El Republic, Russia. Yoshkar-Ola means “red city” in Mari and was formerly known as Tsaryovokokshaysk (Царевококшайск) before 1919, as Krasnokokshaysk (Краснококшайск) between 1919 and 1927 (both after the Malaya Kokshaga River, which runs through the city) and Charla (Чарла), by the Mari people.

Yoshkar-Ola was established as a military fortress in 1584, following the Russian conquest of the Mari-inhabited regions of the Volga and it’s tributaries. It is currently one of the centers of the Mari people (especially of the Meadow Mari subgroup) and the administrative center of the Yoshkar-Ola city district.

Demographics

Population: 248,782 (2010 Census);[8] 256,719 (2002 Census);[15] 241,601 (1989 Census).[16]

History

Yoshkar-Ola was established as a military fortress in 1584, following the Russian conquest of the Mari region.

During the Soviet era, especially after World War II, the city was a regional industrial and transport center and grew to its current size. The collapse of the Soviet Union removed support for state enterprises, and led to the shutdown of most manufacturing activity in the area. Much of the city's economic activity was supported by shuttle traders who would transport (often counterfeit) goods from the bustling markets of Moscow to Yoshkar-Ola's bazaars. The sharp decline in living standards led to the emigration of specialized professionals to larger cities in Russia.

Yoshkar Ola
Yoshkar Ola

Administrative and municipal status

Yoshkar-Ola is the capital of the republic.[10] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with ten rural localities, incorporated as the city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola —an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Yoshkar-Ola is incorporated as Yoshkar-Ola Urban Okrug.[11]

Transport

Yoshkar-Ola is linked to other cities and regions in Russia by a series of train and bus routes. The local train station is currently served by a daily train to and from the capital Moscow with other short-service trains running to and from Kazan. Moscow and various other nearby towns and regions can also be reached by buses departing from the local bus station. The Yoshkar-Ola Airport is also located 9 km north of the city and handles small aircraft Moscow-bound flights (Vnukovo International Airport) since April 2012.

Destinations within the city limits can be reached through a network of buses, trolleys, and route taxis, or marshrutkas.

Climate

The climate of Yoshkar-Ola is very similar to that of Nizhny Novgorod or Kirov. The city is situated in a warm-summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb). The winters are long and cold with much snow and average January temperatures between −10 and −15 °C (14 and 5 °F), and a record low of −47.3 °C (−53.1 °F). On the other hand, the city enjoys very warm summers, marred by only occasional, brief intervals of sultry or rainy conditions with July as the hottest month, when average high is +25 °C (77 °F), and temperatures may stay around +35 °C (95 °F) for weeks.

Climate data for Yoshkar-Ola (1991-2020, extremes 1881-present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.5
(40.1)
7.4
(45.3)
15.8
(60.4)
28.9
(84.0)
33.4
(92.1)
36.8
(98.2)
38.7
(101.7)
39.1
(102.4)
31.6
(88.9)
23.9
(75.0)
13.0
(55.4)
7.2
(45.0)
39.1
(102.4)
Average high °C (°F) −7.3
(18.9)
−6.3
(20.7)
0.4
(32.7)
10.3
(50.5)
19.4
(66.9)
23.1
(73.6)
25.4
(77.7)
22.8
(73.0)
16.4
(61.5)
8.0
(46.4)
−0.6
(30.9)
−5.7
(21.7)
8.8
(47.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −10.5
(13.1)
−10.2
(13.6)
−3.9
(25.0)
4.9
(40.8)
12.8
(55.0)
17.0
(62.6)
19.3
(66.7)
16.8
(62.2)
11.1
(52.0)
4.4
(39.9)
−3.1
(26.4)
−8.4
(16.9)
4.2
(39.6)
Average low °C (°F) −13.7
(7.3)
−13.9
(7.0)
−7.8
(18.0)
0.2
(32.4)
6.7
(44.1)
11.3
(52.3)
13.5
(56.3)
11.5
(52.7)
6.8
(44.2)
1.4
(34.5)
−5.4
(22.3)
−11.2
(11.8)
0.0
(32.0)
Record low °C (°F) −46.9
(−52.4)
−41.7
(−43.1)
−38.9
(−38.0)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−6.0
(21.2)
−2.5
(27.5)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.4
(29.5)
−7.5
(18.5)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−33.6
(−28.5)
−47.3
(−53.1)
−47.3
(−53.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 40
(1.6)
30
(1.2)
32
(1.3)
32
(1.3)
40
(1.6)
64
(2.5)
76
(3.0)
65
(2.6)
54
(2.1)
57
(2.2)
43
(1.7)
42
(1.7)
575
(22.6)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[17]

Education

Yoshkar-Ola is home to 88 educational institutions, among them several institutions of higher education, including:

There are also 30 schools for primary students aged between 7 and 18 and 52 kindergartens. Additionally, Yoshkar-Ola has many private educational centers offering different qualifications and trainings in such disciplines as foreign languages, computer science and many others.

Military

4th Kiev-Zhitomir Rocket Division of the 27th Guards Missile Army of the Strategic Rocket Forces is located nearby.[18]

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Yoshkar-Ola is twinned with:[19]

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #22-Z
  2. ^ Official website of Yoshkar-Ola. Symbols of Yoshkar-Ola Archived 9 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  3. ^ a b Great Russian Encyclopedia, pp. 301–302
  4. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 1
  5. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 24
  6. ^ Official website of Yoshkar-Ola. Mayor of the City of Yoshkar-Ola Archived 5 December 2015 at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  7. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 44
  8. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  9. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 23 January 2019.
  10. ^ a b Constitution of the Mari El Republic, Article 16
  11. ^ a b c Law #15-Z
  12. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). 3 June 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  13. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. ^ Charter of Yoshkar-Ola, Article 6
  15. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  16. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  17. ^ "Погода и Климат – Климат Йошкар-Ола" (in Russian). Weather and Climate (Погода и климат). Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  18. ^ "14th Kievsko-Zhitomirskaya order of Kutuzov Missile Division". Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  19. ^ "Города-побратимы". i-ola.ru (in Russian). Yoshkar-Ola. Archived from the original on 31 January 2020. Retrieved 4 February 2020.

Sources