|Pudong New Area|
|Coordinates: 31°14′05″N 121°30′23″E / 31.23472°N 121.50639°ECoordinates: 31°14′05″N 121°30′23″E / 31.23472°N 121.50639°E|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|District Gov't Established||1993|
|• CPC Pudong District Secretary||Weng Zuliang|
|• District Governor||Hang Yingwei (杭迎偉)|
|• Total||1,210.4 km2 (467.3 sq mi)|
|• Density||4,600/km2 (12,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+08:00 (China Standard Time)|
|- Total||¥1.27343 trillion|
$184.595 billion (nominal)
$364.149 billion (PPP)
|- Per capita||¥229,092|
|Literal meaning||"East of the Pu [River]"|
Pudong is a district of Shanghai located east of the Huangpu, the river which flows through central Shanghai. The name Pudong was originally applied to the Huangpu's east bank, directly across from the west bank or Puxi, the historic city center. It now refers to the broader Pudong New Area, a state-level new area which extends all the way to the East China Sea.
The traditional area of Pudong is now home to the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and the Shanghai Stock Exchange and many of Shanghai's best-known buildings, such as the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center, and the Shanghai Tower. These modern skyscrapers directly face Puxi's historic Bund, a remnant of former foreign concessions in China. The rest of the new area includes the Port of Shanghai, the Shanghai Expo and Century Park, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai Pudong International Airport, the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, Nanhui New City, and the Shanghai Disney Resort.
Pudong—literally "The East Bank of the Huangpu River"—originally referred only to the less-developed land across from Shanghai's Old City and foreign concessions. The area was mainly farmland and only slowly developed, with warehouses and wharfs near the shore administered by the districts of Puxi on the west bank: Huangpu, Yangpu, and Nanshi. Pudong was originally established as a county in 1958 until 1961 which the county was split among Huangpu, Yangpu, Nanshi, Wusong and Chuansha County. On October 1, 1992, the original area of Pudong County and Chuansha County merged and established Pudong New Area.
In 1993, the Chinese government set up a Special Economic Zone in Chuansha, creating the Pudong New Area. The western tip of the Pudong district was designated as the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and has become a financial hub of modern China. Several landmark buildings were constructed, including the Oriental Pearl Tower, and the supertall Jin Mao Building (420.5 m or 1,380 ft), Shanghai World Financial Center (494 m or 1,621 ft) and Shanghai Tower (632 m or 2,073 ft), the world's first trio of adjacent supertall skyscrapers. These buildings—all along Century Avenue and visible from the historic Bund—now form the most common skyline of Shanghai.
On May 6, 2009, it was disclosed that the State Council had approved the proposal to merge Nanhui District with Pudong and comprise the majority of eastern Shanghai. In 2010, Pudong was host to the main venues of the Shanghai Expo, whose grounds now form a public park.
Pudong New Area consist of the original Pudong County (northeastern portion of Shanghai County), Chuansha County, and Nanhui County.
Districts of the Direct-Controlled Municipality of Shanghai are administratively on the same level as prefecture-level cities. However, the government of Pudong has a status equivalent to that of a sub-provincial city, which is a half-level above a prefecture-level city. This is due to Pudong's size and importance as the financial hub of China. The Pudong Communist Party Secretary is the top office of the district, followed by the district governor of Pudong. The Pudong party chief is customarily also a member of the Shanghai Party Standing Committee.
On April 27, 2015, the People's Government of Pudong New Area is working with China (Shanghai) Pilot Free-Trade Zone Administrative Committee.
Pudong is bounded by the Huangpu River in the west and the East China Sea in the east. Pudong is distinguished from Puxi ("West Bank"), the older part of Shanghai. It has an area of 1,210.4 square kilometres (467.3 sq mi) and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 5,044,430 inhabitants, 1.9 million more than in 2000. Currently, at least 2.1 million of residents of Pudong are newcomers from other provinces or cities in China.
Pudong is the most populous district in Shanghai. According to the 2010 Census, it has 5,044,430 people in 1,814,802 families, around 1/4 of Shanghai's total population, an explosive growth since the last census thanks to immigrants. Pudong's resident population growth is well above national average because it is a popular immigration destination. The 2010 census shows a 58.26% increase in the last decade, or an annual pace of 4.7%. In particular, the district saw am immigration growth of 189.5%, or an annual pace of 11.22%.
Excluding immigrants, the birth rate is 0.806% while the death rate is 0.729, resulting a net growth of 0.077%. The total fertility rate is 1.03, well below the replacement level. The district actually has a negative registered household population growth if immigrants are excluded, thus the growth is purely driven by immigration.
The 2010 Census shows a population density of 3,909/km2. About 3/4 of the population live in the northern part and part of city center called "Northern Territory". 1/4 live in the "Southern Territory" that was the Nanhui District. The Northern Territory has a 6,667 population density, while the Southern Territory has 1,732/km2. Suburbs saw a greater increase in population during 2000–2010 with the help of the city's suburb expansion policy. Some counties in the traditional city center saw a population decrease.
Further information: List of township-level divisions of Shanghai
|Name||Chinese (S)||Hanyu Pinyin||Shanghainese Romanization||Population (2010)||Area (km2)|
|Weifang Xincun Subdistrict||潍坊新村街道||Wéifāng Xīncūn Jiēdào||vij vaon sin tsen ka do||100,548||3.89|
|Lujiazui Subdistrict||陆家嘴街道||Lùjiāzuǐ Jiēdào||loq ka tzyu ka do||112,507||6.89|
|Zhoujiadu Subdistrict||周家渡街道||Zhōujiādù Jiēdào||tzoe ka du ka do||144,668||5.52|
|Tangqiao Subdistrict||塘桥街道||Tángqiáo Jiēdào||daon djio ka do||76,916||3.86|
|Shanggang Xincun Subdistrict||上钢新村街道||Shànggāng Xīncūn Jiēdào||zaon kaon sin tsen ka do||104,932||7.54|
|Nanmatou Road Subdistrict||南码头路街道||Nánmǎtóulù Jiēdào||neu mau doe lu ka do||107,130||4.22|
|Hudong Xincun Subdistrict||沪东新村街道||Hùdōng Xīncūn Jiēdào||wu ton sin tsen ka do||112,031||5.51|
|Jinyang Xincun Subdistrict||金杨新村街道||Jīnyáng Xīncūn Jiēdào||cin yan sin tsen ka do||206,017||8.02|
|Yangjing Subdistrict||洋泾街道||Yángjīng Jiēdào||yan cin ka do||146,237||7.38|
|Puxing Road Subdistrict||浦兴路街道||Pǔxìnglù Jiēdào||phu xin lu ka do||177,468||6.25|
|Dongming Road Subdistrict||东明路街道||Dōngmínglù Jiēdào||ton min lu ka do||121,449||5.95|
|Huamu Subdistrict||花木街道||Huāmù Jiēdào||hau moq ka do||221,327||20.93|
|Chuanshaxin Town* (Chwansha)||川沙新镇||Chuānshāxīn Zhèn||tseu sa sau sin tzen||420,045||139.73|
|Gaoqiao town||高桥镇||Gāoqiáo Zhèn||ko djio tzen||184,486||38.73|
|Beicai town||北蔡镇||Běicài Zhèn||poq tsa tzen||276,547||24.91|
|Heqing town||合庆镇||Héqìng Zhèn||req chin tzen||132,038||41.97|
|Tang town||唐镇||Tángzhèn||daon tzen||129,267||32.16|
|Caolu town||曹路镇||Cáolù Zhèn||dzo lu tzen||186,012||45.58|
|Jinqiao town||金桥镇||Jīnqiáo Zhèn||cin djio tzen||81,537||25.28|
|Gaohang town||高行镇||Gāoháng Zhèn||ko raon tzen||137,625||22.85|
|Gaodong town||高东镇||Gāodōng Zhèn||ko ton tzen||110,552||36.24|
|Zhangjiang town||张江镇||Zhāngjiāng Zhèn||tzan kaon tzen||165,297||42.10|
|Sanlin town||三林镇||Sānlín Zhèn||se lin tzen||360,516||34.19|
|Huinan town||惠南镇||Huìnán Zhèn||we neu tzen||213,845||65.24|
|Zhoupu town||周浦镇||Zhōupǔ Zhèn||tzoe phu tzen||147,329||42.60|
|Xinchang town||新场镇||Xīnchǎng Zhèn||sin dzan tzen||84,183||54.30|
|Datuan Town||大团镇||Dàtuán Zhèn||da deu tzen||71,162||50.45|
|Kangqiao town||康桥镇||Kāngqiáo Zhèn||khaon djio tzen||174,672||41.25|
|Hangtou town||航头镇||Hángtóu Zhèn||raon doe tzen||110,060||60.40|
|Zhuqiao town||祝桥镇||Zhùqiáo Zhèn||tzoq djio tzen||104,945||154.60|
|Nicheng town||泥城镇||Níchéng Zhèn||gnij zen tzen||62,519||61.50|
|Xuanqiao town||宣桥镇||Xuānqiáo Zhèn||si djio tzen||59,567||45.78|
|Shuyuan town||书院镇||Shūyuàn Zhèn||syu yeu tzen||59,323||66.90|
|Wanxiang Town||万祥镇||Wànxiáng Zhèn||ve zian tzen||24,346||23.35|
|Laogang town||老港镇||Lǎogǎng Zhèn||lo kaon tzen||37,408||38.90|
|Nanhui Xincheng Town**||南汇新城镇||Nánhuì Xīnchéng Zhèn||neu we sin zen tzen||47,381||67.76|
|Luchaogang Farm||芦潮港农场||Lúcháogǎng Nóngchǎng||lu dzo kaon non dzan||688||9.40|
|Donghai Farm||东海农场||Dōnghǎi Nóngchǎng||ton he non dzan||508||15.20|
|Chaoyang Farm||朝阳农场||Cháoyáng Nóngchǎng||dzo yan non dzan||862||10.67|
|Waigaoqiao Free-trade Zone||外高桥保税区||Wàigāoqiáo Bǎoshuìqū||nga ko djio po seu chiu||1,349||10.00|
|Jinqiao Export Processing Zone||金桥经济技术开发区||Jīnqiáo Jīngjì Jìshù Kāifāqū||cin djio cin tzij djij dzeq khe faq chiu||5,514||67.79|
|Zhangjiang Hi-tech Park||张江高科技园区||Zhāngjiāng Gāo Kējì Yuánqū||tzan kaon ko khu djij yeu chiu||23,617||75.90|
Other private schools:
With the Nanhui District merger in May 2009, the size of Pudong's economy grew. The district's 2015 gross domestic product amounts to an estimated 789.8 billion RMB (~US$113.5 billion), with services comprising 70% of economic output. Its GDP per capita in terms of purchasing power parity is approximately $50,783. The area is divided into four distinct economic districts. Apart from Lujiazui Trade and Finance Zone, there is Waigaoqiao Free Trade Zone, the largest free trade zone in mainland China covering approximately 10 square kilometres (3.9 sq mi) in north-east Pudong. The Jinqiao Export Processing Zone is another major industrial area in Pudong covering 19 square kilometres (7.3 sq mi) Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park is a special area for technology-oriented businesses.
The Pudong area continues to experience rapid development, especially in the commercial sector, with 1.3 million square meters of prime office space reaching completion in 2008, more than the previous two years combined. Pudong has also attracted considerable fixed asset and real estate investment, reporting 87.268 billion RMB in fixed asset investment and 27.997 billion RMB in real estate investment in 2008.
The newest Disney resort, with a Disneyland included, is located in Pudong, which is open to tourists in June 2016.
Bao Steel has its head office in the Bao Steel Tower (simplified Chinese: 宝钢大厦; traditional Chinese: 寶鋼大廈; pinyin: Bǎogāng Dàshà) in Pudong. Comac has its head office in Pudong. The headquarters of Yangtze River Express, a cargo airline, are in the Pufa Tower (浦发大厦; 浦发大廈; Pǔfā Dàshà) in Pudong.
Hang Seng Bank has its mainland offices in the Hang Seng Bank Tower in Pudong. Kroll has an office in the Hang Seng Bank Tower. Google has its Shanghai offices in the Shanghai World Financial Center.
The Shanghai Pudong International Airport opened its doors in 1999, shortening the travel time for visitors.
In the same year, Line 2 of the Shanghai Metro commenced services. An extension brought the line further east, where it serves the airport. Other lines, namely Lines 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13 and 16 also have sections that serve parts of Pudong. A magnetic levitation train began operating in 2004, moving passengers between the airport and Longyang Road Metro station.
Pudong is connected to Puxi by several tunnels and four major bridges. The first of these bridges were the Nanpu Bridge (1991) and the Yangpu Bridge (1993). The Xupu Bridge opened in 1996. The latest of these is Lupu Bridge, which is the world's second longest arch bridge and was completed in 2002. Currently there are five tunnels that link the two sides, Dapu Rd. Tunnel, the first tunnel across the Huangpu River, Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, running east–west, and Dalian Rd. Tunnel, running north–south, Fuxing Rd. Tunnel, complementing the Yan'an Rd. Tunnel, Waihuan Tunnel, one part of Shanghai Outer Ring Express. Two new tunnels linking Lujiazui to Puxi are under construction.
Roads in Pudong have no particular longitudinal or latitudinal orientation. Major thoroughfares Pudong Avenue, Zhangyang Road and Yanggao Road run east–west until Yangpu Bridge before turning gradually to become north–south. Century Avenue crosses all three major roads and extends from Lujiazui to Century Park. Yanggao Road extends south to the A20, Shanghai's outer Ring road, which runs east–west from Xupu Bridge and then north–south beginning at the interchange near Renxi Village, when the east–west expressway turns into Yingbin Avenue, headed for Pudong International Airport.
Pudong is currently served by ten metro lines and one tram line operated by Shanghai Metro and one maglev line operated by Shanghai Maglev Train and one suburban line operated by China Railway:
Pudong is twinned with:
Pudong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). The average annual temperature in Pudong is 17.1 °C (62.8 °F). The temperatures are highest on average in July, at around 28.6 °C (83.5 °F), and lowest in January, at around 4.9 °C (40.8 °F).
|Climate data for Pudong (1981−2010 normals, extremes 1981−2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.5
|Average high °C (°F)||8.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||4.9
|Average low °C (°F)||1.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−6.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||62.5
|Average relative humidity (%)||73||74||73||72||74||81||78||79||76||73||74||71||75|
|Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center|