.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. (April 2020) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 1,814 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Russian Wikipedia article at [[:ru:Тула]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ru|Тула)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Up: Kremlin, Museum of Weapons, Assembly of the Nobility. Center: Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Down: Cathedral of the Dormition at Uspensky Convent, Monument to gingerbread on Lenin Square, Administrative and production building for gingerbread trade
Up: Kremlin, Museum of Weapons, Assembly of the Nobility. Center: Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Down: Cathedral of the Dormition at Uspensky Convent, Monument to gingerbread on Lenin Square, Administrative and production building for gingerbread trade
Flag of Tula
Coat of arms of Tula
Location of Tula
Tula is located in Tula Oblast
Location of Tula
Tula is located in European Russia
Tula (European Russia)
Tula is located in Europe
Tula (Europe)
Coordinates: 54°12′N 37°37′E / 54.200°N 37.617°E / 54.200; 37.617
Federal subjectTula Oblast[1]
First mentioned1146[2]
 • BodyCity Duma[3]
 • Mayor[5]Olga Slyusareva[4]
 • Total153.52 km2 (59.27 sq mi)
170 m (560 ft)
 • Total501,169
 • Estimate 
482,873 (−3.7%)
 • Rank37th in 2010
 • Density3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)
 • Subordinated toTula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Capital ofTula Oblast,[1] Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[1]
 • Urban okrugTula Urban Okrug[9]
 • Capital ofTula Urban Okrug[9]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[10])
Postal code(s)[11]
Dialing code(s)+7 4872[12]
OKTMO ID70701000001

Tula (Russian: Тула, IPA: [ˈtulə]) is the largest city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast in Russia, located 193 kilometers (120 mi) south of Moscow. Tula is located in the northern Central Russian Upland on the banks of the Upa River, a tributary of the Oka. At the 2010 census, Tula had a population of 501,169, an increase from 481,216 in 2002, making it the 32nd-largest city in Russia by population.

Historical population
Source: Census data

A primarily industrial city, Tula was a fortress at the border of the Principality of Ryazan. The city was seized by Ivan Bolotnikov during the Time of Troubles and withstood a four-month siege by the Tsar's army. Historically, Tula was a major centre for the manufacture of armaments. The Demidov family built the first armament factory in Russia in the city, in what would become the Tula Arms Plant, which still operates to this day.

Tula is home to the Klokovo air base, Tula State University, the Tula Kremlin, Tula State Museum of Weapons, and Kazanskaya Embankment. Tula has a historical association with the samovar, a metal container used to heat and boil water; the city was a major center of Russian samovar production. Yasnaya Polyana, the former home of the writer Leo Tolstoy, is located 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) southwest of Tula. Additionally, Tula is known for its imprinted gingerbread (pryanik),[13] which has been made in Tula since the 17th century.


The name of the city is likely pre-Russian, probably of Baltic origin.[14][15][16]


Tula in 1807

Tula was first mentioned in the Nikon Chronicle (year 1146).[2][17]

In the Middle Ages, Tula was a minor fortress at the border of the Principality of Ryazan. As soon as it passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a brick citadel, or kremlin, was constructed in 1514–1521.[18] It was a key fortress of the Great Abatis Belt and successfully resisted a siege by the Tatars in 1552. In 1607, Ivan Bolotnikov and his supporters seized the citadel and withstood a four-months siege by the Tsar's army. In the 18th century, some parts of the kremlin walls were demolished. Despite its archaic appearance, the five-domed Assumption Cathedral in the kremlin was built as late as 1764.[citation needed]

In 1712, Tula was visited by Peter the Great, who commissioned the Demidov blacksmiths to build the first armament factory in Russia. Several decades later, Tula was turned by the Demidovs into the greatest ironworking center of Eastern Europe. The oldest museum in the city, showcasing the history of weapons, was inaugurated by the Demidovs in 1724, and Nicholas-Zaretsky Church in the city houses their family vault. The first factory to produce samovars industrially was also established there in the course of the 18th century. After the Demidovs moved the center of their manufacture to the Urals, Tula continued as a center of heavy industry, particularly in the manufacture of matériel.[citation needed]

In the 1890s, Ivan Savelyev, a medical orderly, became the founder of social democracy in Tula and set up a workers' study circle.[19]

During World War II, the city was important in the production of armaments. Tula became the target of a German offensive to break Soviet resistance in the Moscow area between 24 October and 5 December 1941. According to Erik Durschmied in The Weather Factor: How Nature has Changed History, one German general reached the southwestern outskirts of Tula on 29–30 October 1941. [20]

The heavily fortified city held out, however, and Guderian's Second Panzer Army was stopped near Tula. The city secured the southern flank during the Battle of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive. Tula was awarded the title Hero City in 1976. It is home to the Klokovo air base and the Tula Arms Plant.[citation needed]

Administrative and municipal status

Tula serves as the administrative center of the oblast.[1] Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the territories of Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction and of Leninsky District are incorporated as Tula Urban Okrug.[9][21]



For more than four centuries Tula has been known as a center of crafts and metalworking. Tula is a developed industrial center. Importance in the industrial structure of Tula are metallurgy, machinery and metal with a high share of the military-industrial complex and food manufacturing.[citation needed]

Armaments industry

Other companies


Metallistov Street

A musical instrument, the Tula accordion, is named after the city, which is a center of manufacture for such instruments sold throughout Russia and the world. Tula is also renowned for traditional Russian pryanik, cookies made with honey and spices (see Tula pryanik). In the West, Tula is perhaps best known as the center of arms manufacturing, mainly by TT pistol, as well as samovar production: the Russian equivalent of "coals to Newcastle" is "You don't take a samovar to Tula". (The saying is falsely ascribed to the writer and playwright Anton Chekhov, whose made a satirical portrait of one of his characters saying "Taking your wife to Paris is the same as taking your own samovar to Tula".)

The most popular tourist attraction in Tula Oblast is Yasnaya Polyana, the home and burial place of the writer Leo Tolstoy. It is situated 14 kilometres (8+12 miles) southwest of the city. It was here that Tolstoy wrote his celebrated novels War and Peace and Anna Karenina. The largest public park in Tula is the P. Belousov Central Park of Culture and Recreation.


Tula is home to:


Since 1867, there has been a railway connection between Tula and Moscow.[24] Tula is a major railway junction with trains to Moscow, Oryol, Kursk and Kaluga. The Moscow to Simferopol M2 motorway runs past the city. City transport is provided by trams, trolleybuses, buses, and marshrutkas. Tula trams, trolleybuses, and bus routes are operated by "Tulgorelectrotrans" (Tula city electrotransport company). Klokovo (air base) of the Russian Air Force is located nearby.


Most of Tula's churches are Russian Orthodox churches. Next in number are Protestants and Catholics. Non-Christian organizations that are present include Muslims, Jews, Hare Krishna, Buddhists and Taoists.

All Orthodox organizations in Tula and the Tula Oblast are included in the Diocese of Tula and Yefremov. Among the Tula Orthodox churches should be mentioned Saints Cathedral (1776-1800), the oldest church in Tula - Annunciation (1692) and the Assumption Cathedral of the Tula Kremlin (1762-1764). There is also the Shcheglovsky Monastery of Holy Mother of God, built in mid 19th century and consecrated in 1860.[25] In Tula also Old Believers' community services which are performed in the church of St. John Chrysostom.

In Tula there is the only Catholic church in the area, the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul. Since the 1990s, Tula has several Protestant denominations, the largest church of which is a Baptist church with a prayer house in Tula. Representatives of other Protestant churches in Tula are Seventh-day Adventists, Presbyterians (Church of the Holy Trinity, The Glorious Jesus the Lord, the Good News), Pentecostals (Tula Christian Center, Church of the New Testament) and other evangelical churches (Word of Life, the Vine Gypsy Church).

Also the city has a synagogue and the Jewish Community House.


In Russian fist fighting, Tula was considered to have some of the most famous fighters.[26][27]

The city association football club, FC Arsenal Tula, played in the Russian Premier League in 2014/2015 and 2016/2017 seasons.



Public services

Sciences, technologies




Tula has a humid continental climate,[28] featuring warm summers, and cold, but not particularly severe winters by Russian standards.

Climate data for Tula (1991–2020, extremes 1897–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −4.2
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.9
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −9.7
Record low °C (°F) −42.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 43
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 18
Average rainy days 5 5 6 12 13 16 15 13 13 15 12 6 131
Average snowy days 21 22 15 4 0.2 0 0 0 0.3 4 13 21 101
Average relative humidity (%) 85 82 76 67 64 70 72 74 78 82 86 86 77
Mean monthly sunshine hours 37.2 72.8 142.6 207.0 285.2 279.0 294.5 279.0 180.0 93.0 36.0 31.0 1,937.3
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[29]
Source 2: Climatebase (sun, 1959–2011)[30]

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Tula is twinned with:[31]



  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #954-ZTO
  2. ^ a b Tokarev, Kirill (October 4, 2011). "Tula: Loved by Tolstoy, hated by Lenin". Russia & India Report. Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved August 31, 2016.
  3. ^ Official website of the Tula City Duma (in Russian)
  4. ^ "Мэром Тулы стала олимпийская чемпионка Ольга Слюсарева". September 27, 2019.
  5. ^ "Новым мэром Тулы стал Юрий Цкипури". September 29, 2014.
  6. ^ Генеральный план города Тулы
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. ^ a b c Law #553-ZTO
  10. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  11. ^ Почтовые индексы России
  12. ^ Деловой город: Телефонный код Тулы
  13. ^ "Gingerbread Tula | Tula, Russia Activities". Lonely Planet. Retrieved April 30, 2020.
  14. ^ Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва: Русские словари, 1998, pg. 423: "The earliest etymologies derived the place name from Russian dialectal tulá 'hidden, unreachable place'... The pre-Russian origin of the name of the river and town is no longer doubted [Maiorova 1985].... Since the name of the river Upa is certainly Baltic..., its tributary *Tula [the presumed earlier form of Tulitsa] may also be of Baltic origin, which is supported by a series of parallels in Lithuanian toponymy: the river Tule, the Tulis swamp, the Tulyte field, the meadow Tulejos, the valley Tulija, etc. [Vanagas, 1981]; the meaning of these toponyms is not entirely clear...."
  15. ^ "VedicTime: Тула".
  16. ^ "Тула-один из сакрально-потаённых центров на русской карте".
  17. ^ "Tula". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  18. ^ "Тула". Great Soviet Encyclopedia. Moscow.
  19. ^ Biggart, John (1989). Alexander Bogdanov, Left-Bolshevism and the Proletkult 1904–1932 (Ph.D.). University of East Anglia. OCLC 556500696.
  20. ^ Arcade Publishing, 2002; ISBN 1-55970-624-4
  21. ^ All rural localities included as a part of Tula Urban Okrug in Law #553-ZTO are listed as a part of Leninsky District in OKATO.
  22. ^ Тульская кондитерская фабрика «Ясная Поляна» [Tula confectionary factory "Yasnaya Polyana"] (in Russian). Объединённые кондитеры (United Confectioners). Retrieved March 19, 2018.
  23. ^ "ТГПУ им. Л.Н.Толстого :: Главная страница". Archived from the original on September 26, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
  24. ^ Train Station in Tula (in Russian)
  25. ^ Kamalakaran, A. (July 29, 2016). "4 Orthodox monasteries to visit near Moscow". Russia Beyond the Headlines. Retrieved January 29, 2020.
  26. ^ Русский кулачный бой: "Tula's fighters were always glorious, but every place had its heroes."
  27. ^ Сказания о русских народных играх "Tula's fighters were considered the best one on one."
  28. ^ "Tula, Russia Köppen Climate Classification". Weatherbase. Retrieved January 25, 2015.
  29. ^ "Weather and Climate-The Climate of Tula" (in Russian). Погода и климат. Retrieved November 8, 2021.
  30. ^ "Tula Climate Normals". Climatebase. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  31. ^ "Города-побратимы". tula.ru (in Russian). Tula. Retrieved February 2, 2020.


Further reading