Clockwise from top right: Gediminas' Tower, Vilnius business district, Presidential Palace, Pilies Street, Gate of Dawn, St. Anne's Church.
Official logo of Vilnius
Jerusalem of Lithuania,[1] Rome of the North,[2] Athens of the North,[3] New Babylon,[4] The city/capital of Palemon[5]
Unitas, Justitia, Spes
(Latin: Unity, Justice, Hope)
Vilnius is located in Lithuania
Location of Vilnius in Lithuania
Vilnius is located in Europe
Vilnius (Europe)
Coordinates: 54°41′N 25°17′E / 54.683°N 25.283°E / 54.683; 25.283
Country Lithuania
Ethnographic regionDainava
CountyVilnius County
MunicipalityVilnius City Municipality
Capital ofLithuania
First mentioned1323
Granted city rights1387
 • TypeCity council
 • MayorRemigijus Šimašius
 • City401 km2 (155 sq mi)
 • Metro
9,731 km2 (3,757 sq mi)
112 m (367 ft)
 • City542,664
 • Rank(52nd in EU)
 • Density1,392/km2 (3,610/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
 • Metro density83/km2 (210/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
Area code(+370) 5
GDP (nominal)
Vilnius county[9]
 - Total€16.1 billion($36 billion, PPP)
 - Per capita€20,000($44,000, PPP)

Vilnius (Lithuanian pronunciation: [ˈvʲɪlʲnʲʊs] , see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 542,664 as of 2015.[10] Vilnius is located in the southeast part of Lithuania and is the second largest city in the Baltic states. Vilnius is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania as well as of the Vilnius District Municipality. Vilnius is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC studies, and is known for the architecture in its Old Town, declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1994. Prior to World War II, Vilnius was one of the largest Jewish centers in Europe. Its Jewish influence has led to it being described as the "Jerusalem of Lithuania" and Napoleon named it "the Jerusalem of the North" as he was passing through in 1812. In 2009, Vilnius was the European Capital of Culture, together with the Austrian city of Linz.

Etymology and other names

The name of the city originates from the Vilnia River.[11] The city has also been known by many derivate spellings in various languages throughout its history: Vilna was common in English. The most notable non-Lithuanian names for the city include: Polish: Wilno, Belarusian: Вiльня, German: Wilna, Latvian: Viļņa, Russian: Вильнюс, [ווילנע (Vilne)] Error: ((Lang-xx)): text has italic markup (help), Czech: Vilnius. A Russian name from the time of the Russian Empire was Вильна/Вильно (Vilna/Vilno),[12][13] although Вильнюс (Vilnius) is now used. The names Wilno, Wilna and Vilna have also been used in older English, German, French and Italian language publications when the city was one of the capitals of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and later of Second Polish Republic. The name Vilna is still used in Finnish, Portuguese, Spanish, and Hebrew. Wilna is still used in German, along with Vilnius.

The neighborhoods of Vilnius also have names in other languages, which represent the languages spoken by various ethnic groups in the area.


Main articles: History of Vilnius and Timeline of Vilnius

Early history and Grand Duchy of Lithuania

File:Wilno - Mendog.JPG
King Mindaugas Monument

Historian Romas Batūra identifies the city with Voruta, one of the castles of Mindaugas, crowned in 1253 as King of Lithuania. During the reign of Vytenis a city started to emerge from a trading settlement and the first Franciscan Catholic church was built.

The city was first mentioned in written sources in 1323 as Vilna,[14] when the Letters of Grand Duke Gediminas were sent to German cities inviting Germans (including German Jews) to settle in the capital city, as well as to Pope John XXII. These letters contain the first unambiguous reference to Vilnius as the capital; Old Trakai Castle had been the earlier seat of the court of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

According to legend, Gediminas dreamt of an iron wolf howling on a hilltop and consulted a pagan priest Lizdeika for its interpretation. He was told: "What is destined for the ruler and the State of Lithuania, is thus: the Iron Wolf represents a castle and a city which will be established by you on this site. This city will be the capital of the Lithuanian lands and the dwelling of their rulers, and the glory of their deeds shall echo throughout the world".[15] The location offered practical advantages: it lay within the Lithuanian heartland at the confluence of two navigable rivers, surrounded by forests and wetlands that were difficult to penetrate. The duchy had been subject to intrusions by the Teutonic Knights.[16]

St. Nicholas Church (built before 1387) is the oldest church in Vilnius
Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania

Vilnius was the flourishing capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the residence of the Grand Duke. Gediminas expanded the Grand Duchy through warfare along with strategic alliances and marriages. At its height it covered the territory of modern-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Transnistria, and portions of modern-day Poland and Russia. His grandchildren Vytautas the Great and Jogaila, however, fought civil wars. During the Lithuanian Civil War of 1389–1392, Vytautas besieged and razed the city in an attempt to wrest control from Jogaila. The two later settled their differences; after a series of treaties culminating in the 1569 Union of Lublin, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was formed. The rulers of this federation held either or both of two titles: Grand Duke of Lithuania or King of Poland. In 1387, Jogaila acting as a Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, granted Magdeburg rights to the city.

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Subačius Gate by Franciszek Smuglewicz
Church of St. Peter and St. Paul is a Baroque architecture masterpiece
Gate of Dawn
Church of St. Casimir, the first and the oldest Baroque church in Vilnius

The city underwent a period of expansion. The Vilnius city walls were built for protection between 1503 and 1522, comprising nine city gates and three towers, and Sigismund August moved his court there in 1544.

Its growth was due in part to the establishment of Alma Academia et Universitas Vilnensis Societatis Iesu by the Polish King Stefan Bathory in 1579. The university soon developed into one of the most important scientific and cultural centres of the region and the most notable scientific centre of the Commonwealth.[citation needed]

During its rapid development, the city was open to migrants from the territories of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Grand Duchy and further. A variety of languages were spoken: Polish, German, Yiddish, Ruthenian, Lithuanian, Russian, Old Church Slavonic, Latin, Hebrew, and Turkic languages; the city was compared to Babylon.[16] Each group made its unique contribution to the life of the city, and crafts, trade, and science prospered.

The 17th century brought a number of setbacks. The Commonwealth was involved in a series of wars, collectively known as The Deluge. During the Russo-Polish War (1654–1667), Vilnius was occupied by Russian forces; it was pillaged and burned, and its population was massacred. During the Great Northern War it was looted by the Swedish army. An outbreak of bubonic plague in 1710 killed about 35,000 residents; devastating fires occurred in 1715, 1737, 1741, 1748, and 1749.[16] The city's growth lost its momentum for many years, but even despite this fact, at the end of the 18th century and before the Napoleon wars, Vilnius, with 56,000 inhabitants, entered the Russian Empire as its 3rd largest city.

In the Russian Empire

La Grande Armée in Vilnius during its retreat (near the Vilnius Town Hall) by Jan Krzysztof Damel

The fortunes of the Commonwealth declined during the 18th century. Three partitions took place, dividing its territory among the Russian Empire, the Habsburg Empire, and the Kingdom of Prussia. After the third partition of April 1795, Vilnius was annexed by the Russian Empire and became the capital of the Vilna Governorate. During Russian rule, the city walls were destroyed, and, by 1805, only the Gate of Dawn remained. In 1812, the city was taken by Napoleon on his push towards Moscow, and again during the disastrous retreat. The Grande Armée was welcomed in Vilnius. Thousands of soldiers died in the city during the eventual retreat; the mass graves were uncovered in 2002.[16] Inhabitants expected Tsar Alexander I to grant them autonomy in response to Napoleon's promises to restore the Commonwealth, but Vilnius didn't become autonomous by itself nor as a part of Congress Poland.

Following the November Uprising in 1831, Vilnius University was closed and Russian repressions halted the further development of the city. Civil unrest in 1861 was suppressed by the Imperial Russian Army.[17]

During the January Uprising in 1863, heavy fighting occurred within the city, but was brutally pacified by Mikhail Muravyov, nicknamed The Hangman by the population because of the number of executions he organized. After the uprising, all civil liberties were withdrawn, and use of the Polish[18] and Lithuanian languages was banned.[19] Vilnius had a vibrant Jewish population: according to Russian census of 1897, out of the total population of 154,500, Jews constituted 64,000 (approximately 40%).[20] During the early 20th century, the Lithuanian-speaking population of Vilnius constituted only a small minority, with Polish, Yiddish, and Russian speakers comprising the majority of the city's population.[21]

In Poland

The Chapel of Saint Casimir in the Cathedral of Vilnius

During World War I, Vilnius and the rest of Lithuania was occupied by the German Army from 1915 until 1918. The Act of Independence of Lithuania, declaring Lithuanian independence from any affiliation to any other nation, was issued in the city on 16 February 1918. After the withdrawal of German forces, the city was briefly controlled by Polish self-defence units, which were driven out by advancing Soviet forces. Vilnius changed hands again during the Polish–Soviet War and the Lithuanian Wars of Independence: it was taken by the Polish Army, only to fall to Soviet forces again. Shortly after its defeat in the battle of Warsaw, the retreating Red Army, in order to delay the Polish advance, ceded the city to Lithuania after signing the Soviet–Lithuanian Peace Treaty on 12 July 1920.[22]

Poland and Lithuania both perceived the city as their own. The League of Nations became involved in the subsequent dispute between the two countries. The League brokered the Suwałki Agreement on 7 October 1920. Although neither Vilnius or the surrounding region was explicitly addressed in the agreement, numerous historians have described the agreement as allotting Vilnius to Lithuania.[23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31] On 9 October 1920, the Polish Army surreptitiously, under General Lucjan Żeligowski, seized Vilnius during an operation known as Żeligowski's Mutiny. The city and its surroundings were designated as a separate state, called the Republic of Central Lithuania. On 20 February 1922 after the highly contested election in Central Lithuania, the entire area was annexed by Poland, with the city becoming the capital of the Wilno Voivodship (Wilno being the name of Vilnius in Polish). Kaunas then became the temporary capital of Lithuania. Lithuania vigorously contested the Polish annexation of Vilnius, and refused diplomatic relations with Poland. The predominant languages of the city were still Polish and, to a lesser extent, Yiddish. The Lithuanian-speaking population at the time was a small minority, at about 6% of the city's population according even to contemporary Lithuanian sources.[32] The Council of Ambassadors and the international community (with the exception of Lithuania) recognized Polish sovereignty over Vilnus region in 1923.[33]

Vilnius University was reopened in 1919 under the name of Stefan Batory University[34] By 1931, the city had 195,000 inhabitants, making it the fifth largest city in Poland with varied industries, such as Elektrit, a factory that produced radio receivers.

World War II

In 1940, Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society was established, and since then used the historic old town building where the Great Seimas of Vilnius took place in 1905

World War II began with the German invasion of Poland in September 1939. The secret protocols of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact had partitioned Lithuania and Poland into German and Soviet spheres of interest. On 19 September 1939, Vilnius was seized by the Soviet Union (which invaded Poland on 17 September). The USSR and Lithuania concluded a mutual assistance treaty on 10 October 1939, with which the Lithuanian government accepted the presence of Soviet military bases in various parts of the country. On 28 October 1939, the Red Army withdrew from the city to its suburbs (to Naujoji Vilnia) and Vilnius was given over to Lithuania. A Lithuanian Army parade took place on 29 October 1939 through the city centre. The Lithuanians immediately attempted to Lithuanize the city, for example by Lithuanizing Polish schools.[35] However, the whole of Lithuania was annexed by the Soviet Union on 3 August 1940 following a June ultimatum from the Soviets demanding, among other things, that unspecified numbers of Red Army soldiers be allowed to enter the country for the purpose of helping to form a more pro-Soviet government. After the ultimatum was issued and Lithuania further occupied, a Soviet government was installed with Vilnius as the capital of the newly created Lithuanian SSR. Between 20,000 and 30,000 of the city's inhabitants were subsequently arrested by the NKVD and sent to gulags in the far eastern areas of the Soviet Union.[36] The Soviets devastated city industries, moving the major Polish radio factory Elektrit, along with a part of its labour force, to Minsk in Belarus, where it was renamed the Vyacheslav Molotov Radio Factory, after Stalin's Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Lithuanian army tanks in Vilnius after regaining control of the capital

On 22 June 1941, the Germans launched Operation Barbarossa against the Soviet Union. Vilnius was captured on 24 June.[37] Two ghettos were set up in the old town centre for the large Jewish population – the smaller one of which was "liquidated" by October.[38] The larger ghetto lasted until 1943, though its population was regularly deported in roundups known as "Aktionen".[39] A failed ghetto uprising on 1 September 1943 organized by the Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje (the United Partisan Organization, the first Jewish partisan unit in German-occupied Europe),[40] was followed by the final destruction of the ghetto. During the Holocaust, about 95% of the 265,000-strong Jewish population of Lithuania was murdered by the German units and Lithuanian Nazi collaborators, many of them in Paneriai, about 10 km (6.2 mi) west of the old town centre (see the Ponary massacre). In 2015, a street sign was unveiled in Kūdrų street for Righteous Among the Nations Ona Šimaitė, along with that street being renamed after her.[41]

Lithuanian SSR – in Soviet Union

Former KGB headquarters in Vilnius now Museum of Genocide Victims

In July 1944, Vilnius was taken from the Germans by the Soviet Army and the Polish Armia Krajowa (see Operation Ostra Brama and the Vilnius Offensive).[42] The NKVD arrested the leaders of the Armia Krajowa after requesting a meeting. Shortly afterwards, the town was once again incorporated into the Soviet Union as the capital of the Lithuanian SSR.

The war had irreversibly altered the town – most of the predominantly Polish and Jewish population had been expelled and exterminated respectively, during and after the German occupation. Some members of the intelligentsia and former Waffen SS members hiding in the forest were now targeted and deported to Siberia after the war. The majority of the remaining population was compelled to relocate to Communist Poland by 1946, and Sovietization began in earnest. Only in the 1960s did Vilnius begin to grow again, following an influx of Lithuanians and Poles from neighbouring regions as well as from other areas of the Soviet Union (particularly Russia and Belarus). Microdistricts were built in the elderates of Šeškinė, Žirmūnai, Justiniškės and Fabijoniškės.

Independent Lithuania

File:Vilnius - TV tower.jpg
Vilnius TV Tower, the main site of January's Events

On 11 March 1990, the Supreme Council of the Lithuanian SSR announced its secession from the Soviet Union and intention to restore an independent Republic of Lithuania.[43] As a result of these declarations, on 9 January 1991, the Soviet Union sent in troops. This culminated in the 13 January attack on the State Radio and Television Building and the Vilnius TV Tower, killing at least fourteen civilians and seriously injuring 700 more. The Soviet Union finally recognised Lithuanian independence in September 1991. The current Constitution, as did the earlier Lithuanian Constitution of 1922, mentions that "…the capital of the State of Lithuania shall be the city of Vilnius, the long-standing historical capital of Lithuania".

Didžioji Street
Vilnius Cathedral Square

Vilnius has been rapidly transformed, and the town has emerged as a modern European city. Many of its older buildings have been renovated, and a business and commercial area is being developed into the New City Centre, expected to become the city's main administrative and business district on the north side of the Neris river. This area includes modern residential and retail space, with the municipality building and the 129-metre (423') Europa Tower as its most prominent buildings. The construction of Swedbank's headquarters is symbolic of the importance of Scandinavian banks in Vilnius. The building complex "Vilnius Business Harbour" was built in 2008, and one of its towers is now the 5th tallest building in Lithuania. More buildings are scheduled for construction in the area. Vilnius was selected as a 2009 European Capital of Culture, along with Linz, the capital of Upper Austria. Its 2009 New Year's Eve celebration, marking the event, featured a light show said to be "visible from outer space".[44] In preparation, the historical centre of the city was restored, and its main monuments were renovated.[45] The global economic crisis led to a drop in tourism which prevented many of the projects from reaching their planned extent, and allegations of corruption and incompetence were made against the organisers,[46][47] while tax increases for cultural activity led to public protests[48] and the general economic conditions sparked riots.[49] Today, Vilnius' population and economy are rapidly growing. In 2015 Remigijus Šimašius became the first directly elected mayor of the city.[50]

Gediminas' Avenue in autumn

Vilnius has some of the highest internet speeds in the world,[51][52] with an average download speed of 36.37 MB/s and upload speed of 28.51 MB/s.

Vilnius has access to groundwater, and there is no need to use extensive chemicals in treating surface water from lakes or rivers, providing residents with some of the cleanest and healthiest tap water access in Europe.[53][54]

On 28–29 November 2013, Vilnius hosted the Eastern Partnership Summit in the Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania. Many European presidents, prime ministers and other high-ranking officials participated in the event.[55] On 29 November 2013, Georgia and Moldova signed association and free trade agreements with the European Union.[56] Previously, Ukraine and Armenia were also expected to sign the agreements but postponed the decision, sparking large protests in the former country.

On 20 December 2013, CNN named Vilnius Cathedral Square's Christmas tree as the best in the world,[57] while mentioned Vilnius as one of the ten best destinations to spend your Christmas.[58]


Neris River at Mindaugas Bridge with Vilnius Upper Castle in the distance

Vilnius is situated in south-eastern Lithuania (54°41′N 25°17′E / 54.683°N 25.283°E / 54.683; 25.283) at the confluence of the Vilnia and Neris Rivers. Lying close to Vilnius is a site some claim to be the Geographical Centre of Europe.

Vilnius lies 312 km (194 mi) from the Baltic Sea and Klaipėda, the chief Lithuanian seaport. Vilnius is connected by highways to other major Lithuanian cities, such as Kaunas (102 km or 63 mi away), Šiauliai (214 km or 133 mi away) and Panevėžys (135 km or 84 mi away). The city's off-centre location can be attributed to the changing shape of the nation's borders through the centuries; Vilnius was once not only culturally but also geographically at the centre of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

The current area of Vilnius is 402 square kilometres (155 sq mi). Buildings occupy 29.1% of the city; green spaces occupy 68.8%; and waters occupy 2.1%.[59]


The climate of Vilnius is humid continental (Köppen climate classification Dfb).[60] Temperature records have been kept since 1777.[61] The average annual temperature is 6.7 °C (44 °F); in January the average temperature is −4.3 °C (24 °F), in July it is 18.1 °C (65 °F). The average precipitation is about 682 millimetres (26.85 in) per year. Average annual temperatures in the city have increased significantly during the last 30 years, a change which the Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service attributes to global warming induced by human activities.[62]

Summer days are pleasantly warm and sometimes hot, especially in July and August, with temperatures above 30 °C (86 °F) throughout the day during periodic heat waves. Night-life in Vilnius is in full swing at this time of year, and outdoor bars, restaurants and cafés become very popular during the daytime.

Winters can be very cold, with temperatures rarely reaching above freezing – temperatures below −25 °C (−13 °F) are not unheard-of in January and February. Vilnius's rivers freeze over in particularly cold winters, and the lakes surrounding the city are almost always permanently frozen during this time of year. A popular pastime is ice-fishing.

Climate data for Vilnius (1981-2010 normals, sun 1961-1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.0
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −1.9
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −6.6
Record low °C (°F) −37.2
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.7
Average precipitation days 12.4 10.5 9.6 8.6 9.6 11.4 10.7 9.6 9.6 10.1 10.4 12.2 124.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 36 71 117 164 241 231 219 217 140 94 33 25 1,588
Source 1: World Meteorological Organization (avg high and low)[63] NOAA (sun, extremes, and mean temperatures)[64]
Source 2: Météo Climat [65]


Historic ethnic makeup of Vilnius
Year Lithuanians Poles Russians Jews Others Total
1897[66] 3,131 2% 47,795 30.1% 30,967 20% 61,847 40% 10,792 7% 154,532
1931[67] 1,579 0.8% 128,600 65.5% 7,400 3.8% 54,600 27.8% 4,166 2.1% 196,345
1959[68] 79,400 34% 47,200 20% 69,400 29% 16,400 7% 23,700 10% 236,100
2001[69] 318,510 57.5% 104,446 18.9% 77,698 14.1% 2,770 0.5% 50,480 9.1% 553,904
2012[70] 337,000 63.2% 88,380 16.5% 64,275 12% N/A 45,976 8.6% 535,631
The Republic of Užupis

According to the census, 52,4% of the inhabitants were local, while others settled in the city from other regions. Among the townsmen class, there were 36,576 new-comers (among whose, 17,465 were born in Vilna Governorate). Among the peasant new-comers, 16,312 came from other localities of Vilna Governorate and 16,054 from the other governorates. Among the nobility class in Vilnius during the census of 1897, there were 5,301 (46,3%) local nobles and 6,403 (54,7%) new-comers. 24,1% of these noble new-comers came from Vilna Governorate territories, while the rest new-comers nobles came to Vilnius from Grodno Governorate, Minsk Governorate, Vitebsk Governorate, Kovno Governorate, Vistula Land and other regions.[72]


Demographic evolution of Vilnius between 1766 and 2015:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
YearPop.±% p.a.
YearPop.±% p.a.
Source: [75][76][77][78] ¹ Sharp decline after the Vilnius Uprising (1794); ² Decline of population due to Napoleonic wars and the aftermath; ³ Sharp decline of population of Vilnius because of World War I and the aftermath during the clashes around Vilnius. These resulted in evacuation of Russian military, bureaucracy and the majority of its Russian inhabitants from Vilnius in 1915, as well as fleeing or evacuation of other Vilnius inhabitants of various communities (mostly Jewish and Lithuanian) to Russia and rural parts of Lithuania;[79][80] ⁴ Rise of population due to influx of Polish and Jewish war refugees[81] and migration of Lithuanian bureaucracy, students from temporary capital Kaunas and other localities in Lithuania; ⁵ Sharp decline of population after atrocities of World War II and The Holocaust


Old town of Vilnius

Vilnius is a cosmopolitan city with diverse architecture. There are 65 churches in Vilnius. Like most medieval towns, Vilnius was developed around its Town Hall. The main artery, Pilies Street, links the Royal Palace with Town Hall. Other streets meander through the palaces of feudal lords and landlords, churches, shops and craftsmen's workrooms. Narrow, curved streets and intimate courtyards developed in the radial layout of medieval Vilnius.

The Old Town of Vilnius, the historical centre of Vilnius, is one of the largest in Europe at 3.6 km2 (1.4 sq mi). The most valuable historic and cultural sites are concentrated here. The buildings in the old town—there are nearly 1,500—were built over several centuries, creating a blend of many different architectural styles. Although Vilnius is known as a Baroque city, there are examples of Gothic (e.g. Church of St. Anne), Renaissance, and other styles. Their combination is also a gateway to the historic centre of the capital. Owing to its uniqueness, the Old Town of Vilnius was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1994. Vilnius University's main campus's spectacular architectural ensemble features 13 courtyards framed by 15th century buildings and splashed with 300-year-old frescoes, and the Church of St. Johns. The Gate of Dawn, the only surviving gate of the first original five gates in the city wall, hosts the painting of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which has been said to have miracle-working powers. Over 200 tiles and commemorative plaques to writers, who have lived and worked in Vilnius, and foreign authors, who have shared a connection with Vilnius and Lithuania, adorn a wall on Literatų street (Lithuanian: Literatų gatvė) in the Old Town, presenting a broad overview of the history of Lithuanian literature. In Antakalnis district there is Church of St. Peter and St. Paul – a masterpiece of the 17th-century Baroque famous for its exceptional interior where one can see about 2,000 stucco figures. In 1995, the world's first bronze cast of Frank Zappa[82] was installed in the Naujamiestis district with the permission of the government. The Frank Zappa sculpture confirmed the newly found freedom of expression, and marked the beginning of a new era for Lithuanian society.

A panoramic view of the Old Town of Vilnius looking south from Gediminas Tower
The interior of Our Lady of the Gate of Dawn

The Vilnius Castle Complex, a group of defensive, cultural, and religious buildings that includes Gediminas Tower of the Upper Castle (which is a part of National Museum of Lithuania), Cathedral Square and the Palace of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania. Lithuania's largest art collection is housed in the Lithuanian Art Museum. One branch of it, the Vilnius Picture Gallery in the Old Town, houses a collection of Lithuanian art from the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century. On the other side of the Neris, the National Art Gallery holds a permanent exhibition on Lithuanian 20th-century art, as well as numerous exhibitions on modern art. The House of the Signatories, where the 1918 Act of Independence of Lithuania was signed, is now a historic landmark. The Museum of Genocide Victims is dedicated to the victims of the Soviet era.

The Contemporary Art Centre is the largest venue for contemporary art in the Baltic States, with an exhibition space of 2400 square meters. The Centre is a non-collection based institution committed to developing a broad range of international and Lithuanian exhibition projects as well as presenting a wide range of public programmes including lectures, seminars, performances, film and video screenings, and live new music events. The Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania, named for the author of the first book printed in the Lithuanian language, holds 6,912,266 physical items. The biggest book fair in Baltic States is annually held in Vilnius at LITEXPO, the Baltic's biggest exhibition centre.[83]

On 10 November 2007, the Jonas Mekas Visual Arts Center was opened by avant-garde filmmaker Jonas Mekas. Its premiere exhibition was entitled The Avant-Garde: From Futurism to Fluxus. The Modern Art Centre, which is scheduled to be completed in 2018, will become a new cultural space for the city of Vilnius.[84] It will host a private collection of modern and contemporary Lithuanian visual art.

Vilnius Picture Gallery

There were plans to build the Guggenheim-Hermitage museum, designed by Zaha Hadid, but the project has been terminated.[85] The museum would have hosted exhibitions featuring works from Saint Petersburg's Hermitage Museum and the Guggenheim Museums, along with non-commercial avant-garde cinema, a library, a museum of Lithuanian Jewish culture, and collections of works by Jonas Mekas and Jurgis Mačiūnas.

The Užupis district near the Old Town, which used to be one of the most run down districts of Vilnius during the Soviet era, is home to a movement of bohemian artists, who operate numerous art galleries and workshops. Užupis declared itself an independent republic on April Fool's Day in 1997. In the main square, the statue of an angel blowing a trumpet stands as a symbol of artistic freedom.

File:Lithuanian National Drama Theatre, photo by Dmitrij Matvejev..jpg
Lithuanian National Drama Theatre

In 2015, the project of Vilnius Talking Statues was realized. 15 statues around Vilnius now interact with visitors in multiple languages by a simple telephone call to a smart phone.[86]

The Lithuanian National Opera and Ballet Theatre shows both standard Western repertory works and national operas and ballets. Vilnius City Opera – an independent opera theatre in Lithuania, well known for its high quality, innovative and modern artistic approach, blends classical with contemporary. Lithuanian National Drama Theatre, State Small Theatre of Vilnius, State Youth Theatre and a number of private theatre companies, including OKT / Vilnius City Theatre, Anželika Cholina dance theatre and others, show classical, modern and Lithuanian playwriting directed by world-known Lithuanian and foreign directors.

The Lithuanian National Philharmonic Society is the largest and oldest state owned concert organisation in Lithuania, whose main activity is to organise and coordinate live concerts, diverse classical/classical contemporary/jazz music events and tours throughout Lithuania and abroad.[87] The Lithuanian State Symphony Orchestra every year builds up a wide-ranging repertoire, introduces exceptional programs, and invites young talent to perform along with outstanding and recognized soloists.


The modern skyline of Vilnius' Financial Centre at night

Vilnius is the major economic centre of Lithuania and one of the largest financial centres of the Baltic states. Even though it is home to only 20% of Lithuania's population, it generates about one third of Lithuania's GDP.[88] GDP per capita (nominal) in Vilnius county was 20,000($44,000, in Purchasing power)[9] in 2016, making it the wealthiest region in Lithuania. Many foreign companies have outsourced part of their high skilled operations to Vilnius, e.g. Swedbank, Telia, SEB, Barclays, etc. Shared service centers is another industry with significant employment in Vilnius. Office-based work is largely concentrated in glass high-rises around NMC or "Naujas miesto centras" (new city center) in Šnipiškės.

The budget of Vilnius reached €0.5 billion in 2017.[91] Vilnius contributed almost €3 billion to the national budget in 2008, making up about 40% of the budget. The average monthly net salary in Vilnius city municipality reached €727 as of 2017 (average gross salary in Vilnius was €938 or $1,100 in 2017).[92][93] In 2016, Vilnius merged two organisations to create Go Vilnius - an agency tasked with developing tourism and investment in the city.[94]

There are growing local advanced solar and laser technologies manufacturers centres, such as photovoltaic elements and renewable energy producers (Arginta,[95] Precizika,[96] and Baltic Solar),[97] high performance lasers manufacturers (Ekspla,[98] and Eksma),[99] biotechnological manufacturers (Fermentas Thermo Fisher,[100] and Sicor Biotech),[101] which successfully supply their products into global markets.

In 2009, the Barclays Technology Centre[102] was established in Vilnius, which is one of the bank's four global strategic engineering centres.


The Grand Courtyard of Vilnius University and Church of St. Johns

The city has 12 primary schools, 19 progymnasiums and 42 gymnasiums.[103]

The city has many universities. The largest and oldest is Vilnius University with 20,864 students.[104] Its main premises are located in the Old Town. The university has been ranked among the top 500 universities in the world by QS World University Rankings.[105] The University is participating in projects with UNESCO and NATO, among others. It features 15 Masters programs in English and 2 in Russian, as well as programs delivered in cooperation with universities all over Europe.[106] The university is currently divided into 12 faculties, 7 institutes, and 4 study and research centres.[104]

Other major universities include Mykolas Romeris University (17,739 students as of 2013[107]), Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (10,500 students[108]), and Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences (3,550 students[109]). Specialized higher schools with university status include General Jonas Žemaitis Military Academy of Lithuania, Lithuanian Academy of Music and Theatre and Vilnius Academy of Arts. The museum associated with the Vilnius Academy of Arts holds about 12,000 artworks.[110]

There are also a few private universities such as ISM University of Management and Economics, European Humanities University and Kazimieras Simonavičius University.

Several colleges are also located in Vilnius including Vilnius College, Vilnius College of Technologies and Design, International School of Law and Business and others.


See also: List of churches in Vilnius

Religious groups in Vilnius (2011 census)[111]
Religion People %
Roman Catholic 350,797 65.49%
Eastern Orthodox 47,827 8.93%
Old Believers 5,593 1.04%
Evangelical Lutheran 1,594 0.30%
Evangelical Reformed 1,186 0.22%
Sunni Muslim 798 0.15%
Jewish 796 0.15%
Greek Catholic 167 0.03%
Karaim 139 0.03%
Other 5,050 0.94%
None 47,655 8.90%
No response 74,029 13.82%
Orthodox Cathedral of the Theotokos
Karaite Kenesa

Already in the XVII c. image of Vilnius as a city of many religions was very noticeable. In 1600, Samuel Lewkenor’s book describing cities with universities was published in London.[112] He mentioned that citizens of Vilnius were Catholics, Orthodox, followers of John Calvin and Martin Luther, Jews and Tartar Muslims. Vilnius had a reputation as a city which had no rivals in Europe in the number of churches of different confessions throughout the entire 17th century. At the end of the century, this image was promoted by the highly rated and several times republished work by Robert Morden "Geography Rectified or a Description of the World" which ran that no other city in the world could surpass Vilnius in the number of churches and temples of various confessions except perhaps Amsterdam.[113][114]

Today Vilnius is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vilnius, with the main church institutions and Archdiocesan Cathedral (Vilnius Cathedral) located here. The city of Vilnius became the birthplace of the Divine Mercy Devotion when Saint Faustina began her mission under the guidance and discernment of her new spiritual director Fr. Michał Sopoćko. In 1934, the first Divine Mercy painting was painted by Eugene Kazimierowski under the supervision of Faustina and it presently hangs in the Divine Mercy Sanctuary in Vilnius. Numerous other Christian Beatified persons, martyrs, Servants of God and Saints, are associated with Vilnius. These, among others, include Franciscan martyrs of Vilnius, Orthodox martyrs Anthony, John, and Eustathius, Saint Casimir, Josaphat Kuntsevych, Andrew Bobola, Raphael Kalinowski, Jurgis Matulaitis.

There are a number of other active Roman Catholic churches in the city, along with small enclosed monasteries and religion schools. Church architecture includes Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical styles, with important examples of each found in the Old Town. Additionally, Eastern Rite Catholicism has maintained a presence in Vilnius since the Union of Brest. The Baroque Basilian Gate is part of an Eastern Rite monastery.

Choral Synagogue of Vilnius

Once widely known as Yerushalayim De Lita (the "Jerusalem of Lithuania"), Vilnius since the 18th century, was a world centre for the study of the Torah, and had a large Jewish population. A major scholar of Judaism and Kabbalah centred in Vilnius was the famous Rabbi Eliyahu Kremer, also known as the Vilna Gaon. His students have significant influence among Orthodox Jews in Israel and around the globe. Jewish life in Vilnius was destroyed during the Holocaust; there is a memorial stone dedicated to victims of Nazi genocide located in the centre of the former Jewish Ghetto — now Mėsinių Street. The Vilna Gaon Jewish State Museum is dedicated to the history of Lithuanian Jewish life. The exact location of Vilnius' largest synagogue, built in the early 1630s and wrecked by Nazi Germany during its occupation of Lithuania, was pinpointed by ground-penetrating radar in June 2015, with excavations set to begin in 2016.[115]

The Karaim are a Jewish sect who migrated to Lithuania from the Crimea to serve as a military elite unit in the 14th century. Although their numbers are very small, the Karaim are becoming more prominent since Lithuanian independence, and have restored their kenesa.[116]

Vilnius has been home to an Eastern Orthodox Christian presence since the 13th or even the 12th century. A famous Russian Orthodox Monastery of the Holy Spirit, is located near the Gate of Dawn. St. Paraskeva's Orthodox Church in the Old Town is the site of the baptism of Hannibal, the great-grandfather of Pushkin, by Tsar Peter the Great in 1705. Many Old Believers, who split from the Russian Orthodox Church in 1667, settled in Lithuania. The Church of St. Michael and St. Constantine was built in 1913. Today a Supreme Council of the Old Believers is based in Vilnius.

A number of Protestant and other Christian groups[117] are represented in Vilnius, most notably the Lutheran Evangelicals and the Baptists.

The pre-Christian religion of Lithuania, centred on the forces of nature as personified by deities such as Perkūnas (the Thunder God), is experiencing some increased interest. Romuva established a Vilnius branch in 1991.[118]

Parks, squares and cemeteries

Singing fountain in Bernardinai Garden

Almost half of Vilnius is covered by green areas, such as parks, public gardens, natural reserves. Additionally, Vilnius is host to numerous lakes, where residents and visitors swim and have barbecues in the summer. Thirty lakes and 16 rivers cover 2.1% of Vilnius' area, with some of them having sand beaches.

Vingis Park, the city's largest, hosted several major rallies during Lithuania's drive towards independence in the 1980s. Concerts, festivals, and exhibitions are held at Bernardinai Garden, near Gediminas Tower. Sections of the annual Vilnius Marathon pass along the public walkways on the banks of the Neris River. The green area next to the White Bridge is another popular area to enjoy good weather, and has become venue for several music and large screen events.

Three Crosses in Kalnai Park

Cathedral Square in Old Town is surrounded by a number of the city's most historically significant sites. Lukiškės Square is the largest, bordered by several governmental buildings: the Lithuanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, the Polish Embassy, and the Genocide Victims' Museum, where the KGB tortured and murdered numerous opposers of the communist regime. An oversized statue of Lenin in its centre was removed in 1991. Town Hall Square has long been a centre of trade fairs, celebrations, and events in Vilnius, including the Kaziukas Fair. The city Christmas tree is decorated there. State ceremonies are often held in Daukantas Square, facing the Presidential Palace.

Rasos Cemetery, consecrated in 1801, is the burial site of Jonas Basanavičius and other signatories of the 1918 Act of Independence, along with the heart of Polish leader Józef Piłsudski. Two of the three Jewish cemeteries in Vilnius were destroyed during the Soviet era; the remains of the Vilna Gaon were moved to the remaining one. A monument was erected at the place where Užupis Old Jewish Cemetery was.[119] On 23 October 2011, a swastika has been sprayed on the monument, as what seems to be an anti-Semitic act.[120] About 18,000 burials have been made in the Bernardine Cemetery, established in 1810; it was closed during the 1970s and is now being restored. Antakalnis Cemetery, established in 1809, contains various memorials to Polish, Lithuanian, German and Russian soldiers, along with the graves of those who were killed during the January Events.

On 20 October 2013, Bernardinai garden, previously known as Sereikiškės Park, was opened after reconstruction. The authentic 19th-century Vladislovas Štrausas environment was restored.[121]


Siemens Arena

Several teams are based in the city. The largest is the basketball club BC Lietuvos Rytas, which participates in European competitions such as the Euroleague and Eurocup, the domestic Lithuanian Basketball League, winning the ULEB Cup (predecessor to the Eurocup) in 2005 and the Eurocup in 2009. Its home arena is the 2,500-seat Lietuvos Rytas Arena; all European matches and important domestic matches are played in the 11,000-seat Siemens Arena.

Vilnius also has several football teams. FK Žalgiris is the main football team. The club plays at LFF Stadium in Vilnius (capacity 5,067).[122]

Olympic champions in swimming Lina Kačiušytė and Robertas Žulpa are from Vilnius. There are several public swimming pools in Vilnius with Lazdynai Swimming Pool being the only Olympic-size swimming pool of the city.[123]

The city is home to the Lithuanian Bandy Association,[124] Badminton Federation,[125] Canoeing Sports Federation,[126] Baseball Association,[127] Biathlon Federation,[128] Sailors Union,[129] Football Federation,[130] Fencing Federation,[131] Cycling Sports Federation,[132] Archery Federation,[133] Athletics Federation,[134] Ice Hockey Federation,[135] Basketball Federation,[136] Curling Federation,[137] Rowing Federation,[138] Wrestling Federation,[139] Speed Skating Association,[140] Gymnastics Federation,[141] Equestrian Union,[142] Modern Pentathlon Federation,[143] Shooting Union,[144] Triathlon Federation,[145] Volleyball Federation,[146] Tennis Union,[147] Taekwondo Federation,[148] Weightlifting Federation,[149] Table Tennis Association,[150] Skiing Association,[151] Rugby Federation,[152] Swimming Federation.[153]


Vilnius International Airport entrance

Navigability of the river Neris is very limited and no regular water routes exist, although it was used for navigation in the past.[154] The river rises in Belarus, connecting Vilnius and Kernavė, and becomes a tributary of Nemunas river in Kaunas.

Vilnius Airport serves most Lithuanian international flights to many major European destinations. Currently, the airport has about 50 destinations in about 25 different countries.[155] The airport is situated only 5 km (3.1 mi) away from the centre of the city, and has a direct rail link to Vilnius railway station.

The Vilnius railway station is an important hub serving direct passenger connections to Minsk, Kaliningrad, Moscow and Saint Petersburg as well as being a transit point of Pan-European Corridor IX.

Vilnius is the starting point of the A1 motorway that runs across Lithuania and connects the three major cities (Vilnius, Kaunas and Klaipėda) and is a part of European route E85. The A2 motorway, connecting Vilnius with Panevėžys, is a part of E272. Other highways starting in Vilnius include A3, A4, A14, A15, A16. Vilnius' Southern bypass is road A19.

Public transport

Solaris Trollino 15AC trolleybus in Vilnius
Orange bikes, available for renting
Vilnius Railway Station entrance
Vilnius Railway Station

Vilnius has a well-developed public transportation system; 45% of the population take public transport to work, one of the highest figures in all of Europe.[156] The bus network and the trolleybus network are run by Vilniaus viešasis transportas. There are over 60 bus, 18 trolleybus, 6 rapid bus and 6 night bus routes.[157] The trolleybus network is one of the most extensive in Europe. Over 250 buses and 260 trolleybuses transport about 500,000 passengers every workday. Students, elderly, and the disabled receive large discounts (up to 80%) on the tickets. The first regular bus routes were established in 1926, and the first trolleybuses were introduced in 1956.

At the end of 2007, a new electronic monthly ticket system was introduced. It was possible to buy an electronic card in shops and newspaper stands and have it credited with an appropriate amount of money. The monthly e-ticket cards could be bought once and credited with an appropriate amount of money in various ways including the Internet. Previous paper monthly tickets were in use until August 2008.[158]

The ticket system changed again from 15 August 2012. E-Cards were replaced by Vilnius Citizen Cards ("Vilniečio Kortelė"). It is now possible to buy a card or change an old one in newspaper stands and have it credited with an appropriate amount of money or a particular type of ticket. Single trip tickets have been replaced by 30 and 60-minute tickets.

The public transportation system is dominated by the low-floor Volvo and Mercedes-Benz buses as well as Solaris trolleybuses. There are also plenty of the traditional Škoda vehicles, built in the Czech Republic, still in service, and many of these have been extensively refurbished internally. This is a result of major improvements that started in 2003 when the first brand-new Mercedes-Benz buses were bought. In 2004, a contract was signed with Volvo Buses to buy 90 brand-new 7700 buses over the following three years. [citation needed]

An electric tram and a metro system through the city were proposed in the 2000s. However, neither has progressed beyond initial planning.[159]

In 2017, Vilnius started the historically largest upgrade of its buses by purchasing 250 new low-floor buses. The project will result in making 6 of 10 public buses being brand new by the middle of 2018 and will allow its passengers to use such modern technologies as free Wi-Fi and to charge their electronic devices while traveling.[160] On September 5, 2017, 50 new Isuzu buses were presented and triaxial MAN buses were promised in the very near future.[161] Vilnius City Municipality also held a contest for 41 new trolleybuses and its winner Solaris committed to deliver all trolleybuses until the autumn of 2018, which will also have the free Wi-Fi and charging features.[162] On November 13, Vilnius City Municipality signed a contract with Solaris for the remaining 150 Solaris Urbino buses of the newest IV generation (100 standard and 50 triaxial), also with the free Wi-Fi and USB charging.[163]


Vilnius during the winter period

Municipal council

Vilnius City Municipality is one of 60 municipalities of Lithuania and includes the nearby town of Grigiškės, three villages, and some rural areas. The town of Grigiškės was separated from the Trakai District Municipality and attached to the Vilnius City Municipality in 2000.

A 51-member council is elected to four-year terms; the candidates are nominated by registered political parties. As of the 2011 elections, independent candidates also were permitted. The last election was held in March 2015. The results are:


File:Savivaldybes pastatas.Municipality building.Vilnius.JPG
Municipality building

Before 2015, mayors were appointed by the council. Starting with the elections in 2015, the mayors are elected directly by the residents. Remigijus Šimašius became the first directly elected mayor of the city.


Elderships, a statewide administrative division, function as municipal districts. The 21 elderships are based on neighbourhoods:

Map of Vilnius elderships. Numbers on the map correspond with numbers in the list
  1. Verkiai — includes Baltupiai, Jeruzalė, Santariškės, Balsiai, Visoriai
  2. Antakalnis — includes Valakampiai, Turniškės, Dvarčionys
  3. Pašilaičiai — includes Tarandė
  4. Fabijoniškės — includes Bajorai
  5. Pilaitė
  6. Justiniškės
  7. Viršuliškės
  8. Šeškinė
  9. Šnipiškės
  10. Žirmūnai — includes Šiaurės miestelis
  11. Karoliniškės
  12. Žvėrynas
  13. Grigiškės — a separate town
  14. Lazdynai
  15. Vilkpėdė — includes Vingis Park
  16. Naujamiestis — includes bus and train stations
  17. Senamiestis (Old Town) — includes Užupis
  18. Naujoji Vilnia — includes Pavilnys, Pūčkoriai
  19. Paneriai — includes Trakų Vokė, Gariūnai
  20. Naujininkai — includes Kirtimai, Salininkai, Vilnius International Airport
  21. Rasos — includes Belmontas, Markučiai

Twin towns – sister cities

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Lithuania

Traditional street fair Kaziuko mugė
Lithuanian Song Festival

Vilnius is twinned with:[164]

Significant depictions in popular culture

Notable people

Main article: List of people from Vilnius

See also

Daylight panorama of the modern city of Vilnius


  1. ^ Widespread nickname of Vilnius, that appeared because of a strong Litvak community. Today it is used primarily speaking about the past of the Jewish community of Vilnius, e.g. A book "Vilnius, in search of Jerusalem of Lithuania".
  2. ^ Widespread use of the nickname from the XVI c. to this day as a reference to the many Catholic churches and monasteries in Vilnius and overall religious atmosphere in the centre. This nickname was/is used not only by the foreigners, but also by the local population, e.g. Lithuanian cultural figure of the XIX c. Dionizas Poška nicknamed Vilnius "Rome of the North", as, according to him, Vilnius is "the old religious center, that transformed from a pagan city into the bastion of Christianity". D. Poška, ‘Raštai’, Vilnius, 1959, p. 67
  3. ^ Cultural newspaper, that is published in Vilnius from 1990, is named „Šiaurės Atėnai“ (The Athens of the North) as a reference to one of the nicknames of Vilnius, that was widespread nickname of the city, esp. in the first half of the XIX c. and the first half of the XX c. mostly because of Vilnius University. During the interwar period, Polish scientific newspaper, published in Vilnius, was also named "Atheneum Wileńskie".
  4. ^ Esp. in the 16th–17th centuries, Vilnius was referred to as the ‘New Babylon’ because of many languages, spoken in the city as well as many religions presented (there were various Christian communities as well as Jews and even Muslim Tatar community). E.g.: S. Bodniak, ‘Polska w relacji włoskiej z roku 1604’, Pamiętnik biblioteki kórnickiej, 2, (Kórnik, 1930), p. 37.
  5. ^ This nickname was very popular among the Lithuanian nobility, citizens of Vilnius and used among the poets, esp. during the Baroque period. Many poets of the period, including Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski, nicknamed Vilnius "the capital of Palemon" or "the city of Palemon". Živilė Nedzinskaitė, Vilnius XVII-XVIII a. LDK lotyniškojoje poezijoje, Acta Academiae Artium Vilnensis, Vilnius, 2010, p. 16; Eugenija Ulčinaitė, Motiejus Kazimieras Sarbievijus: Antikos ir krikščionybės sintezė; Vilniaus pasveikinimas, Lietuvių literatūros ir tautosakos institutas, Vilnius, 2001, p. 47, 59, 61, 63; etc.
  6. ^ "Most popular - OSP".
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ a b "Statistinių rodiklių analizė - OSP".
  10. ^ "Pradžia - OSP".
  11. ^ "Portrait of the Regions of Lithuania – Vilnius city municipality". Department of Statistics. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  12. ^ Лавринец, Павел (20 October 2004). Русская Вильна: идея и формула. Балканская Русистика (in Russian). Вильнюс. Retrieved 18 August 2009.
  13. ^ Васютинский, А.М.; Дживелегов, А.К.; Мельгунов, С.П. (1912). "Фон Зукков, По дороге в Вильно". Французы в России. 1812 г. По воспоминаниям современников-иностранцев. (in Russian). Vol. 1–3. Москва: "Задруга". Retrieved 18 August 2009.
  14. ^ Rowell, Stephen Christopher (2003). Chartularium Lithuaniae res gestas magni ducis Gedeminne illustrans – Gedimino laiškai (PDF). Vilnius: Leidykla Vaga. Retrieved 7 June 2017.
  15. ^ "Vilnius legend". Municipality of Vilnius. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  16. ^ a b c d Laimonas Briedis (2008). Vilnius: City of Strangers. Baltos Lankos. ISBN 978-9955-23-160-8.
  17. ^ Piotr S. Wandycz, The lands of partitioned Poland, 1795–1918, University of Washington Press, 1974, p. 166.
  18. ^ Egidijus Aleksandravičius Archived 16 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Antanas Kulakauskas; Carų valdžioje: Lietuva XIX amžiuje ("Lithuania under the reign of Czars in 19th century"); Baltos lankos, Vilnius 1996. Polish translation: Pod władzą carów: Litwa w XIX wieku, Universitas, Kraków 2003, page 90, ISBN 83-7052-543-1
  19. ^ Dirk Hoerder, Inge Blank, Horst Rössler, "Roots of the transplanted", East European Monographs, 1994, pg. 69 [1]
  20. ^ Joshua D. Zimmerman, Poles, Jews, and the politics of nationality, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2004, ISBN 0-299-19464-7, Google Print, p. 16
  21. ^ "A 1909 official count of the city found 205,250 inhabitants, of whom 1.2 percent were Lithuanian; 20.7 percent Russian; 37.8 percent Polish; and 36.8 percent Jewish. — Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations. Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus 1569–1999. Yale University Press 2003, p. 306.
  22. ^ Łossowski, Piotr (1995). Konflikt polsko-litewski 1918–1920 (in Polish). Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza. pp. 126–128. ISBN 83-05-12769-9.
  23. ^ Rawi Abdelal (2001). National Purpose in the World Economy: Post-Soviet States in Comparative Perspective. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-8977-8. At the same time, Poland acceded to Lithuanian authority over Vilnius in the 1920 Suwałki Agreement.
  24. ^ Glanville Price (1998). Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8014-8977-8. In 1920, Poland annexed a third of Lithuania's territory (including the capital, Vilnius) in a breach of the Treaty of Suvalkai of 7 October 1920, and it was only in 1939 that Lithuania regained Vilnius and about a quarter of the territory previously occupied by Poland.
  25. ^ Smith, David James; Pabriks, Artis; Purs, Aldis; Lane, Thomas (2002). The Baltic States. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-28580-3. Fighting continued until the agreement at Suwałki between Lithuania and Poland on 7 October 1920, which drew a line of demarcation which was incomplete but indicated that the Vilnius area would be part of Lithuania
  26. ^ Eudin, Xenia Joukoff; Fisher, Harold H.; Jones, Rosemary Brown (1957). Soviet Russia and the West, 1920–1927. Stanford University. ISBN 978-0-8047-0478-6. The League effected an armistice, signed at Suwałki, 7 October 1920, by the terms of which the city was to remain under Lithuanian jurisdiction.
  27. ^ Eidintas, Alfonsas; Tuskenis, Edvardas; Zalys, Vytautas (1999). Lithuania in European Politics. Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-22458-5. The Lithuanians and the Poles signed an agreement at Suwałki on 7 October. Both sides were to cease hostilities and to peacefully settle all disputes. The demarcation line was extended only in the southern part of the front, to Bastunai. Vilnius was thus left on the Lithuanian side, but its security was not guaranteed.
  28. ^ Hirsz Abramowicz; Dobkin, Eva Zeitlin; Shandler, Jeffrey; Fishman, David E. (1999). Profiles of a Lost World: Memoirs of East European Jewish Life Before World War II. Wayne State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8143-2784-5. Before long there was a change of authority: Polish legionnaires under the command of General Lucian Zeligowski 'did not agree' with the peace treaty signed with Lithuania in Suwałki, which ceded Vilna to Lithuania.
  29. ^ Michael Brecher; Jonathan Wilkenfeld (1997). A Study of Crisis. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-0-472-10806-0. Mediation by the League Council led to an agreement on the 20th providing for a cease-fire and Lithuania's neutrality in the Polish–Russian War; Vilna remained part of Lithuania. The (abortive) Treaty of Suwałki, incorporating these terms, was signed on 7 October.
  30. ^ Raymond Leslie Buell (2007). Poland – Key to Europe. Alfred Knopf, republished by Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4067-4564-1. Clashes subsequently took place with Polish troops, leading to the armistice at Suwałki in October 1920 and the drawing of the famous Curzon Line under League mediation, which allotted Vilna to Lithuania.
  31. ^ George Slocombe (1970). Mirror to Geneva. Ayer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8369-1852-6. Zeligowski seized the city in October, 1920, in flagrant violation not only of the Treaty of Suwałki signed by Poland and Lithuania two days earlier, but also of the covenant of the newly created League of Nations.
  32. ^ Müller, Jan-Werner (2002). Memory and Power in Post-War Europe: Studies in the Presence of the Past. Cambridge University Press. p. 47. ISBN 9780521000703.
  33. ^ Gross, Jan Tomasz (2002). Revolution from Abroad: The Soviet Conquest of Poland's Western Ukraine and Western Belorussia. Princeton University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-6910-9603-2.
  34. ^ Ewelina Tylińska. "The revival of the Vilnius University in 1919: Historical conditions and importance for Polish science". The Global and the Local: The History of Science and the Cultural Integration of Europe. Proceedings of the 2nd ICESHS (Cracow, Poland, September 6–9, 2006)/Ed. by M. Kokowski. p. 896.
  35. ^ Josef Krauski, Education as Resistance: The Polish Experience of Schooling During the War, in Roy Lowe, Education and the Second World War : studies in schooling and social change, Falmer Press, 1992, ISBN 0-7507-0054-8, Google Print, p. 130
  36. ^ Snyder, Timothy (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. Yale University Press. p. 83. ISBN 9780300128413.
  37. ^ Yitzhak Arad, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, vol. 4, p. 1572
  38. ^ Tourism, Vilnius (1 September 2011). "The Big and Little Ghetto - Vilnius Tourist Information Centre".
  39. ^ Mažasis ir Didysis Vilniaus žydų getai Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Template:Lt icon
  40. ^ [Marrus, Michael R. The Holocaust in History. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1987, p. 108.]
  41. ^ "Lithuania's first street honoring Holocaust Righteous unveiled in Vilnius | Jewish Telegraphic Agency". 25 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  42. ^ Kovos dėl Vilniaus 1944 liepą Template:Lt icon
  44. ^ "Cultural capitals of Europe". Chicago Tribune. 11 January 2009. Retrieved 12 January 2009.
  45. ^ "O. Niglio, Restauri in Lituania. Vilnius Capitale della Cultura Europea 2009," (PDF). (810 KB) in "Web Journal on Cultural Patrimony", 1, 2006
  46. ^ Greenhalgh, Nathan. "Capital of Culture: success or failure?". Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  47. ^ "A.Gelūnas: prokuratūra nusikaltimo rengiant Bjork koncertą neįžvelgė". Retrieved 15 May 2011.
  48. ^ "Vilnius: artists protest 'breakdown of culture' in EU cultural capital".
  49. ^ Burke, Jason (18 January 2009). "Eastern Europe braced for a violent 'spring of discontent'". The Guardian. London.
  50. ^ "Balsavimo rezultatai". 22 March 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  51. ^ Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |title= (help); Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  52. ^ [2] Archived 27 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ "Drinking water in Lithuania is one of the best in Europe | The Lithuania TribuneThe Lithuania Tribune". Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  54. ^ Andy G. "Water Vilnius Lithuania". Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  55. ^ Kryptis, Dizaino. "Eastern Partnership Summit in Vilnius begins - Press Releases - News - Lithuanian Presidency of the Council of the European Union 2013".
  56. ^ Kryptis, Dizaino. "Strategic Eastern Partnership agreements signed in Vilnius - Press Releases - News - Lithuanian Presidency of the Council of the European Union 2013".
  57. ^ 12 of the world's most spectacular Christmas trees, By Tamara Hinson, for CNN
  58. ^ Top 10 Christmas Displays In The World,
  59. ^ "The City". City of Vilnius. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 30 January 2009. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  60. ^ Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. doi:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  61. ^ Raymond S. Bradley; Philip D. Jones (1995). Climate Since A.D. 1500. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-12030-2.
  62. ^ "Climate change in Lithuania". Lithuanian Hydrometeorological Service under the Ministry of Environment. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 18 August 2014. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  63. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Vilnius". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  64. ^ "Vilnius Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
  65. ^ "Météo Climat 1981-2010 averages for Lithuania". Météo Climat. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
  66. ^ Template:Ru icon г. Вильна Первая всеобщая перепись населения Российской Империи 1897 г.
  67. ^ a b c Der Große Brockhaus. 15th edition, vol. 20, Leipzig 1935, p. 348.
  68. ^ a b c Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations, p. 92-93, 2003 New Haven & London, Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-10586-5
  69. ^ Vilnius Regional Statistical Office Archived 17 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  70. ^ Statistics Department of Lithuania[permanent dead link]
  71. ^ "Demoscope Weekly - Annex. Statistical indicators reference". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  72. ^ Juozas Jurginis, Vytautas Merkys, Adolfas Tautavičius, "Vilniaus miesto istorija", Vilnius, 1968, p. 303
  73. ^ Der Große Brockhaus. 15th edition, vol. 20, Leizig 1935, pp. 347–348.
  74. ^ "Gyventojai pagal tautybę, gimtąją kalbą ir tikybą: Lietuvos Respublikos 2011 metų visuotinio gyventojų ir būstų surašymo rezultatai". Lietuvos statistikos departamentas. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2016.
  75. ^ "Population at the beginning of the year by administrative territory, Vilnius City Municipality". Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2014. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  76. ^ Juozas Jurginis, Vytautas Merkys, Adolfas Tautavičius, "Vilniaus miesto istorija", Vilnius, 1968, p. 214, p. 303
  77. ^ Lexykon geograficzny ... przez X. Hiłaryona Karpińskiego, ... po smierci iego z przydatkiem odmian, ktore zaszły, z wykładem na początku terminow geograficznych i słownikiem nazwisk łacinskich na koncu połozonym, no druku podany [przez Heraklia Karpińskiego], Wilno, 1766, p. 602
  78. ^ Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, Tom XIII, p. 493
  79. ^ "The Great War in Lithuania 1914-1918".
  80. ^ "Vida PUKIENĖ. Voronežas – lietuvių švietimo židinys Rusijoje Pirmojo pasaulinio karo metais".
  81. ^ "Iš nežinios į nežinią: Antrojo pasaulinio karo atbėgėliai Lietuvoje, Kaunas, Nacionalinis M.K. Čiurlionio dailės muziejus, 2015, 198 p., ISBN 978-9955-471-55-4".
  82. ^ Planet, Lonely. "Frank Zappa Memorial in Vilnius, Lithuania".
  83. ^ Vilnius Book Fair Archived 15 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved in 2009-02-14
  84. ^ "About us". Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  85. ^ "Guggenheim Museum initiative in Vilnius to be taken over by the Finns". 3 February 2012. Archived from the original on 3 February 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2017. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  86. ^ "Projects". Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  87. ^ Media, Fresh. "History". Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  88. ^ "Investment". City of Vilnius. Archived from the original on 3 July 2008. Retrieved 29 December 2008. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  89. ^ "k29". Retrieved 21 October 2017.
  90. ^ "3 BURĖS". Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  91. ^
  92. ^ "Darbo užmokestis". Statistics Lithuania. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  93. ^ "Darbo užmokestis, lentelė" (PDF). Statistics Lithuania. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  94. ^ Template:Lt icon "Go Vilnius: About us". Retrieved 5 April 2017.
  95. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 July 2012. Retrieved 3 February 2016. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  96. ^
  97. ^
  98. ^
  99. ^
  100. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 October 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2016. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  101. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 13 June 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2016. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Sicor Biotech
  102. ^
  103. ^ "Vilniaus miesto savivaldybė - Vilniaus miesto savivaldybės švietimo įstaigos (2015-11-10)". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  104. ^ a b "Facts and Figures". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  105. ^ "Breaking News for Lithuania: VU – Among the Top 500 Universities in the World". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  106. ^ "In English and Russian". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  107. ^ "MRU students". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  108. ^ Gaumina, e-solution: VGTU ITSC &. "Vilnius Gediminas Technical University". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  109. ^ Media, Fresh. "Facts and Figures - About LEU - Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  110. ^ "Vilnius Art Academy Museum". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  111. ^ "Gyventojai pagal religinę bendruomenę, kuriai jie save priskyrė, savivaldybėse". Statistics Lithuania. 15 March 2013. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  112. ^ Samuel Lewkenor, A discovrse not altogether vnprofitable, nor vnpleasant for such as are desirous to know the situation and customes of forraine Rities without trauelling to see them. Containing a Discourse of all those Rities wherein doe flourish at this day priuiledged vniuersities. Written by Samvuel Levvkenor, Gentleman (London, 1600)
  113. ^ Robert Morden, Geography Rectified or a Description of the World (London, 1688), p. 117: ‘Vilna, the Capital City, incloses so many sorts of Religions, that there is no City in the World where God is Worshipped after so many different ways, unless in Amsterdam; a Liberty too much allowed in most parts of Christendom, but rare temporum felicitas’
  114. ^ Gintautas Sliesoriūnas, The image of Lithuania in XVII c. English publications, Lithuanian historical studies, 2011, vol. 16
  115. ^ Geggel, Laura (3 August 2015). "Remains of Synagogue Destroyed by Nazis Found With Radar". LiveScience. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
  116. ^ "New Life in Karaim Communities". Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2009. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  117. ^ "By Location". Retrieved 6 May 2009.
  118. ^ Gabriel Ignatow (2007). Transnational Identity Politics and the Environment. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-0-7391-2015-6.
  119. ^ "Užupis Old Jewish Cemetery [Užupio Senosios Žydų Kapinės]". In Your Pocket. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  120. ^ "В Вильнюсе на монументе в память о еврейском кладбище нарисовали свастику". DELFI. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  121. ^ Bernardinai garden opened his gates after reconstruction Template:Lt icon
  122. ^ "LFF stadionas". LFF. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  123. ^ "Go Swimming". Vilnius Monthly. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  124. ^ "Federation of International Bandy-About-About FIB-National Federations-Lithuania-Lithuania". Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  125. ^ "Lietuvos badmintono federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  126. ^ "Lietuvos baidarių ir kanojų irklavimo federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 8 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  127. ^ "Lietuvos beisbolo asociacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  128. ^ "Lietuvos biatlono federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  129. ^ "Lietuvos buriuotojų sąjunga | LTOK". Archived from the original on 14 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  130. ^ "Lietuvos futbolo federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  131. ^ "Lietuvos fechtavimo federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  132. ^ "Lietuvos dviračių sporto federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  133. ^ "Lietuvos lankininkų federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  134. ^ "Lietuvos lengvosios atletikos federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  135. ^ "Lietuvos ledo ritulio federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  136. ^ "Lietuvos krepšinio federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 6 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  137. ^ "Lietuvos kerlingo federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  138. ^ "Lietuvos irklavimo federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  139. ^ "Lietuvos imtynių federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  140. ^ "Lietuvos greitojo čiuožimo asociacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  141. ^ "Lietuvos gimnastikos federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  142. ^ "Lietuvos žirginio sporto sąjunga | LTOK". Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  143. ^ "Lietuvos šiuolaikinės penkiakovės federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 3 June 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  144. ^ "Lietuvos šaudymo sporto sąjunga | LTOK". Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  145. ^ "Lietuvos triatlono federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  146. ^ "Lietuvos tinklinio federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  147. ^ "Lietuvos teniso sąjunga | LTOK". Archived from the original on 5 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  148. ^ "Lietuvos taekwondo (wtf) federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  149. ^ "Lietuvos sunkiosios atletikos federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  150. ^ "Lietuvos stalo teniso asociacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  151. ^ "Lietuvos nacionalinė slidinėjimo asociacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  152. ^ "Lietuvos regbio federacija | LTOK". Retrieved 15 September 2011.[permanent dead link]
  153. ^ "Lietuvos plaukimo federacija | LTOK". Archived from the original on 11 September 2012. Retrieved 15 September 2011. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  154. ^ Vanagas, Jurgis. "Navigation on the Neris River and its importance for Vilnius". Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering. 4 (13): 62–69. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  155. ^ "Vilnius International Airport - Flight map". Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  156. ^ "Social and Economic Analysis of the Demand for Public Transport in Vilnius" (PDF). Vilnius Gediminas Technical University. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  157. ^ "Routes and Timetables".
  158. ^ "Vilniaus miesto viešojo transporto ELEKTRONINIS BILIETAS -".
  159. ^ Dumalakas, Arūnas (14 June 2014). "Vilnius palaidojo tramvajaus ir metro idėjas" [Vilnius has buried the tram and metro ideas]. (in Lithuanian). Lietuvos Rytas. Retrieved 30 September 2015.
  160. ^ Grigaliūnaitė, Violeta. "Vilniaus savivaldybė pakvietė „išpakuoti naują pergalę": pristatė 250 naujų autobusų". Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  161. ^ "Į sostinės gatves išrieda 50 naujų autobusų". Retrieved 5 September 2017.
  162. ^ Jačauskas, Ignas. "Vilniaus savivaldybė perka per 40 naujų „Solaris" troleibusų". Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  163. ^ "Vilnius perka 150 autobusų: toks užsakymas lenkams – unikalus". (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  164. ^ "Miestai partneriai | Vilnius | Apie Vilnių | - Vilniaus miesto gidas". Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  165. ^ "Aalborg Twin Towns". Archived from the original on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  166. ^ "Sister cities of Budapest". Official Website of Budapest (in Hungarian). Archived from the original on 9 March 2005. Retrieved 1 July 2009. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  167. ^ "Cities Twinned with Duisburg". Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2009. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  168. ^ "List of Twin Towns in the Ruhr District" (PDF). 2009 Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 November 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2009. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  169. ^ "Gdańsk Official Website: 'Miasta partnerskie' Urząd Miejski w Gdańsku" (in Polish and English). 2009 Archived from the original on 23 July 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2009. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  170. ^ "Guangzhou Sister Cities [via]". Guangzhou Foreign Affairs Office. Archived from the original on 24 October 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2013. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  171. ^ "Kraków – Miasta Partnerskie" [Kraków -Partnership Cities]. Miejska Platforma Internetowa Magiczny Kraków (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2013. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  172. ^ "Miasta partnerskie – Urząd Miasta Łodzi [via]". City of Łódź (in Polish). Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2013. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  173. ^ "Vilnius ir Lvovas pasirašė bendradarbiavimo sutartį |" (in Lithuanian). 7 March 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  174. ^ "Taipei – International Sister Cities". Taipei City Council. Archived from the original on 2 November 2012. Retrieved 23 August 2013. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  175. ^ "Tbilisi Sister Cities". Tbilisi City Hall, Tbilisi Municipal Portal. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  176. ^ "TREND: Tbilisi, Vilnius become brother cities". Retrieved 12 October 2009.
  177. ^ "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". Biuro Promocji Miasta. 4 May 2005. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2008. ((cite web)): Unknown parameter |deadurl= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)
  178. ^ Margolis, Rachel (1 April 2010). A Partisan from Vilna. Academic Studies Press. ISBN 9781934843956.