Panzhihua
攀枝花市
Panzhihua
Panzhihua
Location of Panzhihua in Sichuan
Location of Panzhihua in Sichuan
Coordinates (Panzhihua municipal government): 26°34′57″N 101°43′06″E / 26.5824°N 101.7184°E / 26.5824; 101.7184Coordinates: 26°34′57″N 101°43′06″E / 26.5824°N 101.7184°E / 26.5824; 101.7184
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceSichuan
Municipal seatDong District
Area
 • Prefecture-level city7,423.42 km2 (2,866.20 sq mi)
 • Urban
2,010.7 km2 (776.3 sq mi)
 • Metro
2,010.7 km2 (776.3 sq mi)
Elevation
1,157 m (3,796 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city1,212,203
 • Density160/km2 (420/sq mi)
 • Urban
806,395
 • Urban density400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
806,395
 • Metro density400/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
617000
Area code0812
ISO 3166 codeCN-SC-04
Websitewww.panzhihua.gov.cn
Panzhihua
Chinese攀枝花
PostalPanchihhwa

Panzhihua (Chinese: 攀枝花; pinyin: Pānzhīhuā), formerly Dukou (渡口), is a prefecture-level city located in the far south of Sichuan province, People's Republic of China, at the confluence of the Jinsha and Yalong Rivers. It has an administrative area of 74,423.42 square kilometres (28,735.04 sq mi),[2] and a population at the 2020 census of 1,212,203. 806,395 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 3 urban districts.

Its economy relies almost entirely on its giant mine, one of the country's largest. The economy in Panzhihua is mainly centered on natural resource development, heavy-industry. Around the 1970s, immigrants from various parts of China flow into the city. The urban center was built on top of mountainous terrains. In 2005, Panzhihua won the "China Excellent Tourist City" title, in 2008 it won the "National Health City" and the "China Vanadium, Titanium" titles.

Geography and climate

The area has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with short, mild, dry winters and long, hot, and humid summers. Highs drop to 21 °C (70 °F) in December and January, quickly rebounding during the dry springs, and peak in May and June, unlike much of the rest of the province. Much of the annual rainfall occurs from June to September.

Climate data for Panzhihua (1981−2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.2
(84.6)
32.5
(90.5)
35.9
(96.6)
38.5
(101.3)
40.4
(104.7)
39.8
(103.6)
38.8
(101.8)
38.1
(100.6)
35.1
(95.2)
33.5
(92.3)
30.5
(86.9)
28.1
(82.6)
40.4
(104.7)
Average high °C (°F) 21.8
(71.2)
25.0
(77.0)
28.7
(83.7)
31.8
(89.2)
32.5
(90.5)
32.3
(90.1)
31.0
(87.8)
30.6
(87.1)
28.4
(83.1)
26.4
(79.5)
23.3
(73.9)
21.0
(69.8)
27.7
(81.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
17.0
(62.6)
21.2
(70.2)
24.5
(76.1)
25.6
(78.1)
26.1
(79.0)
25.3
(77.5)
24.8
(76.6)
22.8
(73.0)
20.3
(68.5)
16.1
(61.0)
13.0
(55.4)
20.9
(69.5)
Average low °C (°F) 6.9
(44.4)
9.9
(49.8)
14.2
(57.6)
17.8
(64.0)
20.0
(68.0)
21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
20.8
(69.4)
19.1
(66.4)
16.3
(61.3)
11.2
(52.2)
7.3
(45.1)
15.5
(59.9)
Record low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
3.6
(38.5)
4.9
(40.8)
8.7
(47.7)
10.5
(50.9)
13.6
(56.5)
15.2
(59.4)
15.6
(60.1)
10.9
(51.6)
9.5
(49.1)
3.3
(37.9)
0.4
(32.7)
0.4
(32.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.2
(0.20)
3.8
(0.15)
7.2
(0.28)
13.5
(0.53)
53.8
(2.12)
140.5
(5.53)
218.9
(8.62)
180.4
(7.10)
137.4
(5.41)
59.8
(2.35)
16.5
(0.65)
1.8
(0.07)
838.8
(33.01)
Average precipitation days 1.5 1.6 3.3 3.1 7.9 13.8 19.2 15.4 14.6 10.2 4.3 1.3 96.2
Average relative humidity (%) 51 40 35 36 48 62 72 72 74 72 68 64 58
Source 1: China Meteorological Data Service Center[3]
Source 2: Weather China (precipitation days 1971–2000)[4]

Hydrology

Panzhihua lies in the Yangtze River basin, holding more than 95 waterways. They feed the Jinsha and Yandalong Rivers, which in turn feed the Yangtze. Annual runoff volume is 110.2 billion cubic meters. The potential hydropower capacity is 700 million kilowatts. The installed capacity is 3.474 million kilowatts.

Geology

Panzhihua is close to the Xigeda-Yuanmou fracture in the Sichuan-Yunnan border.[5] Its Renhe District was the epicenter of the 2008 Panzhihua earthquake.

Archaeology

Bronze Age cultural remains are representative of various types of bronze artifacts. Under the jurisdiction of Panzhihua City in Yanbian, Miyi and Renhe District, archeologists have collected nearly 20 bronze artifacts. Most of the dig sites were tomb sites excavated specifically for funerary objects. Practical objects were found that can be divided into three categories. Weapons such as bronze swords, bronze spears, and bronze Ge, tools such as copper axes, copper knives and copper hoes, and decorative objects like copper bracelets were found.

The objects were similar to those of western Yunnan province, reflecting ethnic group similarities. The relics date from the Warring States ~ Western Han period.

Tourism resources

The landscape is dominated by natural areas. Attractions include a red cell spa, the Cave Stone Forest, the Jinsha River and Hai lake.

Cycas forest

Cycas first appeared some 280 million years ago in the Permian period. They consist of some 110 species. In 1971, Sichuan Agricultural Science and the original forest vegetation Panzhihua aerial survey, found more than 100,000 specimens. It is the highest altitude Cycas forest, hosting the largest number and size of specimens. This forest consists of an endemic species, Cycas panzhihuaensis.

Ertan Hydropower Station

The Ertan Dam (simplified Chinese: 二滩大坝; traditional Chinese: 二灘大壩; pinyin: Èrtān Dàbà) is an arch dam on the Yalong River, a tributary of the Yangtze River in Sichuan.

The dam has six hydroelectric generators, each with a generating capacity of 550 MW. The total generating capacity of the facility is 3,300 MW, one of the largest in China. Annual production averages 17 TWh, and through December 5, 2006, it produced over 100 TWh of electricity. Construction of the dam started on September 1991 and was completed on December 26, 1999.[6][7] A total of 12,638,000 m3 (446,306,758 cu ft) of material was excavated during construction.

Administrative divisions

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2004 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Dong District 东区 Dōngqū 320,000 167 1,916
Xi District 西区 Xīqū 160,000 124 1,290
Renhe District 仁和区 Rénhé Qū 200,000 1,727 116
Miyi County 米易县 Mǐyì Xiàn 200,000 2,153 93
Yanbian County 盐边县 Yánbiān Xiàn 200,000 3,269 61

Economy

Panzhihua is a highly industrialized area dominated by gigantic mining operations. Most of the land not in use for mining is taken up by subsistence farming.

Mineral Resources

Panzhihua has abundant natural resources, but remained undeveloped until 1960. It was founded on a remote headwater of the Yangtze River in 1966 as a steel production center. It grew rapidly as it remained relatively prosperous while the rest of the country suffered under the Cultural Revolution. The city is home to the Panzhihua Iron and Steel (Group) Co, called "Pangang 攀钢", the leading steel company in southwest China.

Proven iron ore (mainly vanadium-titanium magnetite) reserves are 73.8 million tons, 72.3% of the provincial total. At the end of 2007, the city's reserves of vanadium-titanium magnetite were 6.694 billion tons, of which: titanium reserves were 425 million tons, 93% of the national total, the world's largest; vanadium reserves were 10.38 million tons, 63% in the nation, third in the world. Cobalt reserves were 746 million tons. Other minerals were chromium, gallium, scandium, nickel, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, platinum and other rare metals.

Other minerals
Mineral Reserves (million tons)
Cobalt 746
Coal 708
Crystalline graphite 15.4
Ju Yan 20.98
Limestone 295
Metallurgical dolomite 363
Cement sand retention 11.94
Refactory clay 10.32
Diatomite 16.5
Granite 87.5 m3
Marble 53.99 m3

Transport

Panzhihua is served by the Chengdu–Kunming Railway and the Panzhihua Bao'anying Airport. The city has over 10 bridges over the Jinsha River.

Education

References

  1. ^ "China: Sìchuān (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  2. ^ "Nature Resources of Panzhihua" (in Chinese (China)). Panzhihua People's Government. Retrieved 2008-08-30.
  3. ^ 中国地面气候标准值月值(1981-2010) (in Chinese (China)). China Meteorological Data Service Center. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
  4. ^ 枣阳 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 9 November 2022.
  5. ^ 四川攀枝花市仁和区-凉山州会理县交界6.1级地震现场应急工作系列报道之三地震构造背景) [Part III of emergency response to the M6.1 earthquake at the border of Renhe-Huili, Sichuan: Seismic formation background] (in Simplified Chinese). China Earthquake Administration / CEA. 2008-09-02. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
  6. ^ "Ertan Hydropower Plant, Yalong River". Power Technology.
  7. ^ 1999年12月26日 我国西部的最大水电站二滩水电站全面建成投产. people.com.cn. 2003-08-01. Retrieved 2018-11-02.