|Coordinates (Zhongshan municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Dongqu Subdistrict|
|• CPC Committee Secretary||Xue Xiaofeng (薛晓峰)|
|• Mayor||Chen Liangxian (陈良贤)|
|• Prefecture-level city||1,783.67 km2 (688.68 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,783.67 km2 (688.68 sq mi)|
|• Metro||19,870.4 km2 (7,672.0 sq mi)|
|Elevation||11 m (36 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||4,418,060|
|• Density||2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||2,500/km2 (6,400/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard Time)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-GD-20|
|License plate prefixes||粤T|
|GDP||¥218.85 billion (2011)|
|GDP per capita||¥92,154 (2011)|
|Hanyu Pinyin||Zhōngshān ([ʈʂʊ́ŋʂán])|
|Xiangshan (former name)|
|Literal meaning||Fragrant Mountain|
Zhongshan ([ʈʂʊ́ŋ ʂán]; Chinese: 中山) is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, China. As of the 2020 census, the whole city with 4,418,060 inhabitants is now part of the Guangzhou–Shenzhen conurbation with 65,565,622 inhabitants. The city-core subdistricts used to be called Shiqi or Shekki (Chinese: 石岐).
Zhongshan is one of a very few cities in China named after a person. It is named after Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925), who is known in Mandarin as Sun Zhongshan. Sun, the founding father of the Republic of China who is also regarded positively by the People's Republic, was born in Cuiheng village in Nanlang Township of what was then Xiangshan County. In 1925, the year after his death, Xiangshan was renamed Zhongshan in his honor.
Until 1925, Zhongshan was generally known as Xiangshan or Heung-san (Siangshan) (Chinese: 香山; lit. 'Fragrant Mountain'), in reference to the many flowers that grew in the mountains nearby. The city was renamed in honor of Sun Yat-sen, who had adopted the name Zhongshan. Sun is considered by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China to be the "Father of Modern China", and was from Cuiheng village – now part of Nanlang Town in Zhongshan.
Main article: Xiangshan County, Guangdong
Thousands of years ago, much of the Zhongshan area lay within the Pearl River estuary, with only scattered islands above the surface. Gradually from south to north, the area filled in with alluvial silt and became dry land. The northern parts of today's Zhongshan did not fill in until the time of the Ming Dynasty.
The Zhongshan area was part of an extended Dongguan County during the Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD), and was a significant sea salt producer. In 1082, during the Northern Song Dynasty, a fortified settlement called Xiangshan was founded in the area, marking the first official use of the name by which it would be known throughout most of its modern history. The prosperous settlement was then upgraded to a county in 1152. After the collapse of the Southern Song Dynasty, many descendants of Song court officials, including members of the imperial family, settled in Xiangshan. Under the Qing Dynasty, embankments were built to prevent flooding in the new alluvial lands, and the area of cultivation was extended.
Much of the First Opium War took place in and around Xiangshan. In 1839, the official Lin Zexu arrived in Xiangshan and ordered the expulsion of Sir Charles Elliot and other British traders from the area. Qing Dynasty soldiers resisted British attacks on the area in 1840, but were ultimately overwhelmed.
After the Opium Wars opened the region to foreign influence, a number of Xiangshan residents, including Sun Zhongshan (Yatsen), left to study overseas and were among the creators of modern China. Xiangshan was one of the first counties in China liberated as part of the Xinhai Revolution. After Sun Zhongshan's death in 1925, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Republic of China decided to memorialize Sun by renaming his county of birth from Xiangshan to Zhongshan.
Nationalist and Communist units launched guerrilla attacks on Japanese occupancy forces and their Collaborators beginning in 1942. On August 15, 1945, Japanese forces declared an unconditional surrender, and Zhongshan was liberated.
Zhongshan was the scene of fighting during the Chinese Civil War and was held for much of the war by Nationalists. On October 30, 1949, however, the People's Liberation Army defeated Nationalist forces in Zhongshan, and the county came under the control of the People's Republic of China.
In 1983, Zhongshan was elevated in administrative status from a county to a county-level city under the administration of Foshan. In 1988 Zhongshan became a prefecture-level city.
Zhongshan is located along the west side of the mouth of the Pearl River, directly opposite Shenzhen and Hong Kong. It lies south of Guangzhou and Foshan and north of Zhuhai and Macau. The northern part of Zhongshan, including most of the urbanized area, lies on the alluvial plains of the Pearl River Delta, while the southern part of the city's territory reaches into a range of coastal hills.
The most notable of these are the Wugui Hills (Chinese: 五桂山; pinyin: Wǔguī Shān; Jyutping: Ng5gwai3 Saan1). The city's current geography is typical of southern China: numerous steep mountains and hills with alluvial plains in between down to the coastline. The main summit of the Wugui Hills is the highest point in the city, at 531 metres (1,742 ft) above sea level.
Like nearly all of southern China, Zhongshan's climate is warm and humid most of the year, with an average temperature of 22 °C (72 °F) and 175 centimetres (69 in) of rainfall each year. Southern China experiences fairly frequent typhoons and thunderstorms, and most rain falls between April and September.
Zhongshan is a city of numerous leafy parks, wide boulevards, and monuments. Notable sights include:
Zhongshan, like many cities in China, has a rapidly changing cityscape with many new buildings under construction. Currently, the tallest completed buildings in the city are the two Zhongshan International Finance Center Towers. Tower 1 and Tower 2 both reach a height of 220 meters (722 feet) and are 55 stories tall. These will be eclipsed by the Perfect Eagle Golden Square tower, which will reach 238 meters (781 feet), with an expected completion date in 2018. The International Trade Center in Guzhen Town, expected to be completed in 2019, will reach a height of 305 meters (1,001 feet) with 65 floors.
Zhongshan is a prefecture-level city of the Guangdong province. An uncommon administrative feature is that it has no county-level division, but the municipal government does group the 24 township-level divisions into five district areas. The city government directly administers six Subdistricts and 18 towns:
|Name||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2010 census)||Area (km2)||Density (/km2)||Division code||Residential communities||Administrative villages|
|Zhongxin District||中心片区||Zhōngxīn Piànqū||877,666||456.7||1,921.75||—||5 subdistricts, 3 towns|
|Shiqi Subdistrict||石岐街道||Shíqí Jiēdào||206,362||26.0||7,937.00||442000001||19|
|Dongqu Subdistrict||东区街道||Dōngqū Jiēdào||153,477||72.0||2,131.62||442000002||10|
|Xiqu Subdistrict||西区街道||Xiqū Jiēdào||97,864||26.7||3,665.31||442000004||9|
|Nanqu Subdistrict||南区街道||Nánqū Jiēdào||64,548||48.0||1,344.75||442000005||10|
|Wuguishan Subdistrict||五桂山街道||Wǔguìshān Jiēdào||48,019||113.0||424.94||442000006||1||4|
|Shaxi town||沙溪镇||Shāxī Zhèn||119,372||55.0||2,170.40||442000106||1||15|
|Gangkou town||港口镇||Gǎngkǒu Zhèn||113,748||70.5||1,613.44||442000108||7||2|
|Dachong town||大涌镇||Dàyǒng Zhèn||74,276||45.5||1,632.43||442000116||6||2|
|Dongbu District||东部片区||Dōngbù Piànqū||337,974||296.0||1,141.80||—||1 subdistrict, 1 town, 1 new area|
|Zhongshangang Subdistrict||中山港街道||Zhōngshāngǎng Jiēdào||229,997||90.0||2,555.52||442000003||7|
|Nanlang town||南朗镇||Nánlǎng Zhèn||107,977||206.0||524.16||442000113||2||13|
|Cuiheng New Area||翠亨新区||Cuíhēng Xīnqū||—|
|Xibei District||西北片区||Xīběi Piànqū||996,097||397.7||2,504.64||—||7 towns|
|Xiaolan town||小榄镇||Xiǎolǎn Zhèn||315,626||75.4||4,186.02||442000100||15|
|Dongfeng town||东凤镇||Dōngfèng Zhèn||123,562||54.8||2,254.78||442000103||4||10|
|Dongsheng town||东升镇||Dōngshēng zhèn||118,052||76.7||1,539.13||442000104||8||6|
|Guzhen town||古镇镇||Gǔzhèn Zhèn||147,440||47.8||3,084.51||442000105||1||12|
|Henglan town||横栏镇||Hénglán Zhèn||103,135||76.0||1,357.03||442000110||1||10|
|Nantou town||南头镇||Nántóu Zhèn||130,712||30.0||4,357.06||442000111||6|
|Fusha town||阜沙镇||Fùshā Zhèn||57,570||37.0||1,555.94||442000112||1||8|
|Dongbei District||东北片区||Dōngběi Piànqū||375,204||281.3||1,333.82||—||3 towns|
|Huangpu town||黄圃镇||Huángpǔ Zhèn||145,017||83.6||1,734.65||442000101||4||12|
|Minzhong town||民众镇||Mínzhòng Zhèn||108,417||125.4||864.56||442000102||3||16|
|Sanjiao town||三角镇||Sānjiǎo Zhèn||121,770||72.3||1,684.23||442000109||1||7|
|Nanbu District||南部片区||Nánbù Piànqū||533,944||370.6||1,440.75||—||4 towns|
|Tanzhou Town||坦洲镇||Tǎnzhōu Zhèn||219,943||136.0||1,617.22||442000107||7||7|
|Sanxiang town||三乡镇||Sānxiāng Zhèn||200,197||93.6||2,138.85||442000114||3||12|
|Banfu town||板芙镇||Bǎnfú Zhèn||82,412||82.0||1,005.02||442000115||1||10|
|Shenwan town||神湾镇||Shénwān Zhèn||31,392||59.0||532.06||442000117||1||5|
|Administrative divisions of Zhongshan|
|Division code||English name||Chinese||Pinyin||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Postal code||Divisions|
|Subdistricts||Towns||Residential communities||Administrative villages|
|442000||Zhongshan City||中山市||Zhōngshān Shì||1,783.67||3,121,275||City-administered District||528400||6||18||128||151|
|442000||City-administered District||市辖区||Shìxiáqū||1,783.67||3,121,275||Dongqu Subdistrict||528400||6||18||128||151|
Although the main ethnic group in Zhongshan is Han Chinese, there is no one dominant language or dialect spoken making Zhongshan one of the most diverse cities in China. Dialects spoken in the city ranging from the more common Yue, Hakka, and Min dialects to the more local Shiqi, Shatian, Longdu, Nanlang, Sanxiang, Guzhen, Sanjiao, and Zhangjiabian dialects as well as Wuiguishan, the only Hakka dialect in the city. The most common language, however, is Cantonese.
Primary productions are agricultural, such as rice, lychee, banana, and sugar cane. Added to this, horticulture in Xiaolan Town is famous throughout southern China for its blooming chrysanthemum and chickens.
Zhongshan, Dongguan, Nanhai, and Shunde are dubbed the 'Four Little Tigers' in Guangdong. The proximity of Zhongshan to Hong Kong and Macau is an advantage to its economic development, especially in manufacturing.
In the 1980s, Zhongshan had a relatively developed state-owned enterprise (SOE) sector that was used to stimulate Township and Village Enterprises (TVE) development in the countryside. Currently, the SOE sector is much weaker, and the economy is dominated by foreign investment and TVEs, and by specialized 'manufacturing towns'. Each of these towns specializes in making a particular product. Most of the towns are so successful that they earn a reputation as leading manufacturers in their pillar industries. Indeed, "One Industry in One Town" has become a unique economic feature in Zhongshan.
Pillar industries in specialized manufacturing towns in Zhongshan include:
The government of Zhongshan encourages "Research and Design" in the region by setting up national level research centres and specialized industrial regions. For example, the Zhongshan National Torch High-Tech Industrial Development Zone (中山国家级火炬高技术产业开发区) was established in 1990 in the east of the city by the Ministry of Science and Technology and the governments of Guangdong province and Zhongshan. Zhongshan Port, which ranks among the top 10 ports nationwide in container-handling capacity, is in the zone. Since 2001, it has included the Zhongshan Electronic Base of China (中国电子中山基地) for its reputation in the electronic acoustics industry. Following possible development in Nansha, the city considers its eastern part, of which 400 square kilometres (154 square miles) of land is available, a focus of future development.
Currently, the city is trying to re-organize its fragmented industrialization. Meanwhile, the light and labour-intensive industry characteristic of the local economy faces the problem of a shortage of land in Zhongshan.
The World Lamp King Museum, a lamp museum in the form of a giant lamp scheduled to open in 2015, will be a major tourist attraction.
Zhongshan is home to a number of forest parks which are designed to protect the natural features of the land and offer visitors a chance to get closer to nature. Zhongshan Tianxin Forest Park (中山田心森林公园) was opened in 2015 as part of the city's "green lung" initiative.
Zhongshan Public Transport Group Co., Ltd. operates many bus routes throughout the city. Stop announcements are voiced in Mandarin and Cantonese on all buses. On BRT system buses, announcements are also voiced in English. By purchasing a Zhongshan Tong card from authorized retailers, riders can receive a discount of 50% on all bus rides. Elderly citizens are allowed to ride for free.
Chu Kong Passenger Transport (CKS) connects Zhongshan with Hong Kong with multiple daily scheduled high-speed ferry services to both Hong Kong–Macau Ferry Terminal on Hong Kong Island and Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal in Kowloon. The trip by ferry takes about 1.5 hours.
Guangzhou–Zhuhai Intercity Railway serves the city of Zhongshan at seven stations.
The Zhongshan Metro system has a plan for the first two lines.
There is a bus service from Zhongshan to Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport in Shenzhen.
Additionally Zhongshan is served by Hong Kong International Airport; ticketed passengers can take ferries from the Zhongshan Ferry Terminal to the HKIA Skypier. There are also coach bus services connecting Zhongshan with HKIA.
Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in China
Zhongshan has seven sister cities:
|Climate data for Zhongshan (1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||27.0
|Average high °C (°F)||18.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||13.7
|Average low °C (°F)||10.5
|Record low °C (°F)||1.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||34.4
|Average relative humidity (%)||79||84||85||85||85||85||83||84||83||79||77||77||82|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|
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