Greater Tokyo Area, Japan, the world's most populated urban area, with about 39 million inhabitants
Greater Tokyo Area, Japan, the world's most populated urban area, with about 39 million inhabitants
Greater São Paulo at night seen from the International Space Station
Greater Melbourne at night from the International Space Station

An urban area, built-up area or urban agglomeration is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created through urbanization and are categorized by urban morphology as cities, towns, conurbations or suburbs. In urbanism, the term contrasts to rural areas such as villages and hamlets; in urban sociology or urban anthropology it contrasts with natural environment. The creation of earlier predecessors of urban areas during the urban revolution led to the creation of human civilization with modern urban planning, which along with other human activities such as exploitation of natural resources led to a human impact on the environment. "Agglomeration effects" are in the list of the main consequences of increased rates of firm creation since. This is due to conditions created by a greater level of industrial activity in a given region. However, a favorable environment for human capital development would also be generated simultaneously.[1]

In 1950, around the world, 764 million people lived in urban areas. By 2014, it was 3.9 billion. The change was driven by a combination of increased total population and increased percent of population living in urban areas.[2] In 2009, the number of people living in urban areas (3.42 billion) surpassed the number living in rural areas (3.41 billion), and since then the world has become more urban than rural.[3] This was the first time that the majority of the world's population lived in a city.[4] In 2014 there were 7.3 billion people living on the planet,[5] of which the global urban population comprised 3.9 billion. The Population Division of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs at that time predicted the urban population would occupy 68% of the world population by 2050, with 90% of that growth coming from Africa and Asia.[6]

The UN publishes data on cities, urban areas and rural areas, but relies almost entirely on national definitions of these areas. The UN principles and recommendations state that due to different characteristics of urban and rural areas across the globe, a global definition is not possible.[7]

Urban areas are created and further developed by the process of urbanization. They are measured for various purposes, including analyzing population density and urban sprawl. Urban areas are also mostly found in the United States, Canada, Brazil, Argentina, Japan and Australia and many other countries where the urbanization rate is over 80%.

Unlike an urban area, a metropolitan area includes not only the urban area, but also satellite cities plus intervening rural land that is socio-economically connected to the urban core city, typically by employment ties through commuting, with the urban core city being the primary labor market.

The concept of an "urban area" as used in economic statistics should not be confused with the concept of the "urban area" used in road safety statistics. This term was first created by Geographer Brian Manning. The last concept is also known as "built-up area in road safety". According to the definition by the Office for National Statistics, "Built-up areas are defined as land which is 'irreversibly urban in character', meaning that they are characteristic of a town or city. They include areas of built-up land with a minimum of 20 hectares (200,000 m2; 49 acres). Any areas [separated by] less than 200 metres [of non-urban space] are linked to become a single built-up area.[8]

Urban land area (km2), 2010[9]
Urban land area (km2), 2010[9]
Urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006
Urban areas with at least one million inhabitants in 2006

Argentina and Japan are countries where the urbanization rate is over 90% while Australia, Brazil, Canada, Mexico and the United States are countries where the urbanization rate is between 80% and 90%.

Largest urban areas in the world

[10]

  1. Japan Tokyo (Japan) - 37,274,000
  2. India New Delhi (India) - 32,066,000
  3. China Shanghai (China) - 28,517,000
  4. Philippines Manila (Philippines) - 28,250,517
  5. Bangladesh Dhaka (Bangladesh) - 22,478,000
  6. Brazil São Paulo (Brazil) - 22,430,000
  7. Mexico Mexico City (Mexico) - 22,085,000
  8. Egypt Cairo (Egypt) - 21,750,000
  9. China Beijing (China) - 21,333,000
  10. India Mumbai (India) - 20,961,000

Largest urban areas, by continent

[10] [11]

Africa

  1. Egypt Cairo (Egypt) - 21,750,000
  2. Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa (DR Congo) - 15,628,000
  3. Nigeria Lagos (Nigeria) - 15,388,000
  4. South Africa Johannesburg (South Africa) - 10,110,000
  5. Angola Luanda (Angola) - 8,952,000
  6. Tanzania Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) - 7,405,000
  7. Sudan Khartoum (Sudan) - 6,160,000
  8. Ivory Coast Abidjan (Ivory Coast) - 5,516,000
  9. Egypt Alexandria (Egypt) - 5,484,000
  10. Ethiopia Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) - 5,228,000

Asia

  1. Japan Tokyo (Japan) - 37,274,000
  2. India New Delhi (India) - 32,066,000
  3. China Shanghai (China) - 28,517,000
  4. Philippines Manila (Philippines) - 28,250,517
  5. Bangladesh Dhaka (Bangladesh) - 22,478,000
  6. China Beijing (China) - 21,333,000
  7. India Mumbai (India) - 20,961,000
  8. Japan Osaka (Japan) - 19,060,000
  9. Pakistan Karachi (Pakistan) - 16,840,000
  10. China Chongqing (China) - 16,875,000

Europe

  1. Turkey Istanbul (Turkiye) - 15,636,000
  2. Russia Moscow (Russia) - 12,641,000
  3. France Paris (France) - 11,142,000
  4. United Kingdom London (United Kingdom) - 9,426,000
  5. Spain Madrid (Spain) - 6,714,000
  6. Germany Berlin (Germany) - 6,144,600
  7. Spain Barcelona (Spain) - 5,658,000
  8. Russia Saint Petersburg (Russia) - 5,536,000
  9. Italy Rome (Italy) - 4,298,000
  10. Greece Athens (Greece) - 3,154,000

North America

  1. Mexico Mexico City (Mexico) - 22,085,000
  2. United States New York - Newark (United States) - 18,867,000
  3. United States Los Angeles - Long Beach - Santa Ana (United States) - 12,488,000
  4. United States Chicago (United States) - 8,901,000
  5. United States Houston (United States) - 6,603,000
  6. United States Dallas - Fort Worth (United States) - 6,488,400
  7. Canada Toronto (Canada) - 6,313,000
  8. United States Miami (United States) - 6,079,000
  9. United States Philadelphia (United States) - 5,705,000
  10. United States Washington, D.C. - Baltimore (United States) - 5,434,000

Oceania

  1. Australia Melbourne (Australia) - 4,870,000
  2. Australia Sydney (Australia) - 4,859,000
  3. Australia Brisbane (Australia) - 2,568,927
  4. Australia Perth (Australia) - 2,016,000
  5. New Zealand Auckland (New Zealand) - 1,582,000
  6. Australia Adelaide (Australia) - 1,328,000
  7. Australia Gold Coast (Australia) - 687,000
  8. Australia Canberra (Australia) - 452,000
  9. Australia Newcastle (Australia) - 447,000
  10. New Zealand Wellington (New Zealand) - 413,000

South America

  1. Brazil São Paulo (Brazil) - 22,430,000
  2. Argentina Buenos Aires (Argentina) - 15,370,000
  3. Brazil Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) - 13,634,000
  4. Colombia Bogotá (Colombia) - 11,344,000
  5. Peru Lima - Callao (Peru) - 11,176,000
  6. Chile Santiago (Chile) - 6,857,000
  7. Brazil Belo Horizonte (Brazil) - 6,194,000
  8. Brazil Brasília (Brazil) - 4,804,000
  9. Brazil Recife (Brazil) - 4,220,000
  10. Brazil Porto Alegre (Brazil) - 4,185,000

Largest urban areas, by country

[10]

Afghanistan

4.589 million KABUL (capital) (2023)

Albania

520,000 TIRANA (capital) (2023)

Algeria

2.854 million ALGIERS (capital) ; 922,000 Oran (2022)

American Samoa

49,000 PAGO PAGO (capital) (2018)

Andorra

23,000 ANDORRA LA VELLA (capital) (2018)

Angola

9.292 million LUANDA (capital), 959,000 Lubango, 905,000 Cabinda, 809,000 Benguela, 783,000 Malanje (2023)

Anguilla

1,000 THE VALLEY (capital) (2018)

Antigua and Barbuda

21,000 SAINT JOHN'S (capital) (2018)

Argentina

15.490 million BUENOS AIRES (capital), 1.612 million Cordoba, 1.594 million Rosario, 1.226 million Mendoza, 1.027 million San Miguel de Tucuman, 914,000 La Plata (2023)

Armenia

1.095 million YEREVAN (capital) (2023)

Aruba

30,000 ORANJESTAD (capital) (2018)

Australia

5.235 million Melbourne, 5.121 million Sydney, 2.505 million Brisbane, 2.118 million Perth, 1.367 million Adelaide, 472,000 CANBERRA (capital) (2023)

Austria

1.975 million VIENNA (capital) (2023)

Azerbaijan

2.432 million BAKU (capital) (2023)

Bahamas, The

280,000 NASSAU (capital) (2018)

Bahrain

689,000 MANAMA (capital) (2022)

Bangladesh

23.210 million DHAKA (capital), 5.380 million Chittagong, 955,000 Khulna, 962,000 Rajshahi, 969,000 Rangpur, 964,000 Sylhet, 906,000 Bogra (2023)

Barbados

89,000 BRIDGETOWN (capital) (2018)

Belarus

2.049 million MINSK (capital) (2022)

Belgium

2.110 million BRUSSELS (capital); 1.053 million Antwerp (2022)

Belize

23,000 BELMOPAN (capital) (2018)

Benin

285,000 PORTO-NOVO (capital) (2018) ; 1.189 million Abomey-Calavi ; 709,000 COTONOU (seat of government) (2022)

Bermuda

10,000 HAMILTON (capital) (2018)

Bhutan

203,000 THIMPHU (capital) (2018)

Bolivia

1.908 million LA PAZ (capital) ; 1.784 million Santa Cruz ; 1.369 million Cochabamba ; 278,000 Sucre (constitutional capital) (2022)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

344,000 SARAJEVO (capital) (2022)

Botswana

269,000 GABORONE (capital) (2018)

Brazil

22.620 million Sao Paulo, 13.728 million Rio de Janeiro, 6.248 million Belo Horizonte, 4.873 million BRASILIA (capital), 4.264 million Recife, 4.212 million Porto Alegre (2023)

British Virgin Islands

15,000 ROAD TOWN (capital) (2018)

Brunei

241,000 BANDAR SERI BEGAWAN (capital) (2011)

Bulgaria

1.287 million SOFIA (capital) (2022)

Burkina Faso

3.056 million OUAGADOUGOU (capital) ; 1.074 million Bobo-Dioulasso (2022)

Burundi

1.139 million BUJUMBURA (capital) (2022)

Cabo Verde

168,000 PRAIA (capital) (2018)

Cambodia

2.211 million PHNOM PENH (capital) (2022)

Cameroon

4.164 million YAOUNDE (capital) ; 3.927 million Douala (2022)

Canada

6.372 million Toronto, 4.308 million Montreal, 2.657 million Vancouver, 1.640 million Calgary, 1.544 million Edmonton, 1.437 million OTTAWA (capital) (2023)

Cayman Islands

35,000 GEORGE TOWN (capital) (2018)

Central African Republic

933,000 BANGUI (capital) (2022)

Chad

1.533 million N'DJAMENA (capital) (2022)

Chile

6.903 million SANTIAGO (capital), 1.009 million Valparaiso, 912,000 Concepcion (2023)

China

29.211 million Shanghai, 21.766 million BEIJING (capital), 17.341 million Chongqing, 14.284 million Guangzhou, 14.239 million Tianjin, 13.073 million Shenzhen (2023)

Colombia

11.508 million BOGOTA (capital), 4.102 million Medellin, 2.864 million Cali, 2.349 million Barranquilla, 1.381 million Bucaramanga, 1.088 million Cartagena (2023)

Comoros

62,000 MORONI (capital) (2018)

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

16.316 million KINSHASA (capital), 2.892 million Mbuji-Mayi, 2.812 million Lubumbashi, 1.664 million Kananga, 1.423 million Kisangani, 1.249 million Bukavu (2023)

Congo, Republic of the

2.638 million BRAZZAVILLE (capital), 1.336 million Pointe-Noire (2023)

Costa Rica

1.441 million SAN JOSE (capital) (2022)

Cote d'Ivoire

231,000 YAMOUSSOUKRO (capital) (2018) ; 5.516 million ABIDJAN (seat of government) (2022)

Croatia

684,000 ZAGREB (capital) (2022)

Cuba

2.149 million HAVANA (capital) (2023)

Curacao

144,000 WILLEMSTAD (capital) (2018)

Cyprus

269,000 NICOSIA (capital) (2018)

Czech Republic

1.318 million PRAGUE (capital) (2022)

Denmark

1.370 million COPENHAGEN (capital) (2022)

Djibouti

591,000 DJIBOUTI (capital) (2022)

Dominica

15,000 ROSEAU (capital) (2018)

Dominican Republic

3.524 million SANTO DOMINGO (capital) (2023)

Ecuador

3.142 million Guayaquil, 1.957 million QUITO (capital) (2023)

Egypt

22.183 million CAIRO (capital), 5.588 million Alexandria, 778,000 Bur Sa'id (2023)

El Salvador

1.116 million SAN SALVADOR (capital) (2023)

Equatorial Guinea

297,000 MALABO (capital) (2018)

Eritrea

1.073 million ASMARA (capital) (2023)

Estonia

452,000 TALLINN (capital) (2022)

Eswatini

68,000 MBABANE (capital) (2018)

Ethiopia

5.461 million ADDIS ABABA (capital) (2023)

Falkland Islands

2,000 STANLEY (capital) (2018)

Faroe Islands

21,000 TÓRSHAVN (capital) (2018)

Fiji

178,000 SUVA (capital) (2018)

Finland

1.328 million HELSINKI (capital) (2022)

France

11.208 million PARIS (capital), 1.761 million Lyon, 1.628 million Marseille-Aix-en-Provence, 1.079 million Lille, 1.060 million Toulouse, 1.000 million Bordeaux (2023)

French Polynesia

136,000 PAPEETE (capital) (2018)

Gabon

857,000 LIBREVILLE (capital) (2022)

Gambia, The

470,000 BANJUL (capital) (2022)

Georgia

1.203 million TBILISI (capital) (2022)

Germany

3.574 million BERLIN (capital), 1.788 million Hamburg, 1.576 million Munich, 1.144 million Cologne, 796,000 Frankfurt (2023)

Ghana

3.630 million Kumasi ; 2.605 million ACCRA (capital) ; 1.035 million Sekondi Takoradi (2022)

Gibraltar

35,000 GIBRALTAR (capital) (2018)

Greece

3.154 million ATHENS (capital) ; 814,000 Thessaloniki (2022)

Greenland

18,000 NUUK (capital) (2018)

Grenada

39,000 SAINT GEORGE'S (capital) (2018)

Guam

147,000 HAGATNA (capital) (2018)

Guatemala

3.095 million GUATEMALA CITY (capital) (2023)

Guernsey

16,000 SAINT PETER PORT (capital) (2018)

Guinea

2.049 million CONAKRY (capital) (2022)

Guinea-Bissau

643,000 BISSAU (capital) (2022)

Guyana

110,000 GEORGETOWN (capital) (2018)

Haiti

2.915 million PORT-AU-PRINCE (capital) (2022)

Holy See

1,000 VATICAN CITY (capital) (2018)

Honduras

1.568 million TEGUCIGALPA (capital), 982,000 San Pedro Sula (2023)

Hong Kong

7.643 million Hong Kong (2022)

Hungary

1.775 million BUDAPEST (capital) (2022)

Iceland

216,000 REYKJAVÍK (capital) (2018)

India

32.941 million NEW DELHI (capital), 21.297 million Mumbai, 15.333 million Kolkata, 13.608 million Bangalore, 11.776 million Chennai, 10.801 million Hyderabad (2023)

Indonesia

11.249 million JAKARTA (capital), 3.729 million Bekasi, 3.044 million Surabaya, 3.041 million Depok, 2.674 million Bandung, 2.514 million Tangerang (2023)

Iran

9.500 million TEHRAN (capital), 3.368 million Mashhad, 2.258 million Esfahan, 1.721 million Shiraz, 1.661 million Tabriz, 1.594 million Karaj (2023)

Iraq

7.711 million BAGHDAD (capital), 1.792 million Mosul, 1.448 million Basra, 1.075 million Kirkuk, 958,000 Najaf, 897,000 Erbil (2023)

Ireland

1.256 million DUBLIN (capital) (2022)

Isle of Man

27,000 DOUGLAS (capital) (2018)

Israel

4.344 million Tel Aviv-Yafo ; 1.254 million JERUSALEM (capital) ; 1.164 million Haifa (2022)

Italy

4.316 million ROME (capital), 3.155 million Milan, 2.179 million Naples, 1.802 million Turin, 913,000 Bergamo, 850,000 Palermo (2023)

Jamaica

595,000 KINGSTON (capital) (2022)

Japan

37.194 million TOKYO (capital), 19.013 million Osaka, 9.569 million Nagoya, 5.490 million Kitakyushu-Fukuoka, 2.937 million Shizuoka-Hamamatsu, 2.666 million Sapporo (2023)

Jersey

34,000 SAINT HELIER (capital) (2018)

Jordan

2.210 million AMMAN (capital) (2022)

Kazakhstan

1.987 million Almaty, 1.291 million NUR-SULTAN (capital), 1.155 million Shimkent (2023)

Kenya

5.325 million NAIROBI (capital), 1.440 million Mombassa (2023)

Kiribati

64,000 TARAWA (capital) (2018)

Korea, North

3.158 million PYONGYANG (capital) (2023)

Korea, South

9.988 million SEOUL (capital), 3.472 million Busan, 2.849 million Incheon, 2.181 million Daegu (Taegu), 1.577 million Daejon (Taejon), 1.529 million Gwangju (Kwangju) (2023)

Kosovo

216,870 PRISTINA (capital) (2019)

Kuwait

3.298 million KUWAIT (capital) (2023)

Kyrgyzstan

1.105 million BISHKEK (capital) (2023)

Laos

706,000 VIENTIANE (capital) (2022)

Latvia

625,000 RIGA (capital) (2022)

Lebanon

2.433 million BEIRUT (capital) (2022)

Lesotho

202,000 MASERU (capital) (2018)

Liberia

1.623 million MONROVIA (capital) (2022)

Libya

1.183 million TRIPOLI (capital), 984,000 Misratah, 859,000 Benghazi (2023)

Liechtenstein

5,000 VADUZ (capital) (2018)

Lithuania

541,000 VILNIUS (capital) (2022)

Luxembourg

120,000 LUXEMBOURG (capital) (2018)

Madagascar

3.700 million ANTANANARIVO (capital) (2022)

Malawi

1.222 million LILONGWE (capital) ; 995,000 Blantyre-Limbe (2022)

Malaysia

8.622 million KUALA LUMPUR (capital), 1.086 million Johor Bahru, 857,000 Ipoh (2023)

Maldives

177,000 MALE (capital) (2018)

Mali

2.817 million BAMAKO (capital) (2022)

Malta

213,000 VALLETTA (capital) (2018)

Marshall Islands

31,000 MAJURO (capital) (2018)

Mauritania

1.432 million NOUAKCHOTT (capital) (2022)

Mauritius

149,000 PORT LOUIS (capital) (2018)

Mexico

22.281 million MEXICO CITY (capital), 5.420 million Guadalajara, 5.117 million Monterrey, 3.345 million Puebla, 2.626 million Toluca de Lerdo, 2.260 million Tijuana (2023)

Federated States of Micronesia

7,000 PALIKIR (capital) (2018)

Moldova

491,000 CHISINAU (capital) (2022)

Monaco

39,000 MONACO (capital) (2018)

Mongolia

1.645 million ULAANBAATAR (capital) (2022)

Montenegro

177,000 PODGORICA (capital) (2018)

Morocco

3.893 million Casablanca, 1.959 million RABAT (capital), 1.290 million Fes, 1.314 million Tangier, 1.050 million Marrakech, 979,000 Agadir (2023)

Mozambique

1.797 million Matola ; 1.139 million MAPUTO (capital) ; 927,000 Nampula (2022)

Myanmar (Burma)

5.610 million RANGOON (Yangon) (capital), 1.532 million Mandalay (2023)

Namibia

461,000 WINDHOEK (capital) (2022)

Nepal

1.521 million KATHMANDU (capital) (2022)

Netherlands

2.48 million AMSTERDAM (capital), 2.40 million Rotterdam - The Hague (2022)

New Caledonia

198,000 NOUMEA (capital) (2018)

New Zealand

1.652 million Auckland, 419,000 WELLINGTON (capital) (2022)

Nicaragua

1.095 million MANAGUA (capital) (2023)

Niger

1.384 million NIAMEY (capital) (2022)

Nigeria

15.946 million Lagos, 4.348 million Kano, 3.875 million Ibadan, 3.840 million ABUJA (capital), 3.480 million Port Harcourt, 1.905 million Benin City (2023)

Niue

1,000 ALOFI (capital) (2018)

North Macedonia

606,000 SKOPJE (capital) (2022)

Northern Mariana Islands

51,000 SAIPAN (capital) (2018)

Norway

1.071 million OSLO (capital) (2022)

Oman

1.623 million MUSCAT (capital) (2022)

Pakistan

17.236 million Karachi, 13.979 million Lahore, 3.711 million Faisalabad, 2.415 million Gujranwala, 2.412 million Peshawar, 1.232 million ISLAMABAD (capital) (2023)

Palau

277 NGERULMUD (capital) (2018)

Palestine

756,000 Gaza ; 153,237 RAMALLAH (Capital) (2022)

Panama

1.977 million PANAMA CITY (capital) (2023)

Papua New Guinea

410,000 PORT MORESBY (capital) (2023)

Paraguay

3.511 million ASUNCION (capital) (2023)

Peru

11.204 million LIMA (capital), 959,000 Arequipa, 904,000 Trujillo (2023)

Philippines

14.667 million MANILA (capital), 1.949 million Davao, 1.025 million Cebu City, 931,000 Zamboanga, 960,000 Antipolo, 803,000 Cagayan de Oro City, 803,000 Dasmarinas (2023)

Poland

1.798 million WARSAW (capital), 769,000 Krakow (2023)

Portugal

3.001 million LISBON (capital), 1.325 million Porto (2023)

Puerto Rico

2.440 million SAN JUAN (capital) (2023)

Qatar

779,000 Ar-Rayyan ; 652,000 DOHA (capital) (2022)

Romania

1.785 million BUCHAREST (capital) (2022)

Russia

12.680 million MOSCOW (capital), 5.561 million Saint Petersburg, 1.695 million Novosibirsk, 1.528 million Yekaterinburg, 1.292 million Kazan, 1.251 million Nizhniy Novgorod (2023)

Rwanda

1.208 million KIGALI (capital) (2022)

Saint Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha

1,000 JAMESTOWN (capital) (2018)

Saint Kitts and Nevis

14,000 BASSETERRE (capital) (2018)

Saint Lucia

22,000 CASTRIES (capital) (2018)

Saint Pierre and Miquelon

6,000 SAINT - PIERRE (capital) (2018)

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

27,000 KINGSTOWN (capital) (2018)

Samoa

36,000 APIA (capital) (2018)

San Marino

4,000 SAN MARINO (2018)

São Tomé and Príncipe

80,000 SÃO TOMÉ (capital) (2018)

Saudi Arabia

7.682 million RIYADH (capital), 4.863 million Jeddah, 2.150 million Mecca, 1.573 million Medina, 1.329 million Ad Dammam, 872,000 million Hufuf-Mubarraz (2023)

Senegal

3.326 million DAKAR (capital) (2022)

Serbia

1.405 million BELGRADE (capital) (2022)

Seychelles

28,000 VICTORIA (capital) (2018)

Sierra Leone

1.272 million FREETOWN (capital) (2022)

Singapore

6.081 million SINGAPORE (capital) (2023)

Sint Maarten

1,327 PHILIPSBURG (capital) (2011)

Slovakia

439,000 BRATISLAVA (capital) (2022)

Slovenia

286,000 LJUBLJANA (capital) (2018)

Solomon Islands

82,000 HONIARA (capital) (2018)

Somalia

2.610 million MOGADISHU (capital), 1.127 million Hargeysa (2023)

South Africa

10.316 million Johannesburg (includes Ekurhuleni), 4.890 million Cape Town (legislative capital), 3.228 million Durban, 2.818 million PRETORIA (administrative capital), 1.296 million Port Elizabeth, 934,000 West Rand (2023)

South Sudan

459,000 JUBA (capital) (2023)

Spain

6.751 million MADRID (capital), 5.687 million Barcelona, 838,000 Valencia (2023)

Sri Lanka

103,000 Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte (legislative capital) (2018), 633,000 COLOMBO (capital) (2023)

Sudan

6.344 million KHARTOUM (capital), 1.057 million Nyala (2023)

Suriname

239,000 PARAMARIBO (capital) (2018)

Sweden

1.659 million STOCKHOLM (capital) (2022)

Switzerland

1.420 million Zurich, 437,000 BERN (capital) (2022)

Syria

2.585 million DAMASCUS (capital), 2.203 million Aleppo, 1.443 million Hims (Homs), 996,000 Hamah (2023)

Taiwan

4.504 million New Taipei City, 2.754 million TAIPEI (capital), 2.319 million Taoyuan, 1.553 million Kaohsiung, 1.369 million Taichung, 863,000 Tainan (2023)

Tajikistan

962,000 DUSHANBE (capital) (2022)

Tanzania

262,000 Dodoma (legislative capital) (2018), 7.776 million DAR ES SALAAM (administrative capital), 1.311 million Mwanza, 800,000 Zanzibar (2023)

Thailand

11.070 million BANGKOK (capital), 1.454 Chon Buri, 1.359 million Samut Prakan, 1.213 million Chiang Mai, 1.005 million Songkla, 1.001 million Nothaburi (2023)

Timor-Leste

281,000 DILI (capital) (2018)

Togo

1.926 million LOME (capital) (2022)

Tonga

23,000 NUKU'ALOFA (2018)

Trinidad and Tobago

545,000 PORT OF SPAIN (capital) (2022)

Tunisia

2.439 million TUNIS (capital) (2022)

Turkey (Türkiye)

15.848 million Istanbul, 5.397 million ANKARA (capital), 3.088 million Izmir, 2.086 million Bursa, 1.836 million Adana, 1.805 million Gaziantep (2023)

Turkmenistan

883,000 ASHGABAT (capital) (2022)

Turks and Caicos Islands

5,000 GRAND TURK (capital) (2018)

Tuvalu

7,000 FUNAFUTI (capital) (2018)

Uganda

3.652 million KAMPALA (capital) (2022)

Ukraine

3.010 million KYIV (capital) ; 1.423 million Kharkiv ; 1.008 million Odesa ; 952,000 Dnipro ; 893,000 Donetsk (2022)

United Arab Emirates

2.964 million Dubai ; 1.786 million Sharjah ; 1.540 million ABU DHABI (capital) (2022)

United Kingdom

9.648 million LONDON (capital), 2.791 million Manchester, 2.665 million Birmingham, 1.929 million West Yorkshire, 1.698 million Glasgow, 952,000 Southampton / Portsmouth (2023)

United States

18.937 million New York - Newark, 12.534 million Los Angeles - Long Beach - Santa Ana, 8.937 million Chicago, 6.707 million Houston, 6.574 million Dallas - Fort Worth, 5.490 million WASHINGTON, D.C. (capital) (2023)

Uruguay

1.767 million MONTEVIDEO (capital) (2022)

Uzbekistan

2.574 million TASHKENT (capital) (2022)

Vanuatu

53,000 PORT - VILA (capital) (2018)

Venezuela

2.972 million CARACAS (capital), 2.368 million Maracaibo, 1.983 million Valencia, 1.254 million Barquisimeto, 1.243 million Maracay, 964,000 Ciudad Guayana (2023)

Vietnam

9.321 million Ho Chi Minh City, 5.253 million HANOI (capital), 1.865 million Can Tho, 1.423 million Hai Phong, 1.221 million Da Nang, 1.111 million Bien Hoa (2023)

Virgin Islands

52,000 CHARLOTTE AMALIE (capital) (2018)

Wallis and Futuna

1,000 MATA - UTU (capital) (2018)

Yemen

3.182 million SANAA (capital), 1.045 million Aden (2022)

Zambia

3.042 million LUSAKA (capital) (2022)

Zimbabwe

1.558 million HARARE (capital) (2022)

Very highly urbanized countries

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (June 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Main article: Urbanization by sovereign state

This is the list of countries where the urbanization rate is at least 80%. Australia, Canada, Japan and the United States are included in the list and are among other very highly urbanized countries.

Definitions

European countries[which?] define urbanized areas on the basis of urban-type land use, not allowing any gaps of typically more than 200 metres (220 yd), and use satellite imagery instead of census blocks to determine the boundaries of the urban area. In less-developed countries[which?], in addition to land use and density requirements, a requirement that a large majority of the population, typically 75%, is not engaged in agriculture and/or fishing is sometimes used.[citation needed]

East Asia

China

Main article: List of cities in China by population and built-up area

Since 2000, China's cities have expanded at an average rate of 10% annually. It is estimated that China's urban population will increase by 292 million people by 2050,[2] when its cities will house a combined population of over one billion.[12] The country's urbanization rate increased from 17.4% to 46.6% between 1978 and 2009.[13] Between 150 and 200 million migrant workers work part-time in the major cities, returning home to the countryside periodically with their earnings.[14][15]

Today, China has more cities with one million or more long-term residents than any other country, including the three global cities of Beijing, Hong Kong, and Shanghai; by 2025, the country will be home to 221 cities with over a million inhabitants.[12] The figures in the table below are from the 2008 census, and are only estimates of the urban populations within administrative city limits; a different ranking exists when considering the total municipal populations (which includes suburban and rural populations). The large "floating populations" of migrant workers make conducting censuses in urban areas difficult;[16] the figures below include only long-term residents.

Panoramic view of Pudong's Skyline from the Bund in Shanghai.
 
Largest cities or municipalities in the People's Republic of China
China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2020 Urban Population and Urban Temporary Population [17][note 1][note 2]
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
Shanghai

Shanghai
Beijing

Beijing
1 Shanghai SH 24,281,400 11 Hong Kong HK 7,448,900
Guangzhou

Guangzhou
Shenzhen

Shenzhen
2 Beijing BJ 19,164,000 12 Zhengzhou HA 7,179,400
3 Guangzhou GD 13,858,700 13 Nanjing JS 6,823,500
4 Shenzhen GD 13,438,800 14 Xi'an SN 6,642,100
5 Tianjin TJ 11,744,400 15 Jinan SD 6,409,600
6 Chongqing CQ 11,488,000 16 Shenyang LN 5,900,000
7 Dongguan GD 9,752,500 17 Qingdao SD 5,501,400
8 Chengdu SC 8,875,600 18 Harbin HL 5,054,500
9 Wuhan HB 8,652,900 19 Hefei AH 4,750,100
10 Hangzhou ZJ 8,109,000 20 Changchun JL 4,730,900
  1. ^ Population of Hong Kong as of 2018 estimate.[18]
  2. ^ The data of Chongqing in the list is the data of "Metropolitan Developed Economic Area", which contains two parts: "City Proper" and "Metropolitan Area". The "City proper" are consist of 9 districts: Yuzhong, Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan'an, Beibei, Yubei, & Banan, has the urban population of 5,646,300 as of 2018. And the "Metropolitan Area" are consist of 12 districts: Fuling, Changshou, Jiangjin, Hechuan, Yongchuan, Nanchuan, Qijiang, Dazu, Bishan, Tongliang, Tongnan, & Rongchang, has the urban population of 5,841,700.[19] Total urban population of all 26 districts of Chongqing are up to 15,076,600.

Japan

In Japan, urbanized areas are defined as contiguous areas of densely inhabited districts (DIDs) using census enumeration districts as units with a density requirement of 4,000 inhabitants per square kilometre (10,000/sq mi).

South Korea

Seoul is the largest urban area in South Korea.

South Asia

India

Main articles: Urbanisation in India and List of cities in India by population

For the Census of India 2011, the definition of urban area is a place having a minimum population of 5,000 of density 400 persons per square kilometre (1,000/sq mi) or higher, and 75% plus of the male working population employed in non-agricultural activities. Places administered by a municipal corporation, cantonment board or notified town area committee are automatically considered urban areas.[20]

The Census of India 2011 also defined the term "urban agglomeration" as an integrated urban area consisting of a core town together with its "outgrowths" (contiguous suburbs).[21]

India gate panorama.
India gate panorama.
(2011 census)[22][23]

Mumbai

Mumbai
Delhi

Delhi
Kolkata

Kolkata
Chennai

Chennai
Bangalore

Bangalore
Hyderabad

Hyderabad

Rank City Name State/Territory Population Rank City Name State/Territory Population

Ahmedabad

Ahmedabad
Pune

Pune
Surat

Surat
Jaipur

Jaipur
Kanpur

Kanpur
Lucknow

Lucknow

1 Mumbai Maharashtra 18,394,912 28 Ludhiana Punjab 1,618,879
2 Delhi Delhi 16,349,831 29 Nashik Maharashtra 1,562,769
3 Kolkata West Bengal 14,112,536 30 Vijayawada Andhra Pradesh 1,491,202
4 Chennai Tamil Nadu 8,696,010 31 Madurai Tamil Nadu 1,465,625
5 Bengaluru Karnataka 8,520,435 32 Varanasi Uttar Pradesh 1,435,113
6 Hyderabad Telangana 7,749,334 33 Meerut Uttar Pradesh 1,424,908
7 Ahmedabad Gujarat 6,361,084 34 Faridabad Haryana 1,414,050
8 Pune Maharashtra 5,057,709 35 Rajkot Gujarat 1,390,933
9 Surat Gujarat 4,591,246 36 Jamshedpur Jharkhand 1,339,438
10 Jaipur Rajasthan 3,073,350 37 Srinagar Jammu and Kashmir 1,273,312
11 Kanpur Uttar Pradesh 2,920,496 38 Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh 1,268,848
12 Lucknow Uttar Pradesh 2,902,920 39 Asansol West Bengal 1,243,414
13 Nagpur Maharashtra 2,497,870 40 Vasai-Virar Maharashtra 1,222,390
14 Ghaziabad Uttar Pradesh 2,375,820 41 Allahabad Uttar Pradesh 1,216,719
15 Indore Madhya Pradesh 2,170,295 42 Dhanbad Jharkhand 1,196,214
16 Coimbatore Tamil Nadu 2,151,466 43 Aurangabad Maharashtra 1,193,167
17 Kochi Kerala 2,119,724 44 Amritsar Punjab 1,183,705
18 Patna Bihar 2,049,156 45 Jodhpur Rajasthan 1,138,300
19 Kozhikode Kerala 2,030,519 46 Ranchi Jharkhand 1,126,741
20 Bhopal Madhya Pradesh 1,886,100 47 Raipur Chhattisgarh 1,123,558
21 Thrissur Kerala 1,861,269 48 Kollam Kerala 1,110,668
22 Vadodara Gujarat 1,822,221 49 Gwalior Madhya Pradesh 1,102,884
23 Agra Uttar Pradesh 1,760,285 50 Bhilai Chhattisgarh 1,064,222
24 Visakhapatnam Andhra Pradesh 1,730,320 51 Chandigarh Chandigarh 1,026,459
25 Malappuram Kerala 1,699,060 52 Tiruchirappalli Tamil Nadu 1,022,518
26 Thiruvananthapuram Kerala 1,687,406 53 Kota Rajasthan 1,001,694
27 Kannur Kerala 1,642,892 54 Mysore Karnataka 990,900


Pakistan

Main articles: Urbanisation in Pakistan and List of most populous cities in Pakistan

In Pakistan, an area is a major city and municipality if it has more than 100,000 inhabitants according to census results. Cities include adjacent cantonments. Urbanisation in Pakistan has increased since the time of independence and has several different causes. The majority of southern Pakistan's population lives along the Indus River. Karachi is its most populous city.[24] In the northern half of the country, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sargodha, Sheikhupura, Nowshera, Mardan and Peshawar. During 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia. Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more.[25] Karachi is the most populated city in Pakistan closely followed by Lahore according to the 2017 Census.

Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, there are total 532 urban areas, which are divided into three categories. Those are City Corporation, Municipal Corporation (Pourasova) and Upazila town. Among those urban areas, Dhaka is the largest city by population and area, with a population of 19.10 million.[26] In Bangladesh, there are total 11 City Corporations and 329 Municipal Corporations and 203 Small towns, which serves as the center for Upazilas. According to 2011 population census, Bangladesh has an urban population of 28%, with a growth rate of 2.8%.[27] At this growth rate, it is estimated that the urban population of Bangladesh will reach 79 million or 42% of total population by 2035.

Southeast Asia

 
Rank Name Country Pop. Rank Name Country Pop.
Jakarta

Jakarta
Manila

Manila
1 Jakarta Indonesia 34,540,000 11 Medan Indonesia 3,632,000
Bangkok

Bangkok
Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City
2 Manila Philippines 23,088,000 12 Cebu City Philippines 2,275,000
3 Bangkok Thailand 17,066,000 13 Phnom Penh Cambodia 2,177,000
4 Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam 13,312,000 14 Semarang Indonesia 1,992,000
5 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 8,285,000 15 Johor Bahru Malaysia 1,981,000
6 Bandung Indonesia 7,065,000 16 Makassar Indonesia 1,952,000
7 Hanoi Vietnam 6,576,000 17 Palembang Indonesia 1,889,000
8 Surabaya Indonesia 6,499,000 18 Mandalay Myanmar 1,633,000
9 Yangon Myanmar 6,314,000 19 Hai Phong Vietnam 1,623,000
10 Singapore Singapore 5,745,000 20 Yogyakarta Indonesia 1,568,000

Philippines

With an estimated population of 16.3 million, Metro Manila is the most populous metropolitan area in the Philippines and the 11th in the world. However, the greater urban area is the 5th largest in the world with a population of 20,654,307 people (2010 estimate).[28]

Singapore

Further information: Geography of Singapore and Planning Areas of Singapore

As an island city-state, about 5.6 million people live and work within 700 square kilometres (270 sq mi). With 64 islands and islets, Singapore Island makes up the largest urban area in the country. According to the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the country has the highest urbanised population in Southeast Asia, with 100 percent of its population living in an urban area.[29] The Urban Redevelopment Authority (URA) is responsible for the urban land-use planning, which designates land use and urban density of the country.[30] The country is divided into 5 regions for planning purposes by the URA, even though as a city state Singapore is defined as a single continuous urban area. It is further subdivided into 55 urban planning areas, which acts as the boundaries of planned towns within the country.[31]

Vietnam

In Vietnam, there are 6 types of urban areas:

Thailand

Bangkok is the largest urban area in Thailand.

Europe

Finland

Main articles: Urban areas in Finland and List of urban areas in Finland by population

A street sign indicating the beginning of an urban area in Finland. The picture was taken in Vimpeli.
A street sign indicating the beginning of an urban area in Finland. The picture was taken in Vimpeli.

As in other Nordic countries, an urban area (taajama in Finnish) in Finland must have a building at least every 200 m (660 ft) and at least 200 people. To be considered a town or a city (kaupunki) for statistical purposes, an urban area must have at least 15,000 people. This is not to be confused with the city / town designation used by municipalities.[32][33]

France

Main article: Functional area (France)

In France, an urban area (Fr: aire d'attraction d'une ville) is a zone encompassing an area of built-up growth (called an "urban unit" (unité urbaine)[34] – close in definition to the North American urban area) and its commuter belt (couronne). Americans would find the INSEE definition of the urban area[35] to be similar to their metropolitan area.

The largest cities in France, in terms of urban area population (2017), are Paris (12,628,266), Lyon (2,323,221), Marseille (1,760,653), Toulouse (1,360,829), Bordeaux (1,247,977), Lille (1,191,117), Nice (1,006,201), Nantes (972,828), Strasbourg (790,087) and Rennes (733,320).[36]

Panorama of Paris as seen from the Eiffel Tower as full 360-degree view (river flowing from north-east to south-west, right to left)

Germany

Germany has a number of large cities. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region (11 million in 2008), including Düsseldorf (the capital of North Rhine-Westphalia), Cologne, Bonn, Dortmund, Essen, Duisburg, and Bochum.[37]

 
Largest urban agglomerations in Germany
Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.
Rhine-Ruhr

Rhine-Ruhr
Berlin

Berlin
1 Rhine-Ruhr North Rhine-Westphalia 11,108,117 11 Chemnitz Saxony 873,745
Rhine-Main

Rhine-Main
Stuttgart

Stuttgart
2 Berlin Berlin 4,544,525 12 Hanover Lower Saxony 796,298
3 Rhine-Main Hesse 3,146,343 13 Dresden Saxony 790,534
4 Stuttgart Baden-Württemberg 3,016,208 14 Saar Saarland 758,249
5 Munich Bavaria 2,374,272 15 Bremen Bremen 664,603
6 Hamburg Hamburg 2,342,356 16 Aachen North Rhine-Westphalia 655,276
7 Rhine-Neckar Baden-Württemberg 1,410,711 17 Karlsruhe Baden-Württemberg 611,319
8 Nuremberg Bavaria 1,228,597 18 Augsburg Bavaria 543,503
9 Leipzig Saxony 1,038,996 19 Freiburg im Breisgau Baden-Württemberg 332,013
10 Bielefeld North Rhine-Westphalia 929,005 20 Kassel Hesse 330,654

Netherlands

The Netherlands is the 30th most densely populated country in the world, with 404.6 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,048/sq mi)—or 497 inhabitants per square kilometre (1,287/sq mi) if only the land area is counted. The Randstad is the country's largest conurbation located in the west of the country and contains the four largest cities: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, and Utrecht. The Randstad has a population of 7 million inhabitants and is the 6th largest metropolitan area in Europe.

Sweden

Main article: List of urban areas in Sweden by population

Urban areas in Sweden (tätorter) are statistically defined localities, totally independent of the administrative subdivision of the country. There are 1,956 such localities in Sweden, with a population ranging from 200 to 1,372,000 inhabitants.[38]

United Kingdom

Main article: List of urban areas in the United Kingdom

In 2013 the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics (ONS) published 2011 Built-up Areas - Methodology and Guidance which sets out its definition of a built-up area as an area of built-up land of at least 20 hectares (0.077 sq mi), separated from other settlements by at least 200 metres (660 ft). For 2011 census data there are 5,493 built-up areas, of which 501 are divided into sub-divisions for which data is also available. Each built-up area is named algorithmically, using Ordnance Survey place-name data.[39]

The ONS has produced census results from urban areas since 1951, since 1981 based upon the extent of irreversible urban development indicated on Ordnance Survey maps. The definition is an extent of at least 20 ha and at least 1,500 census residents. Separate areas are linked if less than 200 m (220 yd) apart. Included are transportation features.[40] The UK has five Urban Areas with a population over a million and a further sixty nine with a population over one hundred thousand.

 
Largest urban areas of the United Kingdom
(England and Wales: 2011 census built-up area;[41] Scotland: 2016 estimates settlement;[42] Northern Ireland: 2001 census urban area)[43]
Rank Urban area Pop. Principal settlement Rank Urban area Pop. Principal settlement
Palace of Westminster from the dome on Methodist Central Hall.jpg

Greater London

Birmingham Skyline from the West.jpg

West Midlands

1 Greater London 9,787,426 London 11 Bristol 617,280 Bristol
2 West Midlands 2,440,986 Birmingham 12 Edinburgh 512,150 Edinburgh
3 Greater Manchester 2,553,379 Manchester 13 Leicester 508,916 Leicester
4 West Yorkshire 1,777,934 Leeds 14 Belfast 483,418 Belfast
5 Greater Glasgow 985,290 Glasgow 15 Brighton & Hove 474,485 Brighton & Hove
6 Liverpool 864,122 Liverpool 16 Bournemouth/ Poole 466,266 Bournemouth
7 South Hampshire 855,569 Southampton 17 Cardiff 390,214 Cardiff
8 Tyneside 774,891 Newcastle 18 Teesside 376,633 Middlesbrough
9 Nottingham 729,977 Nottingham 19 Stoke-on-Trent 372,775 Stoke
10 Sheffield 685,368 Sheffield 20 Coventry 359,262 Coventry

Norway

Main article: List of urban areas in Norway by population

Statistics Norway defines urban areas ("tettsteder") similarly to the other Nordic countries. Unlike in Denmark and Sweden, the distance between each building has to be of less than 50 m, although exceptions are made due to parks, industrial areas, rivers, and similar. Groups of houses less than 400 m from the main body of an urban area are included in the urban area.[44]

Poland

In Poland, official "urban" population figures simply refer to those localities which have the status of towns (miasta). The "rural" population is that of all areas outside the boundaries of these towns. This distinction may give a misleading impression in some cases, since some localities with only village status may have acquired larger and denser populations than many many smaller towns[45] with most excessive example of Poznań, most spread urban area of the country with population of the city app. 534 thousand and urban area above 1,100 thousand inhabitants. On the other hand, the Upper Silesian Industrial Region conurbation with numerous large and medium cities covers 3,200 km and has approximately 3 million people.

Russia

Moscow, the capital and largest city of Russia, has a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits,[46] while over 17 million residents in the urban area,[47] and over 20 million residents in the Moscow Metropolitan Area.[48] It is among the world's largest cities, being the most populous city entirely within Europe, the most populous urban area in Europe,[47] the most populous metropolitan area in Europe,[48] and also the largest city by land area on the European continent.[49] Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital, is the second-largest city, with a population of roughly 5.4 million inhabitants.[50] Other major urban areas are Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and Chelyabinsk.

 
Largest cities or towns in Russia
Rank Name Federal subject Pop. Rank Name Federal subject Pop.
Moscow

Moscow
Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg
1 Moscow Moscow 13,010,112 11 Rostov-na-Donu Rostov Oblast 1,142,162
Novosibirsk

Novosibirsk
Yekaterinburg

Yekaterinburg
2 Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg 5,601,911 12 Omsk Omsk Oblast 1,125,695
3 Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Oblast 1,633,595 13 Krasnodar Krasnodar Krai 1,099,344
4 Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Oblast 1,544,376 14 Voronezh Voronezh Oblast 1,057,681
5 Kazan Tatarstan 1,308,660 15 Perm Perm Krai 1,034,002
6 Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,228,199 16 Volgograd Volgograd Oblast 1,028,036
7 Chelyabinsk Chelyabinsk Oblast 1,189,525 17 Saratov Saratov Oblast 901,361
8 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk Krai 1,187,771 18 Tyumen Tyumen Oblast 847,488
9 Samara Samara Oblast 1,173,299 19 Tolyatti Samara Oblast 684,709
10 Ufa Bashkortostan 1,144,809 20 Barnaul Altai Krai 630,877

Oceania

Australia

The Australian Bureau of Statistics refers to urban areas as Urban Centres, which it generally defines as population clusters of 1,000 or more people.[52] Australia is one of the most urbanised countries in the world, with more than 50% of the population residing in Australia's three biggest urban centres.[citation needed][52]

Sydney is Australia's largest city, home to 5.3 million inhabitants.[53]
 
Largest populated areas in Australia
Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.
Sydney

Sydney
Melbourne

Melbourne
1 Sydney NSW 5,259,764 11 Geelong Vic 289,400
Brisbane

Brisbane
Perth

Perth
2 Melbourne Vic 4,976,157 12 Hobart Tas 251,047
3 Brisbane Qld 2,568,927 13 Townsville Qld 181,665
4 Perth WA 2,192,229 14 Cairns Qld 155,638
5 Adelaide SA 1,402,393 15 Darwin NT 148,801
6 Gold CoastTweed Heads Qld/NSW 706,673 16 Toowoomba Qld 143,994
7 NewcastleMaitland NSW 509,894 17 Ballarat Vic 111,702
8 CanberraQueanbeyan ACT/NSW 482,250 18 Bendigo Vic 102,899
9 Sunshine Coast Qld 355,631 19 Albury-Wodonga NSW/Vic 97,676
10 Wollongong NSW 305,880 20 Launceston Tas 93,332

New Zealand

Main article: Urban areas of New Zealand

Statistics New Zealand defines urban areas in New Zealand, which are independent of any administrative subdivisions and have no legal basis.[55] There are four classes of urban area: major urban areas (population 100,000+), large urban areas (population 30,000-99,999), medium urban areas (population 10,000-29,999) and small urban areas (population 1000-9,999). As of 2021, there are 7 major urban areas, 13 large urban areas, 22 medium urban areas and 136 small urban areas. Urban areas are reclassified after each New Zealand census, so population changes between censuses does not change an urban area's classification.

 
Largest cities or towns in New Zealand
Statistics New Zealand June 2022 estimate (SSGA18 boundaries)[56]
Rank Name Region Pop. Rank Name Region Pop.
Auckland

Auckland
Christchurch

Christchurch
1 Auckland Auckland 1,440,300 11 Hibiscus Coast Auckland 60,000
Wellington

Wellington
Hamilton

Hamilton
2 Christchurch Canterbury 377,900 12 New Plymouth Taranaki 58,500
3 Wellington Wellington 212,000 13 Rotorua Bay of Plenty 57,900
4 Hamilton Waikato 179,900 14 Whangārei Northland 54,900
5 Tauranga Bay of Plenty 158,300 15 Nelson Nelson 50,800
6 Lower Hutt Wellington 111,500 16 Hastings Hawke's Bay 50,400
7 Dunedin Otago 102,400 17 Invercargill Southland 49,800
8 Palmerston North Manawatū-Whanganui 81,200 18 Upper Hutt Wellington 44,800
9 Napier Hawke's Bay 66,800 19 Whanganui Manawatū-Whanganui 42,600
10 Porirua Wellington 60,200 20 Gisborne Gisborne 37,700

North America

Canada

Main article: List of the largest population centres in Canada

According to Statistics Canada, an urban area in Canada is an area with a population of at least 1,000 people where the density is no fewer than 400 persons per square kilometre (1,000/sq mi).[57] If two or more urban areas are within 2 km (1.2 mi) of each other by road, they are merged into a single urban area, provided they do not cross census metropolitan area or census agglomeration boundaries.[58]

In the Canada 2011 Census, Statistics Canada redesignated urban areas with the new term "population centre";[59] the new term was chosen in order to better reflect the fact that urban vs. rural is not a strict division, but rather a continuum within which several distinct settlement patterns may exist. For example, a community may fit a strictly statistical definition of an urban area, but may not be commonly thought of as "urban" because it has a smaller population, or functions socially and economically as a suburb of another urban area rather than as a self-contained urban entity, or is geographically remote from other urban communities. Accordingly, the new definition set out three distinct types of population centres: small (population 1,000 to 29,999), medium (population 30,000 to 99,999) and large (population 100,000 or greater).[59] Despite the change in terminology, however, the demographic definition of a population centre remains unchanged from that of an urban area: a population of at least 1,000 people where the density is no fewer than 400 persons per km2.

 
Largest metropolitan areas in Canada
Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.
1 Toronto Ontario 6,202,225 11 London Ontario 543,551
2 Montreal Quebec 4,291,732 12 Halifax Nova Scotia 465,703
3 Vancouver British Columbia 2,642,825 13 St. Catharines–Niagara Ontario 433,604
4 Ottawa–Gatineau Ontario–Quebec 1,488,307 14 Windsor Ontario 422,630
5 Calgary Alberta 1,481,806 15 Oshawa Ontario 415,311
6 Edmonton Alberta 1,418,118 16 Victoria British Columbia 397,237
7 Quebec City Quebec 839,311 17 Saskatoon Saskatchewan 317,480
8 Winnipeg Manitoba 834,678 18 Regina Saskatchewan 249,217
9 Hamilton Ontario 785,184 19 Sherbrooke Quebec 227,398
10 Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo Ontario 575,847 20 Kelowna British Columbia 222,162

Mexico

Mexico is one of many countries where the urbanization rate is at least 80%. Mexico City, its capital, is the largest urban area in the country.

United States

Main article: List of United States urban areas

In the United States, there are two categories of urban area. The term urbanized area denotes an urban area of 50,000 or more people. Urban areas under 50,000 people are called urban clusters. Urbanized areas were first delineated in the United States in the 1950 census, while urban clusters were added in the 2000 census. There are 1,371 urban areas and urban clusters with more than 10,000 people.

The U.S. Census Bureau defines an urban area as "core census block groups or blocks that have a population density of at least 1,000 people per square mile (386 per square kilometer) and surrounding census blocks that have an overall density of at least 500 people per square mile (193 per square kilometer)".[60]

The largest urban area in the United States is the New York metropolitan area. The population of New York City, the core of the metropolitan area, exceeds 8.8 million people, its metropolitan statistical area has a population that is over 20 million, and its combined statistical area population is over 23 million. The next seven largest urban areas in the U.S. are Los Angeles, Chicago, Miami, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Houston, and Atlanta.[61] About 82 percent of the population of the United States lives within the boundaries of an urbanized area as of December, 2010.[62] Combined, these areas occupy about 2 percent of the land area of the United States. Many Americans live in agglomerations of cities, suburbs, and towns that are adjacent to a metropolitan area's largest city.[citation needed]

The concept of Urbanized Areas as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau is often used as a more accurate gauge of the size of a city, since in different cities and states the lines between city borders and the urbanized area of that city are often not the same. For example, the city of Greenville, South Carolina has a city population just over 68,000 and an urbanized area population of around 400,000, while Greensboro, North Carolina has a city population just over 285,000 and an urbanized area population of around 300,000 — meaning that Greenville is actually "larger" for some intents and purposes, but not for others, such as taxation, local elections, etc.

In the U.S. Department of Agriculture's natural resources inventory, urban areas are officially known as developed areas or urban and built-up areas. Such areas include cities, ethnic villages, other built-up areas of more than 10 ac (4 ha), industrial sites, railroad yards, cemeteries, airports, golf courses, shooting ranges, institutional and public administration sites, and similar areas. The 1997 national resources inventory placed over 98,000,000 ac (40,000,000 ha) in this category, an increase of 25,000,000 ac (10,000,000 ha) since 1982.[63]

 
Largest metropolitan areas in United States
Rank Region Pop. Rank Region Pop.
New York

New York
Los Angeles

Los Angeles
1 New York Northeast 19,768,458 11 Boston Northeast 4,899,932
2 Los Angeles West 12,997,353 12 Riverside–San Bernardino West 4,653,105
3 Chicago Midwest 9,509,934 13 San Francisco West 4,623,264
4 Dallas–Fort Worth South 7,759,615 14 Detroit Midwest 4,365,205
5 Houston South 7,206,841 15 Seattle West 4,011,553
6 Washington, D.C. South 6,356,434 16 Minneapolis–Saint Paul Midwest 3,690,512
7 Philadelphia Northeast 6,228,601 17 San Diego West 3,286,069
8 Atlanta South 6,144,050 18 Tampa–St. Petersburg South 3,219,514
9 Miami South 6,091,747 19 Denver West 2,972,566
10 Phoenix West 4,946,145 20 Baltimore South 2,838,327

South America

Argentina

Argentina is highly urbanized.[64] The ten largest metropolitan areas account for half of the population, and fewer than one in ten live in rural areas. About 3 million people live in Buenos Aires City and the Greater Buenos Aires metropolitan area totals around 15 million, making it one of the largest urban areas in the world, with a population of 18 million all up.[65]

Córdoba has around 1.5 million people living in the urban area, while Rosario, Mendoza and Tucumán have around 1.2 million inhabitants each[65] and La Plata, Mar del Plata, Salta and Santa Fe[65][66] have at least 500,000 people each.

Brazil

In Brazil, the terms metropolitan area (Portuguese: região metropolitana) and urban agglomeration (aglomeração urbana) have specific meanings. They are defined by federal and state legislation as collections of municipalities focused on "integrating the organization, planning and execution of public functions of common interest".[67] An integrated development area (região integrada de desenvolvimento) is one of the two above structures that crosses state (or Federal District) boundaries.
 
Largest urban agglomerations in Brazil
Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.
São Paulo

São Paulo
Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro
1 São Paulo São Paulo 21,314,716 11 Belém Pará 2,157,180
Belo Horizonte

Belo Horizonte
Recife

Recife
2 Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro 12,389,775 12 Manaus Amazonas 2,130,264
3 Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais 5,142,260 13 Campinas São Paulo 2,105,600
4 Recife Pernambuco 4,021,641 14 Vitória Espírito Santo 1,837,047
5 Brasília Federal District 3,986,425 15 Baixada Santista São Paulo 1,702,343
6 Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul 3,894,232 16 São José dos Campos São Paulo 1,572,943
7 Salvador Bahia 3,863,154 17 São Luís Maranhão 1,421,569
8 Fortaleza Ceará 3,594,924 18 Natal Rio Grande do Norte 1,349,743
9 Curitiba Paraná 3,387,985 19 Maceió Alagoas 1,231,965
10 Goiânia Goiás 2,347,557 20 João Pessoa Paraíba 1,168,941

Chile

Chile is highly urbanized, just like Argentina. The largest urban area in the country is its capital, Santiago.

See also

References

  1. ^ Baten, Joerg (2003). "Creating Firms for a New Century: Determinants of Firm Creation around 1900". European Review of Economic History. 7 (3): 301–329. doi:10.1017/S136149160300011X. hdl:10419/76463. S2CID 51520898 – via EBSCO.
  2. ^ a b "City population to reach 6.4bn by 2050". Herald Globe. Archived from the original on 2014-07-14. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  3. ^ "United Nations Population Division – Department of Economic and Social Affairs".
  4. ^ "Urban population growth". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on March 8, 2012.
  5. ^ "Current world population". United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
  6. ^ "Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change". www.ipcc.ch. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  7. ^ Dijkstra, Lewis; Poelman, Hugo (2014). "A harmonised definition of cities and rural areas: the new degree of urbanisation" (PDF). Regional Working Paper. Europa Commission. Retrieved 16 August 2021.
  8. ^ "2011 Census: Characteristics of Built-Up Areas (4. Introduction)". Office for National Statistics. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
  9. ^ "Urban land area (km²)". Our World in Data. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  10. ^ a b c "CIA The World Factbook - Major urban areas: population".
  11. ^ "Australian Bureau of Statistics".
  12. ^ a b "Preparing for China's urban billion". McKinsey Global Institute. February 2009. Archived from the original on 24 December 2012. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  13. ^ "China urbanization (PDF)" (PDF). World Bank Institute. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  14. ^ Harney, Alexandra (3 February 2008). "Migrants are China's 'factories without smoke'". CNN. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  15. ^ Tschang, Chi-Chu (4 February 2009). "A Tough New Year for China's Migrant Workers". Business Week. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
  16. ^ Francesco Sisci. "China's floating population a headache for census". The Straits Times. 22 September 2000.
  17. ^ Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People's Republic of China(MOHURD) (2021). 中国城市建设统计年鉴2020 [China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2018] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistic Publishing House.
  18. ^ August 2018 (PDF). Hong Kong Monthly Digest of Statistics (Report). Census and Statistics Department. August 2018. p. 4.
  19. ^ Chongqing Statistics Bureau (2019). 重庆统计年鉴2019 [Chongqing Statistical Yearbook 2019] (in Chinese). Beijing: China Statistic Publishing House. p. 613. ISBN 978-7-5037-8854-3.
  20. ^ "Provisional Population Totals Urban Agglomerations and Cities, Data Highlights" (PDF). Census of India 2011. 13 February 2012.
  21. ^ "Urban Agglomeration". Arthapedia. India Economic Service. 10 April 2015.
  22. ^ "Table 3: Urban agglomerations having population 1 Lakh and above" (PDF). Provisional Population Totals. Government of India. Retrieved 2011-10-19.
  23. ^ "Agglomerations & Cities". INDIA: States and Major Agglomerations Population Totals. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. Retrieved 2020-03-27.
  24. ^ "The Urban Frontier—Karachi". NPR. National Public Radio. 2 June 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
  25. ^ Jason Burke (17 August 2008). "Pakistan looks to life without the general". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
  26. ^ "Bangladesh Population & Housing Census-2011" (PDF). Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. March 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 December 2015.
  27. ^ Population and Housing Census 2011 - Volume 3: Urban Area Report (PDF), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Aug 2014
  28. ^ "World: metropolitan areas". World Gazetteer. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
  29. ^ "The State of Asian and Pacific Cities 2015" (PDF). United Nations ESCAP. 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  30. ^ "Singapore Urban Redevelopment Authority". URA (Singapore). Retrieved August 18, 2021.
  31. ^ "Urban Redevelopment Authourity". Archived from the original on 2007-06-12. Retrieved 2007-06-02.
  32. ^ "Locality – Concepts". Statistics Finland.
  33. ^ "Alueluokkien kuvaukset". Ymparisto.
  34. ^ "Urban unit". Definitions, methods and quality. INSEE. October 31, 2016. Retrieved 2019-01-18.
  35. ^ "Urban area". Definitions, methods and quality. INSEE. October 31, 2016. Retrieved 2019-01-18.
  36. ^ "Tableaux de l'économie française, Édition 2020, Villes et communes de France". INSEE. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  37. ^ "Verdichtungsräume nach Fläche, Bevölkerung und Bevölkerungsdichte am 31.12.2017, im November 2018 wegen korrigierter Bevölkerung revidiert" (in German). Statistisches Bundesamt. 2017. p. 10. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  38. ^ "Fortsatt stor ökning av befolkning i tätorter". Statistics Sweden. Archived from the original on 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2011-06-24.
  39. ^ "2011 Built-up Areas - Methodology and Guidance" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  40. ^ KS01 Usual resident population: Census 2001, Key Statistics for urban areas
    For the OS definition of an Urban Area, see the notes tab on the Excel version.
  41. ^ "2011 Census - Built-up areas". ONS. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  42. ^ "NRS – Background Information Settlements and Localities" (PDF). National Records of Scotland. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  43. ^ The UK's major urban areas Office for National Statistics (Urban area of Belfast and connected settlements, Table 3.1, page 47)
  44. ^ "Population statistics. Population and land area in urban settlements, 1 January 2008". Statistics Norway. June 20, 2008. Retrieved 2009-04-17.
  45. ^ "Polish official population figures".
  46. ^ "RUSSIA: Central'nyj Federal'nyj Okrug – Central Federal District". City Population.de. August 8, 2020. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
  47. ^ a b "Demographia World Urban Areas" (PDF). Demographia. Retrieved July 22, 2020.
  48. ^ a b Alexander Akishin (August 17, 2017). "A 3-Hour Commute: A Close Look At Moscow The Megapolis". Strelka Mag. Retrieved May 23, 2020.
  49. ^ "Moscow, a City Undergoing Transformation". Planète Énergies. September 11, 2017. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  50. ^ "RUSSIA: Severo-Zapadnyj Federal'nyj Okrug: Northwestern Federal District". City Population.de. 8 August 2020. Retrieved October 24, 2020.
  51. ^ "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  52. ^ a b "Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS)". 23 May 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2021.
  53. ^ "3218.0 – Regional Population Growth, Australia, 2019–20". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 30 March 2021. Archived from the original on 30 March 2021. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
  54. ^ "Regional Population, 2021". Australian Bureau of Statistics.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  55. ^ "Urban area: Definition". Statistics New Zealand. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  56. ^ "Subnational population estimates (RC, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2022 (2022 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 25 October 2022. (regional councils); "Subnational population estimates (TA, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2022 (2022 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 25 October 2022. (territorial authorities); "Subnational population estimates (urban rural), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996-2022 (2022 boundaries)". Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 25 October 2022. (urban areas)
  57. ^ "Urban area (UA)". Statistics Canada. 2009-11-20. Retrieved 2011-01-21.
  58. ^ "More information on Urban area (UA)". Statistics Canada. 2009-11-20. Retrieved 2011-01-21.
  59. ^ a b "From urban areas to population centres" Archived 2012-12-13 at the Wayback Machine. Statistics Canada, May 5, 2011.
  60. ^ "The Urban and Rural Classifications" (PDF). Geographic Areas Reference Manual. United States Census Bureau.
  61. ^ United States Census Bureau 2010 Census Urban Area List "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2013-05-16.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) 2010 Census Urban Area List. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  62. ^ [1] – accessed January, 2012
  63. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from Jasper Womach. Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition (PDF). Congressional Research Service.
  64. ^ "Field listing – Urbanization". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on July 25, 2009.
  65. ^ a b c "Major Cities". Government of Argentina. Archived from the original on 19 September 2009.
  66. ^ "Ubicación de la ciudad de salta" (in Spanish). Directorate-General of Tourism, Municipality of the City of Salta. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17.
  67. ^ "Metropolitan Areas, Urban Agglomerations and Integrated Development Areas | IBGE". www.ibge.gov.br. Archived from the original on 2021-01-02. Retrieved 2021-04-02.
  68. ^ "Mais da metade da população vive em 294 arranjos formados por contiguidade urbana e por deslocamentos para trabalho e estudo" (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  69. ^ "Arranjos Populacionais e Concentrações Urbanas do Brasil" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. p. 148. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  70. ^ "Estimativas da população residente no Brasil e Unidades da Federação com data de referência em 1º de julho de 2017" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Retrieved 14 May 2018.