Meizhou
梅州市
Mòichû
Buddhist Pagoda in Meizhou
Xing Ning Street
From top, left to right: Meizhou Confucian Temple [zh], Meizhou Buddhist Pagoda [zh], Meizhou Dongshan Shuyuan [zh], Paifang in Dabu County, Xing Ning Street.
Nickname(s): 
Kezhou (客州)
Motto(s): 
Capital of Hakkas in the World
Location of Meizhou in Guangdong
Location of Meizhou in Guangdong
Coordinates (Meizhou municipal government): 24°17′20″N 116°07′19″E / 24.289°N 116.122°E / 24.289; 116.122Coordinates: 24°17′20″N 116°07′19″E / 24.289°N 116.122°E / 24.289; 116.122
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceGuangdong
Municipal seatMeijiang District
Area
 • Prefecture-level city15,864.51 km2 (6,125.32 sq mi)
 • Urban
3,047.5 km2 (1,176.6 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,047.5 km2 (1,176.6 sq mi)
Elevation
96 m (315 ft)
Population
 (2020 census[1])
 • Prefecture-level city3,873,239
 • Density240/km2 (630/sq mi)
 • Urban
992,351
 • Urban density330/km2 (840/sq mi)
 • Metro
992,351
 • Metro density330/km2 (840/sq mi)
 • Major Nationalities
Han
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal Code
514000
Area code(s)753
ISO 3166 codeCN-GD-14
License Plate Prefix粤M
LanguagesStandard Chinese (official); Hakka (regional)
Websitewww.meizhou.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Meizhou
MZ name.svg
"Meizhou", as written in Chinese
Chinese梅州
HakkaMòi-chû
PostalMeichow (present)
Meihsien (former)
Kaying (former; pre-1912)
Literal meaningPlum/prune Prefecture

Meizhou (Chinese: 梅州, Hakka Chinese: Mòichû) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guangdong province, China. It has an area of 15,864.51 km2 (6,125.32 sq mi), and a population of 3,873,239 million as of the 2020 census. It comprises Meijiang District, Meixian District, Xingning City and five counties. Its built-up or metro area made up of two urban districts was home to 992,351 inhabitants.[2]

History

Since Neolithic age historical sites with unearthed a number of stone tools and pottery, have been discovered in dozens of places in the Meixian area of Meizhou. In the Meixian area, ancient kiln sites from the Western Zhou Dynasty and bells from the Warring States Period were also found. Before the Qin Dynasty, Meizhou was under Nanyue rule. After Qin unified the Nanyue, Meizhou was belonged to Nanhai Commandery.

Originally name of Meizhou was Chengxiang (程乡), it was established under the prefecture of Jingzhou during the Southern Han (917-971). It became Meizhou at the 10th century and Jiaying Prefecture at the 15th century. After 1912, it was changed to Meizhou, the name comes from the Mei River and the Chinese name for the plum blossom (; méi).[3] After several subsequent shifts of jurisdiction, it became Meizhou City in 1988. Meizhou is now a noted historical and cultural city.[4]

Geography and climate

Meizhou is located in the northeast of Guangdong Province, bordering Fujian Province in the northeast and Jiangxi Province in the northwest. The complex geological structure was formed mainly from granite, spouting rocks, metamorphic rock, shale, sandstone, red rock and limestone.[5] Its administrative area ranges in latitude from 23° 23' to 24° 56' N and in longitude from 115° 18' to 116° 56' E, covering an area of 15,836 km2 (6,114 sq mi).

Meizhou has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with short, mild, overcast winters and long, very hot, humid summers. The monthly daily average temperature in January is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F), and in July is 28.9 °C (84.0 °F). From April to June, rainfall is the heaviest and most frequent. Though striking typhoons do not affect the area as much as the coast, the mountainous topography means that flooding is a serious concern.

Climate data for Meizhou (1981−2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.5
(85.1)
33.0
(91.4)
33.4
(92.1)
36.0
(96.8)
37.2
(99.0)
38.4
(101.1)
39.5
(103.1)
38.6
(101.5)
38.0
(100.4)
35.8
(96.4)
34.8
(94.6)
30.2
(86.4)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F) 18.4
(65.1)
19.5
(67.1)
22.4
(72.3)
26.4
(79.5)
29.9
(85.8)
32.1
(89.8)
34.3
(93.7)
33.7
(92.7)
32.0
(89.6)
29.4
(84.9)
25.0
(77.0)
20.3
(68.5)
27.0
(80.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
14.4
(57.9)
17.4
(63.3)
21.7
(71.1)
25.1
(77.2)
27.3
(81.1)
28.9
(84.0)
28.4
(83.1)
26.8
(80.2)
23.7
(74.7)
18.7
(65.7)
13.9
(57.0)
21.6
(70.8)
Average low °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
10.9
(51.6)
14.0
(57.2)
18.4
(65.1)
21.7
(71.1)
24.0
(75.2)
25.0
(77.0)
24.8
(76.6)
23.2
(73.8)
19.6
(67.3)
14.3
(57.7)
9.6
(49.3)
17.8
(64.1)
Record low °C (°F) −2.0
(28.4)
0.1
(32.2)
0.3
(32.5)
8.3
(46.9)
13.8
(56.8)
17.6
(63.7)
20.5
(68.9)
21.8
(71.2)
15.1
(59.2)
8.5
(47.3)
2.6
(36.7)
−2.9
(26.8)
−2.9
(26.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 45.2
(1.78)
102.7
(4.04)
149.5
(5.89)
202.8
(7.98)
183.5
(7.22)
225.3
(8.87)
160.3
(6.31)
203.7
(8.02)
122.0
(4.80)
31.1
(1.22)
38.8
(1.53)
35.9
(1.41)
1,500.8
(59.07)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 8.2 12.1 16.0 16.5 18.7 18.0 14.5 16.6 12.9 6.2 5.2 5.6 150.5
Average relative humidity (%) 75 78 79 80 79 81 76 78 77 72 71 73 77
Source 1: China Meteorological Data Service Center
Source 2: Weather China (precipitation days 1971–2000)

Administration

The municipal government, Intermediate Court, CPC office and Public Security Bureau are located in the Jiangnan Subdistrict of the Meijiang District, on the right bank of Mei River.

Map
Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 census)
Area
(km2)
Density
(/km2)
Meijiang District 梅江区 Méijiāng Qū 380,771 570.62 667
Meixian District 梅县区 Méixiàn Qū 554,745 2,476.87 224
Dabu County 大埔县 Dàbù Xiàn 374,666 2,461.82 152
Fengshun County 丰顺县 Fēngshùn Xiàn 478,974 2,706.34 177
Wuhua County 五华县 Wǔhuá Xiàn 1,050,528 3,237.83 324
Pingyuan County 平远县 Píngyuǎn Xiàn 230,045 1,373.98 167
Jiaoling County 蕉岭县 Jiāolǐng Xiàn 205,849 961.64 214
Xingning 兴宁市 Xīngníng Shì 962,883 2,075.39 464

Economy

Meizhou is rich in mineral and tourism resources. It has 48 kinds of minerals including coal, iron, limestone, rare clay and porcelain clay amongst others. Of these reserves manganese is ranked first in Guangdong Province. Meizhou has plenty of water resources, hot springs and certified mineral waters. There are tourism resources such as cultural historic sites constructed during the Tang Dynasty, former residences of notable figures, natural scenery of all kinds, and unique Hakka cultural sights.[6]

Transport

Meizhou is a communication hub for the three provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, and Jiangxi and the bridge connecting the coastal and the inland areas. State Highways 205 and 206 run across the city. Expressways, state, provincial county and village highways extend to all parts.

In 2019 the city became the terminus for the Meizhou–Chaoshan high-speed railway which opened a new station at Meizhou West providing high-speed rail links to Guangzhou, Zhuhai, Shenzhen, Shantou, Chaoshan, Yichang and Xiamen.[7] The Guangzhou–Meizhou–Shantou railway and Meizhou-Kanshi Railway use Meizhou railway station in the city providing regular rail connections to Guangzhou, Xiamen, Shantou, Shenzhen, Dapu, Wuchang and Kunming.[8]

The city is served by the regional Meixian Airport, with regular air routes to Guangzhou and Hong Kong. By water, the Mei River and Han River reach Chaozhou and Shantou.[9]

A view of the Mei River in Meizhou at night
A view of the Mei River in Meizhou at night

Culture

Meizhou is considered the center for standard Hakka dialect, along with the neighboring Mei County and Dabu County.[10]

Hakkas are a unique ethnic group of Han Chinese originally from around the Yellow River area, who later migrated south to avoid the chaos of war centuries ago. Due to hostility towards the new immigrants, many were forced into the mountainous regions of Guangdong Province. This migratory tradition has continued with the redistribution of Hakka people to the most remote parts of the world. Many people in Meizhou emigrated during the last century to earn money for their families, with some returning to build in their hometowns.

Many buildings are named after famous people in Meizhou, built by returning Hakkas.

Because of its mountainous location, Meizhou has numerous natural scenic areas and good air quality. Many visitors come to the Yannanfei Tea Garden to climb the mountain.

Education

Education in Meizhou has been highly valued since ancient times. The city is home to Jiaying University, a local university which also attracts Hakka students from other provinces. The university is also known for its research into Hakka culture.

Food

During the period after August or September, a sea of pomelos can be seen, especially in village orchards.

Pomelos
Pomelos
Salt baked chicken
Salt baked chicken

Salt baked chicken is among the most well-known Hakka dishes, found also in many other cities. Another local dish is Yong tau foo (stuffed tofu). It is said that when Hakka people first came south, there was no wheat flour for dumplings. So they substituted tofu. Meat based fillings give a special taste that became a feature of Hakka cuisine. Preserved beef and ginger candies are also locally popular.

Notable people

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ "China: Guăngdōng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. ^ "China: Guăngdōng (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  3. ^ Origin of the name Meizhou Archived 2013-11-04 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Ministry of Culture, P.R.China. "Meizhou Travel and culture". chinaculture.org. Archived from the original on 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
  5. ^ "Meizhou Geography". meizhou.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2007-06-27. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
  6. ^ "Investment Environment". Archived from the original on 2006-10-14. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
  7. ^ "Meizhou West Station Departure Info". China Rail Map. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  8. ^ "Meizhou Station Departure Info". China Rail Map. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  9. ^ "Meizhou City - Transport". Archived from the original on 2006-08-22.
  10. ^ Far East Society