Cherkessk

Черкесск
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Location of Cherkessk
Cherkessk
Cherkessk
Location of Cherkessk
Cherkessk
Cherkessk
Cherkessk (Karachay-Cherkessia)
Coordinates: 44°13′N 42°03′E / 44.217°N 42.050°E / 44.217; 42.050Coordinates: 44°13′N 42°03′E / 44.217°N 42.050°E / 44.217; 42.050
CountryRussia
Federal subjectKarachay-Cherkessia
Founded1825
City status since1931
Government
 • MayorLaypanov Rasul Khamitbievich
Area
 • Total69.8 km2 (26.9 sq mi)
Elevation
530 m (1,740 ft)
Population
 • Total129,069
 • Estimate 
(2018)[2]
122,395 (−5.2%)
 • Rank127th in 2010
 • Density1,849.12/km2 (4,789.2/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity of republic significance of Cherkessk[3]
 • Capital ofKarachay-Cherkess Republic[3]
 • Capital ofcity of republic significance of Cherkessk[3]
 • Urban okrugCherkessk Urban Okrug[4]
 • Capital ofCherkessk Urban Okrug[4]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[5])
Postal code(s)[6]
3690XX
Dialing code(s)+7 8782
OKTMO ID91701000001
Websitecherkessk09.ru

Cherkessk (Russian: Черке́сск) is the capital city of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russia, as well as its political, economic, and cultural center. Its population was 129,069 (in 2010).[1]

It was previously known as Batalpashinskaya (until 1931), Batalpashinsk (until 1934), Sulimov (until 1937), Yezhovo-Cherkessk (until 1939).

Names

In Russian, the city is called Черке́сск (Čerkessk)[7] and has similar names in the languages of the city's other major ethnic groups. In Karachay, it is Черкесск (Çerkessk)[7] or Черкесск шахар (Çerkessk şahar); in Kabardian, it is Шэрджэс къалэ (Şărdjăs qală) or Черке́сск (Čerkessk);[7] in Abaza, it is Черкес къала (Čerkes q̇ala) or Черкесск (Čerkessk);[7] in Nogai, it is Шеркеш шахар (Şerkeş şahar) and in Chechen, it is Черкесск (Čerkessk).

For its first century of existence, Cherkessk was a stanitsa, a village inside a Cossack host, which from 1825 to 1931 was named Batalpashinskaya stanitsa (Russian: Баталпашинская станица Batalpašinskaja stanica)[7] and nicknamed Pashinka (Пашинка Pašinka) In 1931, it was renamed Batalpashinsk (Баталпашинск Batałpašinsk),[8][7] and then in quick succession Sulimov (Сулимов Sulimov) in 1934[8][7] for Daniil Sulimov, Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR, and following Sulimov's execution in the Great Purge, Yezhovo-Cherkessk (Ежово-Черкесск Ježovo-Čerkessk) in 1937[8][7] for Nikolai Yezhov, head of the NKVD. With Yezhov's arrest, the initial "Yezhovo-" was dropped, and the city received its present name in 1939.[8][7]

History

Extract from the decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee
Extract from the decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee

What is now Cherkessk was established in 1804 as a Russian military fort on the Kuban River, what was then the border with Circassia, on the spot where in 1790 Russian troops under the command of General Johann Hermann von Fersen (Ivan Ivanovich Herman fon Fersen) defeated the Ottoman Batal Pasha.[8] In honor of the victory over Batal Pasha, the fort was named Batalpashinskaya; it was a redoubt surrounded by an earthen rampart and ditch.[8] (That the fort was named for an enemy leader may have led villagers to prefer the nickname Pashinka.)

Friendship of the People's Monument
Friendship of the People's Monument

The settlement itself was founded as the Cossack stanitsa of Batalpashinskaya near the Russian Army outpost. The officially recognized year of founding of Batalpashinskaya and modern Cherkessk is 1825. However, the Cossack settlers from the Khopyour and Kuban regiments began arriving in the newly organized stanitsa not earlier than spring of 1826.[9] In 1860, the village was designated as a center of a uyezd of the Kuban Oblast.[8] A decree of 30 December 1869 by Tsar Alexander II transformed the village into a city of Batalpashinsk but the decree was never implemented,[10] and Batalpashinskaya remained a stanitsa until the Soviet times. In 1888, the village became a seat of one of Kuban's seven otdels.

Monument to the Soviet Soldiers of Cherkessk
Monument to the Soviet Soldiers of Cherkessk

In 1922, the village became the seat of the Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast of the RSFSR,[8] and in 1926, the Cherkess National Okrug. In 1931, it was granted town status and renamed Batalpashinsk. It received its current name of Cherkessk in 1939.[7] The city was occupied by the Nazi German Wehrmacht during World War II (the Great Patriotic War) from 11 August 1942 to 17 January 1943[8] as part of the Case Blue offensive. In 1957, it became the capital of the reformed Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast which became the Karachay–Cherkess Republic in 1991 with the fall of the Soviet Union.

Administrative and municipal status

Cherkessk is the capital of the republic.[3] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of republic significance of Cherkessk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[3] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Cherkessk is incorporated as Cherkessk Urban Okrug.[4]

Population

Cherkessk Mosque
Cherkessk Mosque
St. Nicholas Cathedral, Cherkessk
St. Nicholas Cathedral, Cherkessk

The population of Cherkessk was 129,069 in the 2010 Census,[1] 116,244 in the 2002 Census[11] and 113,060 in the 1989 Soviet Census.[12]

Ethnic groups

The city is inhabited by Russians, native Cherkess (Circassians), Karachays, Abaza, Nogays and minorities of Ukrainians, Greeks and Armenians.

1926

According to the First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union of 1926, inhabitants of Batalpashinsk (present-day Cherkessk) included:[13]

1939

The 1937 census results were suppressed and destroyed but the Soviet census of 1939 recorded:[13]

1959

The Soviet census of 1959 recorded:[13]

1970

The Soviet census of 1970 recorded:[13]

1989

According to the 1989 data from the final Soviet census, the population of the city included:[13]

2002

In 2002, the Russian census reported the population including:[14]

2010

In 2010, the population included:[citation needed]

Education

Cherkessk academy
Cherkessk academy

Cherkessk is home to the following education institutions:

Culture

Tourism sign for Cherkessk
Tourism sign for Cherkessk

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  2. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e Law #84-RZ
  4. ^ a b c Law #41-RZ
  5. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  6. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "KNAB, the Place Names Database of EKI". Eki.ee. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i Города России: Черкесск. Энциклопедия — М.: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. И. Кондратьева, 1994. (in Russian)
  9. ^ В. А. Колесников. Былое Невинного Мыса. К 185-летию переселения Хопёрского казачьего полка на Кубань и основания станицы Невиномысской. Ставрополь. «ЮРКИТ» 2011. (in Russian)
  10. ^ Филиппов Е. В. Город Баталпашинск: проекты и реалии. (in Russian)
  11. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  12. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  13. ^ a b c d e Этнокавказ. Национальный состав КЧР по переписям 1926—2002 (in Russian)
  14. ^ "Население Карачаево-Черкессии". Ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  15. ^ "Северо-Кавказская государственная гуманитарно-технологическая академия | СевКавГГТА". Kchgta.ru. September 30, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2013.

Sources