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鄂尔多斯市 (Chinese)
ᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰᠬᠣᠲᠠ (Mongolian)
View of Dongsheng District
Location of Ordos City jurisdiction in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Location of Ordos City jurisdiction in Inner Mongolia (orange)
Coordinates (Genghis Khan Plaza, Kangbashi): 39°36′14″N 109°47′06″E / 39.604°N 109.785°E / 39.604; 109.785
CountryPeople's Republic of China
RegionInner Mongolia
Municipal seatKangbashi District
 • Prefecture-level city86,752 km2 (33,495 sq mi)
 • Urban
2,526.5 km2 (975.5 sq mi)
 • Metro
5,859.8 km2 (2,262.5 sq mi)
1,305 m (4,281 ft)
Highest elevation
2,149 m (7,051 ft)
Lowest elevation
850 m (2,790 ft)
 (2020 census[2])
 • Prefecture-level city2,153,638
 • Density25/km2 (64/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density270/km2 (710/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density63/km2 (160/sq mi)
 • Prefecture-level cityCN¥ 422.6 billion
US$ 67.9 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 207,163
US$ 33,261
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
ISO 3166 codeCN-NM-06
Licence plate prefixesK
Administrative division code150600
Ordos City
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese鄂尔多斯市
Traditional Chinese鄂爾多斯
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicОрдос хот
Mongolian scriptᠣᠷᠳᠣᠰ ᠬᠣᠲᠠ

Ordos,[a] also known as Ih Ju, is one of the twelve major subdivisions of Inner Mongolia, China. It lies within the Ordos Plateau of the Yellow River. Although mainly rural, Ordos is administered as a prefecture-level city. Its population was 2,153,638 as of the 2020 census, and its built-up (or metro) area made up of Ejin Horo Banner and Kangbashi District was home to 366,779 inhabitants, as Dongsheng District (574,442 inhabitants) is not a conurbation yet.[2]

Ordos is known for its recently undertaken large scale government projects including most prominently the new Kangbashi District, an urban district planned as a massive civic mall with abundant monuments, cultural institutions and other showpiece architecture. It was the venue for the 2012 Miss World Final.[4]

When it was newly built, the streets of the new Kangbashi district did not have much activity, and the district was frequently described as a "ghost city" by several Western media outlets.[5] However in 2017, writing in a Forbes article, Wade Shepard said that it became increasingly difficult to apply this label as the city's population had surged to 153,000, which was an increase from 30,000 in 2009.[6]


The area was known as the Ih Ju League, also spelled Ikh Juu,[b] from 1649 to 2001. It was redesignated a prefecture-level city and renamed to Ordos on 26 February 2001. "Ordos" means "palaces" in the Mongolian language.[7] "Ordos" originally referred to a tribe belonging to the Yeke Juu (Ike Chao ‘great monastery’, i.e. Ih Ju or Guanghui Monastery) league and later included the tribe's area, hence the Ordos, or Ordus, the area within the big bend of the Yellow River. Mongolian ordu(n), ord ‘court, residence of a ruler; palace; camp’, also for 'camp bodyguards'. According to Ramstedt -s is a plural suffix; further: ordu, orda; Turkic orta ‘a center’; Mongolian > Turkish orda ‘camp’ > Hindustani urdū > English "horde."[8] The name is sometimes claimed to be related to the eight white yurts of Genghis Khan.[9] Linguistically, the Ordos dialect of Mongolian is quite different from neighboring Chakhar Mongolian.

Genghis Khan equestrian sculpture in Ordos City


Prehistoric civilization

Genghis Khan Mausoleum in the Ejin Horo Banner

At the southern end of the Ordos grassland, there is a river originating from Dingbian County in northwestern Shaanxi, flowing through the Otog Banner and Uxin Banner in Inner Mongolia, and then flowing from the east of Batuwan Village into the territory of northern Shanxi, after converging with Xiangshui River. It flows into the Wuding River, a tributary of the Yellow River, to the southeast. In the loose Mu Us desert, a U-shaped river valley is washed out. This river is known as the Sarawusu River. Sara Wusu in Mongolian means "thick yellow stream" after the eponymous perennially yellow-colored local river; on both sides of the river is covered with swaying red willows, so people also call this river "Hongliu River". In 1923, French Jesuit Émile Licent first discovered a fossil of the Hetao people here.[10] Since then, Chinese archaeologists have visited the site many times. The site is known today as part of the Shuidonggou site complex. A large number of cultural relics have been excavated from this site, some reportedly dating back as far as 100,000 years; however, the chronology of the site remains debated.[11] The material culture created by the Hetao people is now called "Salawusu" or "Shuidonggou" culture. After a comprehensive analysis of geology, animal fossils and stone tools, this culture was identified as the late Paleolithic culture.[12]

Hetao civilization is the product of the integration of grassland culture and Yellow River civilization. Its long-term development and complex transmutation process, especially the relationship with Urad and Ordos Mongolian culture, also illustrates the relationship between Hetao civilization and Yellow River civilization. Hetao culture is one of the important components of the mainstream culture of the northern grasslands. In the grassland culture, the Hetao culture is both a source and a stream. As a source, Hetao culture has a historical accumulation of symbiosis with the northern grassland culture. As a stream, it is different from the Mongolian classic culture in the eastern part of Inner Mongolia, such as Hongshan culture and Khorchin Mongols culture. It has its unique development trend. In the origin of grassland culture, it is a source of the late Paleolithic period, which originated from the prosperity of ancient ethnic minorities. It was formed in the Qin, Han, Ming and Qing dynasties, and it is a cultural system of modern and contemporary civilization. It is an independent unit culture circle of grassland culture and a complete regional cultural system, which plays an important role in the composition of grassland culture.[citation needed]

Ancient history

Before the Zhou dynasty, it was a nomadic area such as the Guifang and Lin Hu. In the Warring States Period, it was the Yunzhong County of the state of Zhao, and later belonged to the state of Qin. At the beginning of the Han dynasty, it was the front line of the Han–Xiongnu War. Emperor Wu of Han set up Shuofang County here. When Emperor Xuan of Han called the Huxie Chanyu to come, he became the residence of the Southern Xiongnu. Later, Hu Han lived in harmony, and the uprising of the Five Barbarians broke out in the Western Jin dynasty. Sixteen Kingdoms were the pre-Qin and post-Qin territory. The Northern dynasties belonged to the Northern Wei dynasty, the Western Wei dynasty, and the Northern Zhou dynasty. In the Sui and Tang dynasties, they were all territories. In the Tang dynasty, they were placed in the party, and the famous General Guo Ziyi once held this position. During the Anshi Rebellion, Emperor Suzong of Tang fled to this place.[citation needed]

Qin Zhidao and Qifang County

Qin Zhidao was an important military road for Qin Shihuang to be supervised by Meng Tian from 212 BC to 210 BC. Qinzhidao starts from Yunyang Linguang Palace in the Xianyang military site, and goes to Jiuyuan County in the north. Qinzhidao passes through Ordos City, three Banners and one district, the Qinzhidao site protection unit is established in Ordos City. One of the northern border counties of the Han dynasty, the Sufang County was set up in the Western Han dynasty. In 127 BC (Yuanshou two years), Emperor Wu sent Wei Qing and Li Xi to send troops to attack the Xiongnu. Soldiers from Yunzhong County, west of Gaochun, and then westward to Fuli (now northern Gansu), regained the Hetao. The jurisdiction of the original Qin dynasty (commonly known as "New Qinzhong"), and the Sufang County in the south of the Yin Mountain, has been identified in the northwestern part of the current Otog Banner.[citation needed]

Tongwan City

Tongwan City is located at the junction of Ordos City and Jingbian, Shaanxi Province. It was the capital of the Daxia Kingdom during the Northern dynasties and Sixteen Kingdoms 1500 years ago, In 407 AD, the Xiongnu leader Helian Bobo called himself “Tianwang, Great Chan Yu, occupied and located in the desert. The first year of Helian Bobo's kingdom called "Fengxiang", the 100,000 people of all ethnic groups, used the "steaming dust to build the city" method to build the capital in the south of the black water in the north of the SuFang (now Hongliu River). The city was built in 7 years. The city is 25 meters thick, with a height of 23.33 meters and a width of 11.16 meters.[citation needed]

Eight White Palaces

Main article: Mausoleum of Genghis Khan

The legend says that when Genghis Khan passed through the present-day Ordos area on his way to conquer the Western Xia Kingdom, he accidentally dropped his whip. Genghis Khan proclaimed on the spot that the water is good and grass is rich here, and he would like to be buried here. In August 1227, Genghis Khan died while waging campaign against the Tangut people of Western Xia. Ögedei Khan placed the relics of Genghis Khan in eight white felt tents for worship, collectively known as the Eight White Palaces. When the time came to Kublai Khan, he stipulated the ceremonies and ritual rules of the Eight White Palaces, and promulgated the sacred ceremonies. He held sacrifices throughout the year and became a great sacrifice for the Mongol Empire.The Eight White Palaces is a movable hall and a symbol of the power of the Genghis Khan gold family.[citation needed]

Qing dynasty

See also: Qing dynasty

Six Banner's League

In the sixth year of Qing Shunzhi (AD 1649), the Qing dynasty divided the Mongolian Ordos tribe into six Banners: the Ordos left-wing middle Banner (formerly the county king Banner), Ordos Left-wing front Banner (now Jungar Banner), the Ordos left-wing Banner (now the Dalat Banner), Ordos right-wing middle Banner (now Otog Banner), Ordos right-wing front Banner (now Uxin Banner), Ordos right wing Banner (now Hanggin), later, the addition of Ordos right wing before the Banner (formerly Zhasak Banner). Later, the Ordos' Six Banners have allied at Wang Ai Zhao, and named the Ikezhao League(Former name of Ordos city).[citation needed]

The Qing dynasty was an important period in the history of China's population development. At the beginning of the Qing dynasty, through the restoration and development of Kangxi, YongZheng, and Qianlong, three emperors, the population of the Qianlong dynasty broke through the 300 million mark. The contradiction between people and land is sharp, and a large number of the poor in the Mainland are forced by life pressure. They migrated to the West(Ordos), the Guandong, and the Nanyang(South sea and island of China). "Zou Xi Kou" means that thousands of people from Shanxi, Shaanxi and other places have migrated to Ordos, Guihua(Hohhot), Tumut, and Chahar since the Qing dynasty. "Zou Xi Kou" changed Mongolia's social structure, economic structure and way of life. Shanxi people account for a relatively high proportion of immigrants, bringing Shanxi's Jin culture to the central and western regions of Inner Mongolia.[citation needed]


After the Republic of China, the special zone of Suiyuan was established, and later it was changed to Suiyuan Province, and Ikezhao League was established. After the Lugou Bridge Incident in 1937, Japan occupied most of northern China. In 1938, Inner Mongolia Bailing Temple, Guisui, Baotou and other places were successively lost. After the Japanese invaders occupied Baotou, they went to Ordos to coerce the princes of all ethnic groups and moved the eight white rooms of Genghis Khan to Baotou. At that time, the Iqzhao League leader Shagdur Zab and the flag princes vowed never to move east. Because the Genghis Khan eight white room is the god of all Mongolian beliefs. At that time, the situation was forced, but in desperation, the eight white room had to move west to the Xinglong Mountain in Gansu. On 9 June 1939, the Eight White Room embarked on a long road to the west. On 21 June, the Eight White Room passed through Yan'an, and the Chinese Communist Party presented a wreath to the bier. On the couplet of the mourning hall, the two major ethnic groups of Mongolia and Han are more closely united, inheriting the spirit of Genghis Khan and fighting against the war, and the banner is the world giant. On 25 June, the Eight White Room arrived in Xi'an, and along the street, the 200,000 people were welcome. The National Government held a grand national festival in accordance with the customs of the Mongolian nation. On 1 July 1939, the Eight White Room was placed in Xinglong Mountain, Gansu Province. In 1949, due to the chaos of the current situation, the government of the Republic of China moved the Eight White Room to the Qinghai Kumbum Monastery.[citation needed]

After the founding of the People's Republic of China, it has been transferred to the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. In 1954, the Central People's Government of the People's Republic of China moved the Eight White Room back to Ejin Hollow. [5]

In 2001, the State Council approved the withdrawal of Ikezhao League and the establishment of the prefecture-level Ordos City.[citation needed]

On 8 June 2016, the State Council approved the “Request for the Establishment of Kangbashi District in Ordos City” of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region: agreed to set up Kangbashi District, and will be the Habagesh Street, Qingshan Street and Binhe Street in Dongsheng District of Ordos City. It is placed under the jurisdiction of the Kangbashi district.[citation needed]

Geography and climate

Ordos's prefectural administrative region occupies 86,752 square kilometers (33,495 sq mi) and covers the bigger part of the Ordos Desert, although the urban area itself is relatively small. It borders the prefecture-level divisions of Hohhot to the east, Baotou to the northeast, Bayan Nur to the north, Alxa League to the northwest, Wuhai to the west, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region to its southwest, and the provinces of Shaanxi and Shanxi to the south. The maximal north–south extent is 340 km (210 mi), while from east to west it stretches for 400 km (250 mi).[13]

The most populous municipality is Dongsheng which had a population of 582,544 inhabitants as of the 2010 census. Another urban area is the conglomeration of Kangbashi District and the adjacent township of Altan Xire.[14] Kangbashi is to the north of the Wulan Mulun River, a tributary of the Yellow River, while Altan Xire is to the south of the same river.

The area of Ordos can roughly be divided into a hilly area in the east, high plateaus in the west and center, sandy deserts in the north and south, and plains at the southern bank of the Yellow River. The highest elevation, at 2,149 meters (7,051 ft), is located in the west, and the lowest point, at 850 m (2,790 ft), is in the east.

There are two large deserts in the territory of Ordos: Kubuqi Desert in the north and the Mu Us (Maowusu) Desert in the south. The Kubuqi Desert occupies 19.2% of Ordos, or 16,600 km2 (6,400 sq mi), while the Maowusu Desert takes up 28.8% of the area, or 25,000 km2 (9,700 sq mi).

Ordos features a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), marked by long, cold and very dry winters; very warm, somewhat humid summers; and strong winds, especially in spring. The annual precipitation is 300 to 400 millimeters (11.8 to 15.7 in) in the eastern part of the city and 190 to 350 mm (7.5 to 13.8 in) in the western part. Most of the rain falls between July and September, with very little snow in winter; average annual evaporation reaches 2,000 to 3,000 mm (79 to 118 in). In the city proper, the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −10.5 °C (13.1 °F) in January to 21.0 °C (69.8 °F) in July, while the annual mean is 6.16 °C (43.1 °F). Sunshine duration averages 2,700 to 3,200 hours annually.[13]

Climate data for Ordos (Dongsheng District), elevation 1,462 m (4,797 ft), 1991–2020 normals, extremes 1971–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.3
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −3.9
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −13.1
Record low °C (°F) −28.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.1
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.3 2.6 3.8 3.8 6.7 9.4 11.5 11.3 8.8 4.8 3.1 2.4 70.5
Average snowy days 3.8 4.5 4.3 1.5 0.2 0 0 0 0 1.2 3.2 4.3 23
Average relative humidity (%) 51 45 38 33 36 44 56 60 57 50 50 50 48
Mean monthly sunshine hours 221.7 217.0 257.7 281.8 306.8 288.3 281.7 267.8 242.0 245.7 218.1 211.7 3,040.3
Percent possible sunshine 73 71 69 70 69 65 63 64 66 72 74 73 69
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[15][16]
Source 2: Weather China[13]


See also: Economy of the People's Republic of China

Ordos is one of the most prosperous regions of China when measured by GDP figures. With a nominal per-capita GDP of US$34,352 and ppp per capita GDP of $65,192 in 2016, it ranks first among prefecture-level divisions in the entire Chinese mainland, and second in the PRC (including Hong Kong & Macau), behind Macau (Nominal GDP per capita: US$67,079; GDP (PPP) per capita: $96,148). It is extremely rich in natural resources, having one sixth of the national coal reserves. The pillars of its economy are textiles (wool), coal mining, petrochemicals, electricity generation, production of building materials, and bitcoin mining. An industrial park in Dalad Banner is home to one of the world's largest bitcoin 'mines' - really a massive server farm - owned by Beijing-based Bitmain.[17]


In 2021, The Washington Times reported that China was building a third ICBM site near Hanggin Banner, Ordos City, in Inner Mongolia. It will hold more than 100 new DF-41 intercontinental ballistic missiles. This will join two other ICBM fields at Yumen and Hami.[18]

Administrative subdivisions

Ordos Shi is divided into two districts and seven banners:

Name Mongolian Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km2) Density (/km2)
Dongsheng District ᠳ᠋ᠦᠩᠱᠧᠩ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Düŋšėŋ toɣoriɣ)
东胜区 Dōngshèng Qū 582,544 2,146 271
Kangbashi District
(Hia'bagx District)
ᠬᠢᠶ᠎ᠠ ᠪᠠᠭᠰᠢ ᠲᠣᠭᠣᠷᠢᠭ
(Kiy-a baγsi toɣoriɣ)
康巴什区 Kāngbāshí Qū 153,000 372.55 404
Dalad Banner ᠳᠠᠯᠠᠳ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Dalad qosiɣu)
达拉特旗 Dálātè Qí 322,101 8,192 40
Jungar Banner ᠵᠡᠭᠦᠨᠭᠠᠷ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Jegünɣar qosiɣu)
准格尔旗 Zhǔngé'ěr Qí 356,501 7,535 36
Otog Front Banner
(Otog Omnod Banner)
ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠤᠨ ᠡᠮᠦᠨᠡᠳᠦ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Otoɣ-un Emünedü qosiɣu)
鄂托克前旗 Ètuōkè Qián Qí 68,282 12,318 6
Otog Banner ᠣᠲᠣᠭ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Otoɣ qosiɣu)
鄂托克旗 Ètuōkè Qí 148,844 20,064 4
Hanggin Banner ᠬᠠᠩᠭᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Qaŋɣin qosiɣu)
杭锦旗 Hángjǐn Qí 111,102 18,903 7
Uxin Banner ᠦᠦᠰᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Üüsin qosiɣu)
乌审旗 Wūshěn Qí 124,527 11,645 9
Ejin Horo Banner ᠡᠵᠢᠨ ᠬᠣᠷᠣᠭ᠎ᠠ ᠬᠣᠰᠢᠭᠤ
(Ejin Qoroɣ-a qosiɣu)
伊金霍洛旗 Yījīnhuòluò Qí 226,752 5,958 23

Kangbashi New Area

Main article: Kangbashi New Area

A large, sparsely inhabited urban real estate development has been constructed 25 km (16 mi) from Dongsheng District. Intended to house a million people, it originally remained mostly uninhabited.[19][20] Intended to have 300,000 residents by 2010, government figures stated it had 28,000 by that year. Several speculative publications, including an illustrated feature series by Al Jazeera's Melissa Chan in 2009, have depicted the city as a "ghost city."[21][22] However, Wade Shepard, writing in Forbes in 2017, pointed out that this term was initially applied in 2009 when the city was only five years old with a population of 30,000. And that the population had surged to 153,000 and with housing prices rising by 50% since 2015, it became increasingly challenging to label it as such, and out of the 40,000 apartments built since 2004, only 500 remained on the market.[6]

Ordos Museum

Ordos Museum

Main article: Ordos Museum

In 2011, a 49,400-square-meter museum, entitled Ordos Museum (Chinese: 鄂尔多斯博物馆), was opened in Kangbashi. The museum, designed by China-based architectural practice MAD Studio, focuses upon the history of the Ordos area, as well as on the culture and traditions of Inner Mongolia.[23]


Travel within Ordos City is primarily made by car or bus, using the city's network roads. Two tolled expressways, the G18 Rongcheng–Wuhai Expressway and the G65 Baotou–Maoming Expressway, provide connections with other towns and cities including Dongsheng.

County Road X623 at Ejin Horo

In 2016, the Ordos railway station in the city opened. The station is on the Beijing-Baotou railway, the Hohhot-Ordos high-speed railway line, and the Baotou-West railway. High speed trains to the provincial capital of Hohhot are run on a daily basis.[24] As well as slower speed trains directly to and from Beijing West railway station.[25]

Ordos Ejin Horo International Airport is located in Ejin Horo Banner.


In the 2000 census, there were 1,369,766 inhabitants:

ethnic group population share
Han 1,207,971 88.19%
Mongols 155,845 11.38%
Manchu 2,905 0.21%
Hui 1,861 0.14%
Tibetans 1,023 0.07%

Many people came from the Shanxi province, 30 km (19 mi) south of this city.[citation needed]

See also


  1. ^
  2. ^
    • Chinese: 伊克昭盟; pinyin: Yīkèzhāo Méng
    • Mongolian: ᠶᠡᠬᠡ ᠵᠤᠤ ᠠᠶᠢᠮᠠᠭ, Yeke Juu ayimaγ


  1. ^ a b Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 46. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b "China: Inner Mongolia (Prefectures, Leagues, Cities, Districts, Banners and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  3. ^ 内蒙古自治区统计局、国家统计局内蒙古调查总队 (2016). 《内蒙古统计年鉴-2016》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5037-7901-5.
  4. ^ Sheehan, Matt (5 April 2015). "Signs of Life In China's Gleaming 'Ghost City' Of Ordos". Huffington Post. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  5. ^ Day, Peter (17 March 2012). "Ordos: The biggest ghost town in China". BBC News. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  6. ^ a b Shepard, Wade. "China's Most Infamous 'Ghost City' Is Rising From The Desert". Forbes. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  7. ^ 市情概况. Archived from the original on 22 November 2009. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
  8. ^ G. John Ramstedt: Kalmückisches Wörterbuch, Helsinki, 1935, Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, and Ferdinand D. Lessing, ed.: Mongolian-English Dictionary, Bloomington, Ind., 1982, The Mongolia Society, Inc.
  9. ^ W. R. Carles, "Problems in Exploration II. Ordos", in The Geographical Journal, Vol. 33, No. 6 (Jun. 1909), p. 669
  10. ^ Madsen, David B.; Jingzen, Li; Brantingham, P. Jeffrey; Xing, Gao; Elston, Robert G.; Bettinger, Robert L. (December 2001). "Dating Shuidonggou and the Upper Palaeolithic blade industry in North China". Antiquity. 75 (290): 706–716. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00089213. ISSN 0003-598X. S2CID 128402306.
  11. ^ Peng, Fei; Lin, Sam C.; Patania, Ilaria; Levchenko, Vladimir; Guo, Jialong; Wang, Huimin; Gao, Xing (27 May 2020). "A chronological model for the Late Paleolithic at Shuidonggou Locality 2, North China". PLOS ONE. 15 (5): e0232682. Bibcode:2020PLoSO..1532682P. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0232682. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 7252617. PMID 32459803.
  12. ^ Dani, Ahmed Hasan and V.M. Masson, eds. History of Civilizations of Central Asia, vol 1. Paris: UNESCO Publishing, 1992: 99.
  13. ^ a b c 鄂尔多斯 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  14. ^ Woodworth, Max David (2013). Frontier Boomtown Urbanism: City Building in Ordos Municipality, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, 2001–2011 (PhD dissertation). University of California, Berkeley. p. 51.
  15. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  16. ^ "Experience Template" 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  17. ^ Wong, Joon Ian. "Photos: Inside one of the world's largest bitcoin mines". Quartz. Retrieved 31 August 2017.
  18. ^ Gertz, Bill. "EXCLUSIVE: China building third missile field for hundreds of new ICBMs". The Washington Times. Retrieved 25 August 2021.
  19. ^ "Ordos, China: A Modern Ghost Town - Photo Essays - TIME". 27 March 2010. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  20. ^ Gus Lubin (13 June 2011). "NEW SATELLITE PICTURES OF CHINA'S GHOST CITIES". Business Insider. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
  21. ^ "China's Ghost Town". AlJazeera. 10 November 2009. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  22. ^ Barboza, David (19 October 2010). "A New Chinese City, With Everything but People". New York Times.
  23. ^ "Ordos Museum". WikiArchitectura. Retrieved 25 January 2017.
  24. ^ "重磅好消息!呼包鄂动车今日试运行!5月15日正式开通(附列车时刻表)". Archived from the original on 20 December 2019.
  25. ^ "鄂尔多斯到北京西火车时刻表 鄂尔多斯到北京西列车时刻表 - 火车票网".