business city, green city
Partnership, Openness, Innovation, and Harmony (博大、开放、创新、和谐)
|Coordinates (Henan Provincial Hall of the People):|
|Established||16th century BCE[a]|
|• Type||Prefecture-level city|
|• Body||Zhengzhou Municipal People's Congress|
|• CCP Secretary||An Wei（安伟）|
|• Congress Chairman||Zhou Fuqiang（周富强）|
|• Mayor||He Xiong（何雄）|
|• CPPCC Chairman||Du Xinjun（杜新军）|
|• Prefecture-level city||7,567 km2 (2,922 sq mi)|
|• Urban||1,284.89 km2 (496.10 sq mi)|
|• Metro||4,271.4 km2 (1,649.2 sq mi)|
|• Prefecture-level city||12,600,574|
|• Density||1,700/km2 (4,300/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||5,200/km2 (13,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||2,400/km2 (6,200/sq mi)|
|• Total GDP||C¥ 1.269 trillion |
(US$ 196 billion)
|• Per capita||C¥ 100,722 |
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HA-01|
|License plate prefixes||豫A|
|Literal meaning||"Zhèng Settlement"|
Zhengzhou (/ -/,, jeng-JOH, jung-; simplified Chinese: 郑州; traditional Chinese: 鄭州; pinyin: Zhèngzhōu), also spelt Zheng Zhou and alternatively romanized as Chengchow, is the capital and largest city of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China. Located in north-central Henan, it is one of the National Central Cities in China, the centre of Central Plains area, and serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational center of the province. The Zhengzhou metropolitan area (including Zhengzhou and Kaifeng) is the core area of the Central Plains Economic Zone.
The city lies on the southern bank of the Yellow River. Zhengzhou is a major hub of China's national transportation network, with railways connecting Zhengzhou to Europe and an international airport. Zhengzhou is a National Civilized Cityand a State-list Famous Historical and Culture City. As of 2020, there are two World Cultural Heritage Sites in Zhengzhou. The Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE) is China's first futures exchange. Zhengzhou Airport Economy Zone is China's first Airport Economy Zone.
As of the 2020 Chinese census, the prefecture-level city of Zhengzhou had a population of 12,600,574 inhabitants, whom 10,260,667 lived in its built-up (or metro) area made of 6 urban districts plus Zhongmu county, Xinzheng and Xingyang cities now largely being conurbated. The city had a total GDP of 1.014 trillion (RMB) in 2018. Greater Zhengzhou was named as one of the 13 emerging mega-cities in China in a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit, and officially named as the eighth National Central City in 2017 by the central government in Beijing.
Zhengzhou is a major city for scientific research, appearing among the world's top 100 cities as tracked by the Nature Index. The city is home to several national key universities in China, notably Zhengzhou University, Henan University, Henan Agricultural University, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, and Henan University of Technology.
Main article: History of Zhengzhou
The Shang dynasty established Aodu (隞都) or Bodu (亳都) in Zhengzhou. This prehistorical city had become abandoned as ruins long before the First Emperor of China in 260 BC. Since 1950, archaeological finds in a walled city in Eastern Zhengzhou have provided evidence of Shang dynasty settlements in the area around 1600 BC. Outside this city, remains of large public buildings and a complex of small settlements have been discovered. The site is generally identified with the Shang capital of Ao and is preserved in the Shang dynasty Ruins monument in Guanchen District.
The Shang, who continually moved their capital due to frequent natural disasters, left Ao at around 13th century BC. The site, nevertheless, remained occupied; Zhou (post-1050 BC) tombs have also been discovered. Legend suggests that in the Western Zhou period (1111–771 BC) the site became the fief of a family named Guan. From this derives the name borne by the county (xian) since the late 6th century BC—Guancheng (City of the Guan). The city first became the seat of a prefectural administration in AD 587, when it was named Guanzhou. In 605 it was first called Zhengzhou—a name by which it has been known virtually ever since.
The name Zhengzhou came from the Sui dynasty (AD 582), even though it was located in Chenggao, another town. The government moved to the contemporary city during the Tang dynasty. It achieved its greatest importance under the Sui (AD 581–618), Tang (618–907), and early Song (960–1127) dynasties, when it was the terminus of the New Bian Canal, which joined the Yellow River to the northwest. There, at a place called Heyin, a vast granary complex was established to supply the capitals at Luoyang and Chang'an to the west and the frontier armies to the north. In the Song period, however, the transfer of the capital eastward to Kaifeng robbed Zhengzhou of much of its importance.
In 1903 the Beijing–Hankou Railway arrived at Zhengzhou, and in 1909 the first stage of the Longhai Railway gave it an east–west link to Kaifeng and Luoyang; it later was extended eastward to the coast at Lianyungang, Jiangsu, and westward to Xi'an (Chang'an), Shaanxi, as well as to western Shaanxi. Zhengzhou thus became a major rail junction and a regional center for cotton, grain, peanuts, and other agricultural produce. Early in 1923 a workers' strike began in Zhengzhou and spread along the rail line before it was suppressed; a 14-story double tower in the center of the city commemorates the strike. On 10 June 1938, Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army opened up the dikes retaining the Yellow River at Huayuankou between Zhengzhou and Kaifeng, in an effort to stem the tide of invading Japanese; however, the ensuing 1938 Yellow River flood also killed hundreds of thousands of Chinese.
Zhengzhou also has a locomotive and rolling-stock repair plant, a tractor-assembly plant, and a thermal generating station. The city's industrial growth has resulted in a large increase in the population, coming predominantly from industrial workers from the north. A water diversion project and pumping station, built in 1972, has provided irrigation for the surrounding countryside. The city has an agricultural university.
In July 2021, record breaking floods left over a million people displaced  and at least 300 people dead.
Located just north of the province's centre and south of the Yellow River, Zhengzhou borders Luoyang to the west, Jiaozuo to the northwest, Xinxiang to the northeast, Kaifeng to the east, Xuchang to the southeast, and Pingdingshan to the southwest. With the land within its administrative borders generally sloping down from west to east, Zhengzhou is situated at the transitional zone between the North China Plain to the east and the Song Mountains and Xionger Mountains to the west, which are part of the greater Qinling range. The city centre is situated to the south of the middle reach of the Yellow River, where its valley broadens into the great plain. Zhengzhou is at the crossing point of the north–south route skirting the Taihang Mountains and the mountains of western Henan. The prefecture spans 34° 16' ~ 34° 58 N latitude and 112° 42' ~ 114° 14' E longitude, covering a total area of 7,567 square kilometres (2,922 sq mi), including the metropolitan area, which covers 1,284.89 km2 (496.1 sq mi), and the city centre, which occupies 709.69 square kilometres (274.0 sq mi).
A section of the Yellow River passes by the northern edges of the urban area, extending 150.4 km (93.5 mi) within Zhengzhou prefecture. However, Jialu River, a secondary tributary of the Huai River, is Zhengzhou's main urban river and flood channel. The Jialu enters Zhengzhou from Xinmi to the southwest, and turns to the southeast within the city. Mountains loom over the western counties of Gongyi and Dengfeng while the easternmost county of Zhongmu is a vast, fertile floodplain, with the counties in between being hilly transitions.
Zhengzhou experiences a monsoon-influenced, four-season humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa), with cool, dry winters and hot, humid summers. Spring and autumn are dry and somewhat abbreviated transition periods. The city has an annual mean temperature of 15.4 °C (59.7 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from 1.0 °C (33.8 °F) in January to 27.8 °C (82.0 °F) in July. The frost-free period lasts on average 220 days. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −17.9 °C (0 °F) on 2 January 1955, 27 December 1971 and 1 February 1990 to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 19 July 1966.
Rainfall is primarily produced by the monsoonal low during summer; in winter, when the vast Siberian High dominates due to radiative cooling from further north, the area receives little precipitation. During the summer season, the city is also often affected by tropical depressions, which bring additional amounts of rain. The annual precipitation is about 630 millimetres (25 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 37 percent in January to 49 percent in April and May, the city receives 1,905 hours of sunshine per year, which is around 43% of the possible total.
|Climate data for Zhengzhou (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1951–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||21.0
|Average high °C (°F)||6.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||1.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−3
|Record low °C (°F)||−17.9
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||10.1
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||3.8||4.1||5.3||5.7||6.5||7.3||10.8||10.3||8.5||6.3||5.4||3.3||77.3|
|Average snowy days||4.2||3.3||1.6||0.2||0||0||0||0||0||0||1.2||2.8||13.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||57||57||54||57||57||58||73||76||71||65||62||56||62|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||117.0||128.2||167.9||194.5||211.8||195.9||166.1||163.1||147.3||148.9||136.4||127.6||1,904.7|
|Percent possible sunshine||37||41||45||49||49||45||38||40||40||43||44||42||43|
|Source 1: China Meteorological Administration|
|Source 2: Weather China|
In 2019, there were 177 good days in Zhengzhou, an increase of 9 days year-on-year, and 48.5% of the good days reached the standard. There were 24 days of heavy pollution, 9 days less than last year.
On 20 July 2021, "The heaviest hour of rainfall ever reliably recorded in China crashed like a miles-wide waterfall over the city of Zhengzhou on July 20, killing at least 300 people, including 14 who drowned in a subway tunnel." Although an emergency alert was issued the day before the flood, businesses and subways remained open. From 4pm to 5pm on 21 July, 7.95 inches of rain fell. A collapsed retaining wall allowed water to pour into subway tunnels. "The Chinese government now appears to be acknowledging missteps by local officials, as well as the possibility that severe weather events will become increasingly common."
Zhengzhou is divided into 6 urban districts, 5 county-level cities and 1 county. These subdivisions are likely to undergo significant changes in the near future due to increasingly rapid urban expansion and urban planning.
The municipality is home to 8,626,505 inhabitants (2010 census) and 6,35 million in its built up area made of 6 urban and suburban districts, Xingyang and Xinzheng cities and now Zhongmu county largely being urbanized, making the city one of the main built-up areas of the province.
|Name||Simplified Chinese||Hanyu Pinyin||Population
|Jinshui District||金水区||Jīnshuǐ Qū||1,588,611||242|
|Erqi District||二七区||Èrqī Qū||712,597||159|
|Huiji District||惠济区||Hùijì Qū||269,561||206|
|Guancheng Hui District||管城回族区||Guǎnchéng Huízú Qū||645,888||204|
|Zhongyuan District||中原区||zhōngyuán Qū||905,430||195|
|Shangjie District||上街区||Shàngjiē Qū||131,540||64.7|
|Zhongmu County||中牟县||Zhōngmù Xiàn||727,389||1393|
Between Heaven and Earth by Christian de Vietri
Zhengzhou was the capital of China during the Shang dynasty. Parts of the Shang-era capital city wall that were built 3,600 years ago still remain in Downtown Zhengzhou (see Zhengzhou Shang City). Zhengzhou maintains abundant cultural heritages that reflect its history as well as the culture of Henan Province. Zhengzhou Confucius Temple, initially built during the Eastern Han dynasty 1900 years ago, is one of the oldest Confucian Temples in China. Other important architectural heritage sites in the city center include Town God Temple and Erqi Memorial Tower.
One internationally known tourist attraction is the Shaolin Monastery (少林寺), which is in Dengfeng, about 90 kilometres (56 miles) southwest of downtown Zhengzhou (1.5 hours by coach). The Shaolin Monastery is not only known as one of China's most important Buddhist shrines, but also as the ancient centre of Chinese Kung-fu. Shaolin Monastery and its famed Pagoda Forest were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2010.
The Henan Museum is one of China's most important museums. It has a collection of more than 130,000 cultural objects includes exhibitions from prehistoric times (such as dinosaur fossils and prehistoric human remains) through to the modern era.
Zhengzhou's most developed and modern area is the Zhengdong New Area, which is in the eastern part of the city. It is home to some of the tallest skyscrapers in Zhengzhou, including the 280 metres (918.6 ft) tall Zhengzhou Greenland Plaza ("Big Corn"), which is one of the most prominent landmarks in Zhengzhou, and the twin towers of Zhengzhou Greenland Central Plaza (285 metres (935.0 ft)), which are currently the tallest skyscrapers in the city. The tallest structure in Zhengzhou is the 388-meter height Zhongyuan Tower, located on Hanghai East Road in the south of Zhengdong New Area. It is used as a television tower, with a revolving restaurant and an observation deck. The tower is among the tallest towers in the world.
Zhengzhou Zoo (郑州动物园) is located on Huayuan Road (花园路).
The newly built Zhengzhou Botanic Garden is at the western edge of Zhengzhou city.
Main attractions of Zhengzhou include:
Zhengzhou, along with Xi'an, Chengdu, Chongqing and Wuhan, are some of the most economically important cities in inland China. Zhengzhou is the economic center of the province and the surrounding areas such as southeastern Shanxi and southwestern Shandong. Due to its strategic location in one of the most populous areas in the world (nearly 100 million people in Henan alone) and in China's railway, road and aviation transport networks, Zhengzhou is increasingly attracting domestic and international investment as well as migrants from other areas, transforming the city into one of the largest economic centers in China. In 2018, total GDP of Zhengzhou was ¥1020 billion, ranked 17th in China. And in 2021, total GDP was ¥1269.1 billion, ranked 16th in China.
By the end of 2006, Zhengzhou had a total population of over 7 million, of which 2.88 million lived in rural areas. Its main products include apples, paulownia, tobacco, maize, cotton, and wheat. In addition, Zhengzhou also produces Yellow River carp, Zhengzhou watermelons, Xinzheng jujube, Xingyang dried persimmons, Guangwu Pomegranate and Zhongmu garlic, all of which are specialties that are rarely found outside the region.
Zhengzhou and the surrounding area have large reserves of coal and other minerals. Coal mining and electricity generation are traditionally important in the local economy.
Zhengzhou has been one of the major industrial cities in The People's Republic of China since 1949. The city's staple industry is textiles. Others manufactured items include tractors, locomotives, cigarettes, fertilizer, processed meats, agricultural machinery, and electrical equipment. Some high-tech companies in new material, electronics and biotechnology are also growing rapidly during the recently years, especially in the high-tech industrial park in the northwest of the city.
The service industries of Zhengzhou include retail, wholesale, hospitality, finance, exhibition, transport and delivery, tourism, and education. With a number of domestic and international institutions having regional offices in the city, Zhengzhou is becoming the financial center in central China. Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE) is one of the only four future exchanges (inc. Shanghai Futures Exchange and Dalian Commodity Exchange and China Financial Futures Exchange) in China and is becoming an important global player specialised in agricultural future exchange. Equipped with newly built facilities such as Zhengzhou International Conference and Exhibition Center. Third party logistics (3PL) in Zhengzhou has also been experiencing industrial boom during the past few years. As a transit and tourist center of Henan Province and central China, Zhengzhou is the center of Henan cuisine.
The Zhengdong New Area (Chinese: 郑东新区), literally Eastern Zhengzhou New Area, similar to Hangzhou Bay New Area in Ningbo and Hengqin New Area in Zhuhai, is one of dozens of major economic zones that are currently developing in various regions of China. Established in 2003 by the provincial and municipal governments, it has become the financial center of Henan province and one of the most rapidly growing areas of China.
Kisho Kurokawa, a Japanese world-renowned planner and architect, was appointed to design the overall planning scheme for Zhengdong New Area. He brought in advanced ideas including ecological city, co-existing city, metabolic city and ring city ideas. The scheme won the "Prominent Award for City Planning Design" at the first session of Annual Meeting of the World Architects Alliance in 2002. Zhengdong New Area is mainly constituted by the CBD area, the Longhu commercial and residential area, the Longzihu college area, and the Zhengzhou East railway station commercial area.
Zhengzhou High & New Technology Industries Development Zone was established in 1988, and approved by the state Council of PRC to be a state development zone on Mar.6,1991. It was appraised to be advanced high tech zone of China respectively in 1993, 1998 and 2002. The Zone currently covers a total area of 18.6 square kilometres (7.2 square miles). An extension plan was approved by Zhengzhou Municipal Government, the various construction work started in 2004. Under the development strategy of "multiple parks in one zone", the Zone has been making great efforts to promote the development of software, information technologies, new materials, bio-pharmaceutical and photo-machinery-electronic industries.
Zhengzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved as state-level development zone on 13 February 2000. The zone has a developed area of 7 square kilometres (3 square miles) Industries encouraged include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Trading and Distribution, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics and Heavy Industry.
Zhengzhou (Henan) Export Processing Zone was established on 21 June 2002 with approval by the state council. Its planned area is 2.7 square kilometres (1.0 square mile). Zone A is located in Zhengzhou National Economic & technological Development Area and began to operate on 1 June 2004. The area of land developed is 0.893 square kilometres (0.345 square miles) at present. Zone B is located in Zhengzhou Airport Area and is adjacent to Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport on the north and it covers a planned area of 5 square km with bonded logistics zone, bonded processing zone and supporting industry zone, etc.
Zhengzhou is located in the central part of China and is a main national transport hub.
The Zhengzhou Metro is a rapid transit metro rail network serving urban and suburban districts of Great Zhengzhou metropolitan. The Zhengzhou Metro system started operation on 28 December 2013. It currently has 5 lines in operation, creating a 134.1 km (83.3 mi) long network. The first two lines (Line 1 and Line 2) were approved by the National Development and Reform Commission in Feb. 2009. Construction of the two lines started in 2009 and 2010, and were finished in 2013 and 2015 respectively. The Chengjiao Line (planned to be part of Line 9), which is now in through operations with Line 2, allows the system to serve the Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport. A total of 21 metro lines have been planned to connect all areas in Great Zhengzhou Metropolitan Area.
Zhengzhou has a bus system with over 5,700 bus vehicles, operated by the Zhengzhou Bus Communication Corporation (ZZB).
The operations of Zhengzhou Bus Rapid Transit commenced in 2009. The system consists of 5 main routes (B1, B2, B3, B5 and B6) with dedicated bus lanes and dozens of branch routes that serve most areas of the city.
Zhengzhou is the junction of the Longhai Railway (Lianyungang, Jiangsu–Lanzhou, Gansu) and the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway as well as a major national railway hub. The main railway station for these conventional services is Zhengzhou railway station, opened in 1904.
Zhengzhou is also on the Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong high-speed railway and the Xuzhou–Lanzhou High-Speed Railway. The high-speed rail network provides fast train services to most major cities in China, including Beijing (2.5 hours), Guangzhou (6 hours), Xi'an (2 hours), Wuhan (2 hours), Shanghai (4 hours), Nanjing (3 hours), Hangzhou (5 hours), and Hong Kong (6.5 hours). Proposed high-speed railways from Zhengzhou to Chongqing, Hefei, Jinan and Taiyuan are under construction.
The completion of the Zhengzhou–Jinan high-speed railway, planned for 2023, will complete a star-shaped (referred to as a "米"-shaped) network of eight high-speed lines radiating out from the city.
Zhengzhou is also the hub of intercity railways in Henan. Currently there are three intercity railways from Zhengzhou: Zhengzhou–Kaifeng intercity railway, Zhengzhou–Jiaozuo intercity railway and Zhengzhou–Xinzheng Airport intercity railway are in operation.
Zhengzhou East railway station is dedicated to high-speed trains and is one of the largest in Asia and Zhengzhou Hangkonggang railway station is a new high-speed railway hub dedicated to
Zhengzhou Airport Economy Zone.
Zhengzhou North railway station, over 6,000 metres (20,000 ft) long and over 800 metres (2,600 ft) wide, has been described as Asia's largest classification yard.
The surrounding area of Zhengzhou, along with the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and the Bohai Economic Rim, has the highest highway density nationwide. Zhengzhou is the center of Henan expressway network that provides 1–2 hours road trip to surrounding cities of Kaifeng, Xinxiang, Xuchang, Jiaozuo and Luoyang. Other major cities within the province can be reached in 3 hours. The expressway network and national highways also links Zhengzhou to all major cities in the country.
There are several limited access express roads in the city center to relieve traffic problems. However, heavy congestion is still common in rush hours.
Zhengzhou is primarily served by Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport (IATA: CGO, ICAO: ZHCC), which is 37 km (23 mi) southeast of the city center.
The airport is a focus city of China Southern Airlines, Lucky Air, West Air and Shenzhen Airlines. It used to be the headquarter for Henan Airlines. In 2017, it was the busiest airport in central China in both passenger and cargo traffic. It is also one of the eight air hubs nominated by the Civil Aviation Administration of China.
Other airports in Zhengzhou include Shangjie Airport (IATA: HSJ) which is for general aviation, and Matougang Airbase which is for military use.
The current mayor is He Xiong from January 2022.
List of the CPC Party Chiefs of Zhengzhou:
Zhengzhou is twinned with:
|Japan||Saitama City||12 October 1981|
|United States||Richmond, Virginia||14 September 1994|
|Romania||Cluj-Napoca||9 April 1995|
|South Korea||Jinju||25 July 2000|
|Namibia||Mariental||27 August 2001|
|Jordan||Irbid||31 January 2002|
|Russia||Samara||11 April 2002|
|Brasil||Joinville||17 November 2003|
|Germany||Schwerin||12 April 2006|
|Bulgaria||Shumen||27 April 2007|
|Belarus||Mogilev||12 June 2014|