.mw-parser-output .hidden-begin{box-sizing:border-box;width:100%;padding:5px;border:none;font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .hidden-title{font-weight:bold;line-height:1.6;text-align:left}.mw-parser-output .hidden-content{text-align:left}You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in Russian. (April 2020) Click [show] for important translation instructions. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate, is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 2,086 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Russian Wikipedia article at [[:ru:Уфа]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ru|Уфа)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.

Ufa
Уфа
Other transcription(s)
 • BashkirӨфө
From the top to bottom-right, Aerial view of Central Ufa, Lala Tulpan, Monument to Salavat Yulaev, New Belsky Bridge, Ufa Cathedral
Flag of Ufa
Coat of arms of Ufa
Anthem: none[2]
Location of Ufa
Map
Ufa is located in Bashkortostan
Ufa
Ufa
Location of Ufa
Ufa is located in European Russia
Ufa
Ufa
Ufa (European Russia)
Ufa is located in Europe
Ufa
Ufa
Ufa (Europe)
Coordinates: 54°43′34″N 55°56′51″E / 54.72611°N 55.94750°E / 54.72611; 55.94750
CountryRussia
Federal subjectBashkortostan[1]
Founded1574[3]
City status since1586[4]
Government
 • BodyCity Council[5]
 • Head[5]Sergey Grekov
Area
 • Total707.93 km2 (273.33 sq mi)
Elevation
150 m (490 ft)
Population
 • Total1,062,319
 • Estimate 
(2018)[8]
1,120,547 (+5.5%)
 • Rank11th in 2010
 • Density1,500/km2 (3,900/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity of republic significance of Ufa[1]
 • Capital ofRepublic of Bashkortostan[9]
 • Capital ofcity of republic significance of Ufa,[1] Ufimsky District[10]
 • Urban okrugUfa Urban Okrug[11]
 • Capital ofUfa Urban Okrug,[11] Ufimsky Municipal District[11]
Time zoneUTC+5 (MSK+2 Edit this on Wikidata[12])
Postal code(s)[13]
450000–450010, 450013–450015, 450017–450019, 450022, 450024, 450026–450030, 450032–450035, 450037–450040, 450043–450045, 450047, 450049–450059, 450061–450065, 450068, 450069, 450071, 450073–450081, 450083, 450091–450093, 450095–450101, 450103–450106, 450880, 450890, 450911–450948, 450951–450966, 450971–450979, 450981–450986, 450989–450999, 901139, 901229, 992200
Dialing code(s)+7 347
OKTMO ID80701000001
Websiteufacity.info

Ufa (Bashkir: Өфө [ʏ̞ˈfʏ̞], romanized: Üfü; Russian: Уфа) is the largest city in and the capital of Bashkortostan, Russia. The city lies at the confluence of the Belaya and Ufa rivers, in the centre-north of Bashkortostan, on hills forming the Ufa Plateau to the west of the southern Ural Mountains, with a population of over 1.1 million residents,[15] up to 1.4 million residents in the urban agglomeration. Ufa is the tenth-most populous city in Russia, and the fourth-most populous city in the Volga Federal District.

The city was founded in 1574, when a fortress was built on the site by order of Ivan the Terrible. Ufa was made capital of Ufa Governorate in 1865 when the governorate split from Orenburg Governorate. Ufa's population expanded during the early 20th century.

Today, Ufa's economy consists primarily of the oil refining, chemistry, and mechanical engineering industries; the petroleum company Bashneft and several of its subsidiaries are headquartered in Ufa. Ufa is an ethnically diverse city, home to a substantial number of ethnic Bashkirs and Tatars, with an ethnic Russian majority population. Several educational institutions are located in Ufa, including Bashkir State University, Ufa State Aviation Technical University, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University, and Ural State Law University. The city hosted separate summits of the BRICS group as well as the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation in 2015.

Etymology

The name Ufa comes from the Ufa River on which the city lies, but the origin of the river's name is disputed. The Russian linguist Aleksandr Matveyev proposes that the name is of Iranian origin, from "ap", meaning water.[16]

In a paper published in 2014, researchers Karimov and Khabibov from Bashkir State Pedagogical University present and argue for a hypothesis according to which before the construction of the foundational Russian fortress in 1574, which has since grown to become the current city of Ufa, there had already been an ancient settlement called Ufa on a hilltop near the mouth of the Ufa River. According to them, this settlement was founded by Turkic-speaking tribes to perform rituals and sacrifices to the sky god Tengri, and they called this place Upe or Ufe because, they argue, in ancient Turkic languages a place of ritual sacrifice used to be called an "opo" or an "ope." They further hypothesize that the inhabitants of the settlement themselves also came to be called the Upe or Ufe tribe and subsequently, the river along which they flourished and expanded their settlement towards its source also came to be called Ufa. Karimov and Khabibov claim that the Russian fortress builders were probably aware of this ancient name and consequently named their new settlement Ufa.[17]

History

Gerardus Mercator's map of Europe with Pascherti (Bashkort) settlement presumably in the position of modern Ufa.[18] The map was compiled in 1554, twenty years before the official date of the foundation of Ufa.

Early history of the surrounding area of Ufa dates back to Paleolithic times.[19] Presumably, from the 5th to 16th century there was a medieval city on the site of Ufa.[20] On the Pizzigano brothers' map (1367)[21] and on the Catalan Atlas (1375)[22] a town approximately on the Belaya River was designated Pascherti (Bashkort),[23] and Gerardus Mercator's map (1554) also marked the settlement with the name Pascherti. French orientalist Henri Cordier associates the position of Pascherti with the current location of Ufa.[18]

Ibn Khaldun called the town, among the largest cities of the Golden Horde, Bashkort.[24]

Russian historian of the 18th century Peter Rychkov wrote that there was a great city on the territory of Ufa before the arrival of the Russians.[25]

The official of the Orenburg Governorate government Vasily Rebelensky wrote that Ufa was founded by the Bashkirs.[26]

Early color photograph of Ufa taken in 1910 by Sergey Prokudin-Gorsky

By order of Ivan the Terrible a fortress was built on the site of modern Ufa in 1574,[27] and originally bore the name of the hill it stood on, Tura-Tau.[28] 1574 is now considered to be the official date of Ufa's foundation.[3] Town status was granted to it in 1586.[4]

Before becoming the seat of a separate Ufa Governorate in 1781, the city, along with the rest of the Bashkir lands, was under the jurisdiction of the Orenburg governors. And even though the 1796 reform reunited Orenburg and Ufa again, in 1802, the city of Ufa became a new center of the entire Orenburg Governorate that included large territories of modern-day Republic of Bashkortostan, Orenburg Oblast, and Chelyabinsk Oblast.

The Belaya River Waterway (1870) and the Samara-Zlatoust Railroad (1890) connected the city to the European part of the Russian Empire and stimulated the development of the city's light industry.[citation needed] During World War II, following eastward Soviet retreat in 1941, the Abwehr operated in Ufa, 1941–1943,[29] some German infiltration, occurred 1914–1943 in espionage, many industrial enterprises of the western parts of the Soviet Union were evacuated to Ufa.

During 9–10 July 2015, Ufa hosted summits of the BRICS group and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation.[30]

Administrative and municipal status

Ufa is the capital of the republic[9] and, within the framework of the administrative divisions, it also serves as the administrative center of Ufimsky District,[10] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative center, it is, together with twenty-four rural localities, incorporated separately as the city of republic significance of Ufa, an administrative unit with status equal to that of the districts, and is likewise home to a unit of Russia's Central Military District; the 12th Separate Guards Engineer Brigade.[1] As a municipal division, the city of republic significance of Ufa is incorporated as Ufa Urban Okrug.[11]

Administrative districts

Ufa administrative districts:
  01 Dyomsky
  02 Kalininsky
  03 Kirovsky
  04 Leninsky
  05 Oktyabrsky
  06 Ordzhonikidzevsky
  07 Sovetsky

Ufa is divided into seven administrative districts.

No. District Population as of January 1, 2020[31]
1 Dyomsky 80,714
2 Kalininsky 207,750
3 Kirovsky 162,958
4 Leninsky 89,062
5 Oktyabrsky 246,476
6 Ordzhonikidzevsky 164,682
7 Sovetsky 177,145

Economy

According to Forbes, in 2013, Ufa was the best city in Russia for business among cities with a population of over one million.[32]

Many urban enterprises engaged in oil refining, chemistry, and mechanical engineering reside in Ufa. Additionally, the economy of Ufa is composed of many fuel, energy, and engineering complexes.

Ufa is home to about 200 large and medium industrial enterprises.[33]

Some important enterprises in Ufa include:

National Bank of Bashkortostan

Transportation

Ufa Station is linked to the rest of Russia, being on a historic branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway. Ufa is the only city connected to Moscow by more than one federal highway. The M7 motorway links the city to Kazan and Moscow and the M5 motorway links Ufa to Moscow and to the Asian part of Russia.

The Ufa International Airport has international flights to Turkey, Tajikistan, Egypt, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, and Cyprus as well as domestic flights to many Russian cities and towns, including Moscow.

The Ufa Metro is a planned and oft-delayed subway system, discussed since the late 1980s. On May 30, 1996, there was a ceremony marking the beginning of preparatory construction work, attended by then-President Boris Yeltsin.[37]

Public transportation in Ufa includes trams (since 1937) and trolleybuses (since 1962), as well as bus and marshrutka (routed cabs) lines.[citation needed]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1897 49,275—    
1926 97,737+98.4%
1939 250,011+155.8%
1959 546,878+118.7%
1970 770,905+41.0%
1979 969,289+25.7%
1989 1,082,052+11.6%
2002 1,042,437−3.7%
2010 1,062,319+1.9%
2021 1,144,809+7.8%
Source: Census data

The population of Ufa exceeded one million in 1980.[citation needed] It currently ranks 10th among Russian cities by population, and the 26th among cities in Europe by city proper. As of January 1, 2009, the city accounted for 25.4% of all residents of the republic or 42.2% of the urban population.

As of the 2021 Census, the ethnic composition of Ufa was:[38]

Ethnicity Number Percentage
Russians 557,492 48.9%
Tatars 308,381 27.0%
Bashkirs 233,128 20.4%
Others 41,618 3.6%

Geography

Ufa is situated in Eastern Europe near its land boundary with Northern Asia, at the confluence of the Belaya (Agidel) and Ufa Rivers, on low hills forming the Ufa Plateau to the west of the southern Urals. The area of the city is 707.93 km2 (273.33 sq mi).[6] It stretches from north to south for 53.5 km (33.2 mi) and from west to east for 29.8 km (18.5 mi).[6]

Climate

Ufa has a warm summer continental climate (Köppen: Dfb). Ufa's climate is characterized by harsh winters, but in some cases, summers can be quite long and hot.[39] The coldest temperature ever recorded in Ufa was −48.5 °C (−55.3 °F) on January 1, 1979. The highest temperature ever recorded 39.4 °C (102.9 °F) on July 10, 2023[40][41]

Climate data for Ufa (1991–2020, extremes 1853–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 5.8
(42.4)
9.2
(48.6)
16.2
(61.2)
31.1
(88.0)
36.2
(97.2)
38.3
(100.9)
39.4
(102.9)
38.5
(101.3)
33.4
(92.1)
26.8
(80.2)
15.4
(59.7)
5.0
(41.0)
39.4
(102.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −8.1
(17.4)
−6.6
(20.1)
0.6
(33.1)
11.4
(52.5)
20.5
(68.9)
24.3
(75.7)
26.0
(78.8)
24.0
(75.2)
17.6
(63.7)
9.1
(48.4)
−0.5
(31.1)
−6.8
(19.8)
9.3
(48.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −12.2
(10.0)
−11.6
(11.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
5.7
(42.3)
13.7
(56.7)
17.9
(64.2)
19.8
(67.6)
17.6
(63.7)
11.6
(52.9)
4.9
(40.8)
−3.5
(25.7)
−10.4
(13.3)
4.1
(39.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −16.8
(1.8)
−16.7
(1.9)
−9.5
(14.9)
0.2
(32.4)
7.0
(44.6)
11.4
(52.5)
13.5
(56.3)
11.8
(53.2)
6.6
(43.9)
1.3
(34.3)
−6.6
(20.1)
−14.5
(5.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
Record low °C (°F) −48.5
(−55.3)
−43.5
(−46.3)
−34.4
(−29.9)
−27.8
(−18.0)
−9.7
(14.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
1.4
(34.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
−6.8
(19.8)
−25.6
(−14.1)
−35.1
(−31.2)
−45.0
(−49.0)
−48.5
(−55.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 46
(1.8)
39
(1.5)
38
(1.5)
31
(1.2)
51
(2.0)
63
(2.5)
51
(2.0)
55
(2.2)
48
(1.9)
57
(2.2)
47
(1.9)
51
(2.0)
577
(22.7)
Average extreme snow depth cm (inches) 31
(12)
42
(17)
40
(16)
6
(2.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
5
(2.0)
17
(6.7)
42
(17)
Average rainy days 3 3 6 12 16 16 15 16 18 18 11 4 138
Average snowy days 25 21 16 6 1 0 0 0 1 8 20 24 122
Average relative humidity (%) 83 80 77 69 61 68 71 74 76 79 83 83 75
Mean monthly sunshine hours 54.4 96.1 159.0 219.9 278.9 300.6 314.4 250.7 160.2 88.1 54.5 42.8 2,019.6
Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net[42]
Source 2: NOAA[43]

Government

House of Republic or Bashkir White House

The bodies of local self-government of Ufa are:

Sports

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Akbuzat racecourse. Named after the winged horse in the mythology of Bashkirs, analogue of Pegasus
Club Sport Founded Current League League
Rank
Stadium
Salavat Yulaev Ufa Ice Hockey 1961 Kontinental Hockey League 1st Ufa Arena
Tolpar Ufa Ice Hockey 2009 Minor Hockey League Jr. 1st Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev
HC Agidel Ufa Ice Hockey 2010 Russian Women's Hockey League 1st Ice Palace Salavat Yulaev
FC Ufa Football 2009 Russian First League 1st Neftyanik Stadium
Ural Ufa Volleyball 1992 Volleyball Super League 1st Dynamo Sports Palace
Samrau-UGNTU Volleyball 1970 Women's Volleyball Super League 2nd Dynamo Sports Palace
Ugntu-VNZM Handball 1960 Russian Handball Super League 1st Sports Complex UGNTU
Ufa-Alisa Handball 1989 Russian Women's Handball Super League 1st FOK Sports School 32
Ufimets Basketball 2012 3rd BGAU

The Stroitel Stadium is a sports stadium located north of the centre of the city, off the Aleksandra Nevskogo Ulitsa street in Neftekhimikov (Petrochemists') Park.[45] The stadium is primarily an Ice speedway venue.[46]

Education and science

Bashkir State University, the main campus

Educational institutions include:

Graduate universities and law schools:

Scientific institutions include:

In Ufa, there is the Ufa branch of the Financial University and the Ufa branch of the Russian State Economic University. Plekhanov, where there are practically no check digits for admissions to the budget. They are housed in good-quality buildings, but they do not benefit from them to society, more and more often, rumors are circulating about them that they are designed for siphoning money - since there are practically no budget places for economic specialties in Ufa. In the economic specialties of the magistracy, the plan for admission to Ufa universities is no more than 30 budget places.

Ecological problems

Periodically, a suffocating, unpleasant chemical odor can be smelled in the Ufa region.[49][50][51] The media reports about the smell come out with an impressive regularity. Not all these reports are groundless, and the culprits are getting out of responsibility due to the fact that there is no Continuous Emission Control System (CEMS) in the city.

There are no street vacuum cleaners, road vacuum sweepers, or industrial (street) vacuum cleaners on the streets.[citation needed] Unfortunately, there is a complete lack of sanitation services in the city.[citation needed]

According to the letter of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) No. 20-18 / 218 of 11.07.18: "In the framework of solving problems at the federal level in the implementation of the state monitoring of atmospheric air, the territorial office of Roshydromet - FGBU Bashkir UGMS monitors pollution of atmospheric air in Ufa at nine stationary posts of the state observation network located in different parts of the city to estimate the level of air pollution generated by the total release and stationary and mobile sources of pollutants. Suspended substances (dust) are measured at all nine posts of the state observation network. The results of observations of the pollutants content are presented on the official website of the Bashkir State Hydrometeorological Service in the section "Monitoring of environmental pollution"[52] daily and monthly. In 2017, the maximum single concentration of suspended solids reached 4.6 MPC m. in March 2017, at the address: Oktyabrya Ave., 141, located near the motorway with heavy traffic, and in April 2017 at the post: Dostoyevsky St., 102/1, located in the area of the industrial enterprise. During 2017 almost all posts of the state observation network recorded exceedances of a single concentration of suspended substances. At the same time, in order to implement regional state environmental oversight aimed at preventing, detecting, and suppressing violations by public authorities, local authorities, and legal entities, individual entrepreneurs and citizens of requirements in the field of atmospheric air protection, under the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Republic Bashkortostan operates the State Bank of the Republic of Belarus "Office of State Analytical Control," to whose tasks, including GSI "organization of periodic environmental monitoring mobile laboratories in the areas where the population lives in the republic and in the zones of protective measures in the system of the general program of integrated environmental and sanitary-hygienic monitoring." Going to the site[53] found that all 9 posts of the state observational network of Roshydromet are located at a considerable distance from the area of Inors and Sipaylovo, from residential areas. Control of MPC and air quality in residential areas is not carried out.

Religion

The major religions in the city are Sunni Islam and Russian Orthodoxy. The Bezpopovtsy strain of Russian Old Believers is also registered in Ufa.[54]

Ufa is the location of the Central Spiritual Administration of Muslims in Russia. In 1989, the Russian Islamic University was opened. One of the largest mosques in Europe, Ar-Rahim [ru], is under construction in Ufa.

Since 2019, Ainur Birgalin has been working as the Mufti of Bashkortostan.[55]

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Ufa

International relations

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia

Ufa is twinned with:[56]

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f Resolution #391
  2. ^ The official website of Ufa does not list an anthem among the official symbols of the city.
  3. ^ a b Official website of Ufa. Brief Information About Ufa (in Russian)
  4. ^ a b Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 498. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9.
  5. ^ a b Charter of Ufa, Article 18
  6. ^ a b c Official website of Ufa. Land Utilization (in Russian)
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  9. ^ a b Law #166-z
  10. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 80 252», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 80 252, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  11. ^ a b c d Law #162-z
  12. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  13. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  14. ^ Republic of Bashkortostan Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности постоянного населения Республики Башкортостан на 1 января 2016 г. по муниципальным образованиям (in Russian)
  15. ^ "RUSSIA: Privolžskij Federal'nyj Okrug: Volga Federal District". City Population.de. August 4, 2020. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  16. ^ Matveyev, Aleksandr (2008). "Географические названия Урала: Топонимический словарь. — Екатеринбург". Socrates: 294–296.
  17. ^ S. G. Karimov; L. G. Khabibov (2014), "To the question of origin of the city name Ufa" (PDF), Bulletin of Bashkir University (in Russian), 19 (2): 577–581
  18. ^ a b «Mercator and Hondius (loth Ed., 1630) and N. Sanson (1650) show Jorman on the south of the Kama R., Pascherti in the position of Ufa, the present head-quarter of the Bashkirs, Sagatin ( = Fachatim of the text) at the head of the Ufa River, Marmorea on the Bielaya south of Ufa». — Cathay and the Way Thither: Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, Chʻeng-wen Publishing Company, 1967. Henri Cordier
  19. ^ Главархитектура г. Уфы — История г. Уфы
  20. ^ Псянчин А. В. Башкортостан на старых картах. Уфа, 2001. С 70, 71, Он же. Mons Et Urbis: Уральские горы и город Уфа в европейской средневековой картографической традиции//Архив Башкортостана, № 1. 2007. С. 17-23.
  21. ^ Рудаков В. Г. К вопросу о двух столицах в Золотой Орде и местоположении города Гюлистана // Научное наследие А. П. Смирнова и современные проблемы археологии Волго-Камья. Материалы научной конференции. Труды ГИМ. Вып. 122. — М., 2000. — Рис. 1.
  22. ^ Там же; Псянчин А. В. Башкортостан на старых картах. — Уфа, 2001. — С. 71.
  23. ^ Мажитов Н.А,, Султанова А. Н. Сунгатов Ф. А. Башкирские города по арабским источникам IX—X вв. // Вестник АН РБ. 2008. Т. 13, № 2. С. 44-—48; Мажитов Н. А., Сунгатов Ф. А., Иванов В. А., Сатаров Т. Р., Султанова А. Н., Иванова Е. В. Городище Уфа II. Материалы раскопок 2006 года. Т. 1. Уфа, 2007. 160 с: ил.
  24. ^ Золотая Орда в источниках. T.I. Арабские и персидские сочинения. М., 2003. С 169.
  25. ^ Рычков П. И. История Оренбургская (1730—1750 гг.). Оренбург, 1896. С. 68,69.
  26. ^ «Краткое описание губернского города Уфы с начала его построения до сего 1806 года». // Что ж касается башкирцев, то видно из многих описаний, как сего народа, так и о жительстве их, кои от различных возмущений, как и междоусобных воин, так и соседних своих народов, строили маленькие укрепления и городки и наконец, соединясь во множестве, распространили свои жилища и укрепления, а для сей причины и город Уфа построен.
  27. ^ History of Ufa
  28. ^ "Beyond Moscow -Ufa. Khristina Narizhnaya". The Moscow Times. October 16, 2011.
  29. ^ As counterintelligence Ufa outwitted Abwehr(in Russian)
  30. ^ Ufa – 2015 SCO BRICS. Official site
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General and cited sources