Shiyan
十堰市
Shih-yen
Shiyan Railway Station in July 2014
Shiyan Railway Station in July 2014
Location of Shiyan City jurisdiction in Hubei
Location of Shiyan City jurisdiction in Hubei
Shiyan is located in Hubei
Shiyan
Shiyan
Location of the city centre in Hubei
Coordinates (Shiyan municipal government): 32°37′44″N 110°47′55″E / 32.6290°N 110.7987°E / 32.6290; 110.7987Coordinates: 32°37′44″N 110°47′55″E / 32.6290°N 110.7987°E / 32.6290; 110.7987
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHubei
County-level divisions8
Municipal seatMaojian District
Government
 • CPC SecretaryChen Tianhui (陈天会)
 • MayorZhang Siyi (张嗣义)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city23,680 km2 (9,140 sq mi)
 • Urban
 (2017)[1]
410.50 km2 (158.49 sq mi)
 • Metro
11,932 km2 (4,607 sq mi)
Highest elevation
1,640 m (5,380 ft)
Population
 (2020 census)[2]
 • Prefecture-level city3,209,004
 • Density140/km2 (350/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,428,629
 • Urban density3,500/km2 (9,000/sq mi)
 • Metro
1,033,407
 • Metro density87/km2 (220/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
442000

(Urban center) 442100-442300, 442500-442700

(Other areas)
Area code(s)719
ISO 3166 codeCN-HB-03
License Plate鄂C
Camphor Laurel

Cinnamomum camphora L. Sieb. Southern magnolia Magnolia grandiflora L.Blossom of pomegranate Punica granatum L. Chinese Rose

Rosa chinensis

Shiyan (Chinese: 十堰; pinyin: Shíyàn) is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hubei province, China, bordering Henan to the northeast, Chongqing to the southwest, and Shaanxi to the north and west. At the 2020 census, its population was 3,209,004 of whom 1,033,407 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of 2 urban districts of Maojian and Zhangwan on 1,193 square kilometres (461 square miles) as Yunyang is not conurbated. In 2007, the city was named China's top ten livable cities by Chinese Cities Brand Value Report, which was released at 2007 Beijing Summit of China Cities Forum.[3]

History

Shiyan was first mentioned by its current name in 1484. After the establishment of the PRC, Shiyan was part of Yun County (nowadays Yunyang District).[4]

During the 1960s, Mao Zedong and other government officials, fearing upheaval and invasion, sought to establish industry in more remote locations.[5] Shiyan, located in a portion of northwest Hubei then known for its poverty, was then a small village comprising a few hundred households.[5][6] In 1967, teams of workers and engineers were first sent to Shiyan in order to survey sites for automotive plants and factories (Second Automobile Works, predecessor of Dongfeng Motor Corporation) as part of the Third Front Construction plan.[7] In 1969, Shiyan City was established. By order of Mao in 1969, truck production in Shiyan commenced.[5] Approximately 25,000 construction workers were sent to Shiyan during this time to equip the city with the infrastructure necessary for such project.[6]

In subsequent decades, the city experienced great economic growth due to these facilities, which employed nearly 200,000 workers.[5][6] However, by the early 1990s, Shiyan was increasingly bypassed for new automotive ventures, which were increasingly located in larger cities with better transport links, although it remained the most prosporous city of Hubei.[5][4] In 2003, Dongfeng Motors relocated its main passenger car plant to Wuhan, resulting in population decline within Shiyan.[6]

Geography

The Wudang Mountains run east-west through Shiyan.[6] The peak commonly referred to as "Wudang Mountain", or in Mandarin Wudangshan, is one of the most important cultural centres of the Taoist faith.[citation needed] The surrounding areas are dotted with up to 200 Taoist monastic temples and religious sites.[citation needed] The main attraction in this area, and also one of the most sacred Taoist sites, which forms an important stop for mainly Chinese tourists bound there, with up to twenty bus loads of visitors per day at peak times is Wudangshan Jiedao of the Danjiangkou county-level city.[citation needed]

Major rivers in Shiyan include the Du River and the Han River.[8]: 314 

Shiyan's total area is subject to major change as part of the South to North water diversion project of the Han River.[citation needed] Certain areas will see an increase of up to 5 metres (16 ft) in water level to create a new reservoir to serve Beijing and Tianjin as a part of this major water diversion project.[citation needed]

Climate

Climate data for Shiyan (1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.1
(71.8)
25.0
(77.0)
34.3
(93.7)
37.8
(100.0)
39.0
(102.2)
42.1
(107.8)
41.5
(106.7)
41.2
(106.2)
40.5
(104.9)
34.7
(94.5)
29.2
(84.6)
21.6
(70.9)
42.1
(107.8)
Average high °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
10.7
(51.3)
15.8
(60.4)
22.7
(72.9)
27.3
(81.1)
30.6
(87.1)
32.1
(89.8)
31.0
(87.8)
26.5
(79.7)
21.6
(70.9)
16.2
(61.2)
10.7
(51.3)
21.1
(70.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
5.3
(41.5)
9.8
(49.6)
16.3
(61.3)
21.2
(70.2)
24.9
(76.8)
27.0
(80.6)
26.0
(78.8)
21.4
(70.5)
16.0
(60.8)
10.1
(50.2)
4.9
(40.8)
15.5
(59.9)
Average low °C (°F) −0.5
(31.1)
1.5
(34.7)
5.4
(41.7)
11.3
(52.3)
16.2
(61.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.3
(73.9)
22.5
(72.5)
17.9
(64.2)
12.4
(54.3)
6.3
(43.3)
1.2
(34.2)
11.5
(52.7)
Record low °C (°F) −6.9
(19.6)
−7.1
(19.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
−0.6
(30.9)
8.2
(46.8)
13.5
(56.3)
16.0
(60.8)
14.8
(58.6)
10.7
(51.3)
1.2
(34.2)
−2.9
(26.8)
−10.5
(13.1)
−10.5
(13.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 14.2
(0.56)
22.5
(0.89)
42.8
(1.69)
66.3
(2.61)
93.4
(3.68)
98.2
(3.87)
150.1
(5.91)
136.4
(5.37)
98.7
(3.89)
75.9
(2.99)
34.9
(1.37)
15.2
(0.60)
848.6
(33.43)
Average relative humidity (%) 70 69 69 68 70 72 78 79 79 79 76 71 73
Source: China Meteorological Administration[9]

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Shiyan administers 8 county-level divisions, comprising three districts, one county-level city and four counties:[10][11]

These eight county-level divisions then administer three different types of township-level divisions: 13 subdistricts, 72 towns, and 34 townships.[12] Finally, these township-level divisions then administer two types of village-level divisions: 164 residential communities and 1,807 administrative villages.[12]

Map
Subdivision Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2019)[8]: 55  Area (km2)[13] Density (/km2)
Maojian District 茅箭区 Máojiàn Qū 425,600 578 736.33
Zhangwan District 张湾区 Zhāngwān Qū 393,200 652 603.07
Yunyang District 郧阳区 Yúnyáng Qū 571,700 3,863 147.99
Danjiangkou City 丹江口市 Dānjiāngkǒu Shì 445,400 3,121 142.71
Yunxi County 郧西县 Yúnxī Xiàn 431,000 3,509.6 122.81
Zhushan County 竹山县 Zhúshān Xiàn 416,800 3,586 116.23
Zhuxi County 竹溪县 Zhúxī Xiàn 314,000 3,279 95.76
Fang County 房县 Fáng Xiàn 400,300 5,110 78.34
Note: All population totals reflect permanent population, as opposed to registered hukou population

Demographics

As of 2020, Shiyan's permanent population totals approximately 3,209,000 people.[12] Throughout 2014 to 2019, the city's registered hukou population exceeded the permanent population by a few dozen thousand.[8]: 16  This disparity likely represents migrants who left Shiyan, working in larger cities with higher wages, a common trend throughout China. During this span, Shiyan's hukou population decreased by approximately 8,100, but the city's permanent population increased by about 25,300.[8]: 16 

Vital statistics

In 2019, Shiyan saw a birth rate of 11.47‰ (per thousand), and a death rate of 7.02‰, giving the city a rate of natural increase of 4.45‰.[8]: 32 

52.5% of Shiyan's population is male, and 47.5% is female as of 2019.[8]: 28 

Urbanization

The main urban area of the prefecture-level city of Shiyan is in Maojian District, which is typically labeled on maps simply as "Shiyan". As of 2019, 56.5% of Shiyan's population lived in urban areas, up from 46.3% in 2010.[8]: 28 

Income

In 2019, Shiyan's urban households earned an average of 33,577 renminbi (RMB) in disposable income,[8]: 26  a 9.1% increase from 2018.[8]: 27  Rural households earned a much lower average disposable income of 11,378 RMB,[8]: 26  a 10.5% increase from 2018.[8]: 27 

Religion

Shiyan's city government recognizes 19 religious organizations within the city, which represent 4 religions: Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, and Christianity.[14] Of these organizations, the following 5 serve the entire city: the Shiyan City Buddhist Association (Chinese: 十堰市佛教协会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Fójiào Xiéhuì), the Shiyan City Islamic Association (Chinese: 十堰市伊斯兰教协会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Yīsīlánjiào Xiéhuì), the Shiyan City Protestant "Three-Self" Patriotic Movement Committee (Chinese: 十堰市基督教“三自”爱国运动委员会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Jīdūjiào “Sān Zì” Àiguó Yùndòng Wěiyuánhuì), the Shiyan City Protestant Association (Chinese: 十堰市基督教协会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Jīdūjiào Xiéhuì), and the Shiyan City Taoist Association (Chinese: 十堰市道教协会; pinyin: Shíyàn Shì Dàojiào Xiéhuì).[14] The remaining 14 serve regions within the city.[14]

Economy

Lujiagou Reservoir, created by a dam visible in the background. The majority of Shiyan's electricity is derived from hydropower
Lujiagou Reservoir, created by a dam visible in the background. The majority of Shiyan's electricity is derived from hydropower

Like China as a whole, Shiyan's economy has experienced rapid substantial growth in the 21st century. The city's gross domestic product (GDP) stood at 201.272 billion renminbi (RMB) in 2019, which is approximately two-thirds larger than the city's GDP just five years earlier.[8]: 16  The city's economy consists almost entirely of its secondary and tertiary sectors, which constitute 43.93% and 47.55% of its GDP, respectively.[8]: 16  However, as of 2019, 40.2% of Shiyan's population works in the primary sector, whereas just 18.0% works in the secondary sector, and 41.9% work in the tertiary sector.[8]: 28 

The city generated 8.119 billion kWh in electricity in 2019, of which, 5.248 kWh was generated in the form of hydropower.[8]: 18 

Major heavy industries in Shiyan include cement, which the city producing about 4.13 million tons of in 2019,[8]: 18  and steel, which the city produced about 978 thousand tons of in 2019.[8]: 20  The production output of both of these industries declined slightly from 2014 to 2019.[8]: 18, 20 

Shiyan handed 83.15 million tons of freight in 2019, the vast majority of which was transferred by road.[8]: 20 

Automotive industry

Shiyan is a major center of the automobile industry in China since being chosen as the site of Dongfeng Motors predecessor Second Auto. In Mao’s industrial plan, the Wudang mountains offered the city protection from possible enemy attacks. Starting in the 1960s, the small town grew to a major city as Dongfeng employed up to 200,000 locals and operated almost all major amenities in the city.[6]

It previously served as the headquarters of Dongfeng Motors, a major Chinese truck, bus, and heavy goods vehicle company.[5] Some news outlets have labeled the city as the "Detroit of China",[5][6] although the nickname has been applied to other Chinese cities, such as Changchun,[15] Chongqing,[16] and nearby Wuhan.[17]

In recent decades, the automotive industry in Shiyan has shrunk, largely due to increasing production in larger cities with better transit links.[5][6] "Since Dongfeng relocated its main passenger car plant to Wuhan in 2003," the population of Shiyan has been decreasing.[18] The city's production of tires, for instance, has fallen by 48.10% from 2014 to 2019.[8]: 18  Car production in the city rose 6.67% during that time, but this number has been volatile depending on the year.[8]: 20  In response to the threat of the industry's decline, Shiyan's government has sought to diversify the city's economy, and provide more space for other industrial facilities.[19]

Dongfeng and its partner Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance are nowadays producing electric vehicles in Shiyan,[20][21] including the Renault KZE and Dacia Spring.[22][23]

Culture

There are five magazines and seven newspapers in distribution in the city as of 2019.[8]: 293 

99.9% of Shiyan's population lives in areas which receive radio and television coverage, and 73.4% of households in Shiyan have a cable television subscription as of 2019.[8]: 295 

People from Shiyan traditionally speak in Henan's Nanyang dialect, however due to the large number of migrants, Standard Chinese is commonly spoken.[4]

Education

As of 2019, Shiyan's educational institutions are staffed by 29,644 full-time teachers, serving approximately 474,200 students.[8]: 22 

The city is home to 8 public libraries, which, as of 2019, possess 1,624,090 books, and have distributed 114,622 library cards.[8]: 293 

Healthcare

Shiyan has 2,772 health institutions as of 2019, which includes 59 hospitals.[8]: 26  These institutions host a total of 30,634 medical beds.[8]: 26 

Transportation

Railway

Shiyan is located on the Xiangyu Railway between Xiangyang and Chongqing. Construction on a railway between Shiyan and Yichang is scheduled to begin construction in 2009.[24]

The Wuhan–Shiyan high-speed railway completed track laying in June 2019[25] and opened to passengers on 29 November 2019.[26]

Highway

Air

Shiyan Wudangshan Airport (IATA: WDS, ICAO: ZHSY) is the airport serving the city of Shiyan, located 15 km (9.3 mi) from the city center and 20 km (12 mi) from Wudangshan, the World Heritage Site after which it is named. A total area of 16400 square meters; a total of one runway with a length of 2600 meters; 7 stops (2 helicopters); and an annual passenger throughput of 1.2 million passengers

Shiyan Wudangshan Airport starts to work in February, 2016. Until April 2019, there are total 17 fixed routes, navigating to 26 cities.

Sister city

Shiyan has been a sister city of Craiova, Romania, since December 1999.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 66. Archived from the original on 18 June 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. ^ "China: Húbĕi (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  3. ^ "China's Top 10 Most Livable Cities". hnloudi.gov.cn. Hunan Loudi Official Government. 2012-03-28. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  4. ^ a b c "历史沿革 - 历史沿革 - 十堰市委市政府门户网站". www.shiyan.gov.cn. Retrieved 2022-02-15.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Abrams, Jim (1990-08-05). "Detroit of China Surrounded by Backwater of Poverty : Asia: The arrival of the 20th Century proves to be a blessing only for some". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Tang, Frank (2018-11-15). "State carmaker in China's Motown shifts gear to keep up with market". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on 2020-05-22. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  7. ^ Tang, Frank (2018-11-15). "历史沿革". 十堰人民政府 Post (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 2021-07-31.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa 十堰统计年鉴-2020 [Shiyan Statistical Yearbook-2020] (PDF). tjj.hubei.gov.cn (in Chinese). Hubei Provincial Statistics Bureau. 2020-10-01. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-09-25. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  9. ^ 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data (in Chinese (China)). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 17 August 2022.
  10. ^ 十堰市历史沿革 [Yichang City Historical Development] (in Simplified Chinese). XZQH.org. 25 September 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2018. 2004年末,全市总面积23301平方千米{...}2010年第六次人口普查,十堰市常住总人口3340841人,其中:茅箭区399449人,张湾区368471人,郧县558355人,郧西县447482人,竹山县417079人,竹溪县315259人,房县390991人,丹江口市443755人。 2014年,撤销郧县,设立十堰市郧阳区。
  11. ^ 2017年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:十堰市 [2017 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Shiyan City] (in Simplified Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2018. 统计用区划代码 名称 420301000000 市辖区 420302000000 茅箭区 420303000000 张湾区 420304000000 郧阳区 420322000000 郧西县 420323000000 竹山县 420324000000 竹溪县 420325000000 房县 420381000000 丹江口市
  12. ^ a b c 区划人口 [Subdivisions and Population] (in Chinese). Shiyan Municipal People's Government. 2021-06-01. Archived from the original on 2021-09-25. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  13. ^ 十堰市 [Shiyan]. xzqh.org (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2021-06-28. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  14. ^ a b c 十堰市宗教团体基本概况 [Shiyan Religious Organizations Basic Overview] (in Chinese). Shiyan Municipal People's Government. 2021-06-01. Archived from the original on 2021-09-25. Retrieved 2021-09-25.
  15. ^ Makinen, Julie (2016-03-04). "Staring down an economic reckoning in the Detroit of China". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  16. ^ Tabeta, Shinsuke (2019-09-24). "'China's Detroit' struggles to keep its auto industry afloat". Nikkei Asian Review. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  17. ^ Fannin, Rebecca (2020-03-02). "The rush to deploy robots in China amid the coronavirus outbreak". CNBC. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  18. ^ "State carmaker in China's Motown shifts gear to keep up with market". South China Morning Post. 2018-11-15. Retrieved 2022-01-15.
  19. ^ McMahon, Dinny (2013-12-17). "China's Sprawling Cities Bet Their Future on Getting Even Bigger". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-06-08.
  20. ^ "Nissan & Dongfeng present new EV for China". electrive.com. 2018-04-10. Retrieved 2022-01-15.
  21. ^ "Renault-Nissan Alliance and Dongfeng Motor Group Co., Ltd. forge partnership to co-develop electric vehicles in China". Official Global Newsroom. 2017-08-29. Retrieved 2022-01-15.
  22. ^ "First Dacia EV to be built in China - report". Just Auto. 2020-10-20. Retrieved 2022-01-15.
  23. ^ Suzan (2019-04-02). "Dongfeng-Renault K-ZE Unveiled in China as An All-Electric Compact SUV". China Car News, Reviews and More. Retrieved 2022-01-15.
  24. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  25. ^ 汉十高铁全线轨道贯通-新华网. Xinhua. Archived from the original on June 28, 2019. Retrieved 2019-07-11.
  26. ^ "Wuhan – Shiyan high speed line opens". Railway Gazette International. 29 November 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.