From top, left to right: Eastern Qing tombs, Tangshan Southlake Convention & Exhibition Center, Dachengshan Park, Cao Xueqin Cultural Park, Tangshan Art Museum
Phoenix City (凤凰城)
Location of Tangshan City jurisdiction in Hebei
Location of Tangshan City jurisdiction in Hebei
Tangshan is located in Hebei
Location of the city centre in Hebei
Tangshan is located in Northern China
Tangshan (Northern China)
Tangshan is located in China
Tangshan (China)
Coordinates (Tangshan government): 39°37′46″N 118°10′26″E / 39.62944°N 118.17389°E / 39.62944; 118.17389
CountryPeople's Republic of China
EstablishedJanuary 28, 1938
Municipal seatLubei District
 • Party SecretaryJiao Yanlong (焦彦龙)
 • MayorDing Xiufeng (丁绣峰)
 • Prefecture-level city13,472 km2 (5,202 sq mi)
 • Urban
3,874 km2 (1,496 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,874 km2 (1,496 sq mi)
 (2020 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city7,717,983
 • Density570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density950/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density950/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
 • Prefecture-level cityCN¥ 891 billion
US$ 100 billion
 • Per capitaCN¥ 86,667
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code315
ISO 3166 codeCN-HE-02
License Plate Prefix冀B
Literal meaning"Mountain of Tang" (Dacheng Hill)
Huimin Yuan Apartments, Zhengtai Li, Lunan, Tangshan, Hebei

Tangshan (Chinese: 唐山; pinyin: Tángshān) is a coastal, industrial prefecture-level city in the northeast of Hebei province. It is located in the eastern part of Hebei Province and the northeastern part of the North China Plain. It is located in the central area of the Bohai Rim and serves as the main traffic corridor to the Northeast. The city faces the Bohai Sea in the south, the Yan Mountains in the north, Qinhuangdao across the Luan River to the east, and Tianjin to the west.

Much of the city's development is thanks to the industrialization, beginning in 1870, when Kailuan Group established coal mines in the region. It's the birthplace of China's first standard-gauge railway,[3] the first railway plant,[4] the first steam locomotive,[5] and the first cement factory.[6] It was hailed as China's "cradle of industrialization". Even today, Tangshan is a hub of steel, energy, chemical, and ceramics production.[7] Ping opera, which originated from the city's Luanzhou county, is one of the five most popular Chinese operas.

The city has also become known for the 1976 Tangshan earthquake which measured 7.8 on the Richter scale, flattened much of the city, and killed at least 255,000 residents according to official estimates. The city has since been rebuilt, has become a tourist attraction, and is among the 10 largest ports in China.[8]

The city of Tangshan is approximately 149 km (93 mi) east by south east of Beijing and 110 km (68 mi) northwest of Tianjin.[9] Tangshan's prefecture population was 7,717,983 at the 2020 census, with 3,687,607 in the built-up (or metro) area made of the 7 urban core districts.


Tangshan is named after Dacheng Hill (大城山), which was called Mount Tang (唐山), in the middle of the city.

In A.D. 645, Li Shimin, an emperor of Tang dynasty and his army were stationed at Dacheng Hill on his way back from the Korean Peninsula. Unfortunately, Caofei, his beloved concubine, died there. In order to commemorate her, he named the mountain with the name of the empire — Tang. Later, the city took the name of the mountain.[citation needed]


Early history

Tangshan has a long history, with ancient humans living in the area as early as 4,000 years ago. It fell within the territory of the Guzhu Kingdom (1600 BC) at the time of the Shang dynasty and later became a part of the State of Yan, one of the seven Warring States (403 – 221 BC). During the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD) it became part of the ancient province of Youzhou. It was under the jurisdiction of Zhili province and Zunhua State successively during the Qing dynasty.

Tang, Ming and Qing dynasties

Tangshan was a village at the time of the Tang dynasty (619–907) and developed further in agriculture, oil exploitation and ceramics during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).

During the Hundred Days' Reform in the late Qing dynasty, the Kaiping Mining Administration was established in the third year of the Guangxu Emperor (1877). In 1878, Qiaotun town was established at Tangshan and renamed Tangshan Town in 1889. In 1938, Tangshan City was formally founded. The administrative system of Tangshan during the Republic of China Republican era continued to follow the Qing system. In 1929, Zhili Province changed its name to Hebei Province. On January 28, 1939, because of Tangshan's special economic and political position, the East Hebei Autonomous Government established Tangshan City which was initially called “Tangshan Municipal Government” and later changed to “Tangshan Municipal Office”. After Japan surrendered in 1945, the Chinese Nationalist Party in Peking (now known as Beijing) took over the political control of Tangshan from Japan and set up an Administration Inspectors Office. In April 1946, it was decided at the 132nd Meeting of the Chinese Communist Party Hebei Provincial Committee to set up Tangshan City and on May 5 of the same year, the Tangshan Municipal government was founded.

People's Republic

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949, Tangshan remained a provincially administered municipality with 12 areas under its jurisdiction. In March 1955, it was decided at the 2nd session of the first People's Congress of Tangshan City to change Tangshan Municipal people's government to Tangshan people's committee without changing its administration areas.

On April 28, 1958, the State Council approved the establishment of Tangshan prefecture. On August 29, 1958, it was decided at the Seventh Session of the first People's Congress of Hebei Province to move the Tangshan Commissioner Office from Changli County to Tangshan City.

The CPC Central Committee decided to designate Tangshan city as one of the 45 cities open to the world on June 3, 1959. On June 8, 1959, the CPC Hebei Provincial Committee and the Hebei Provincial People's Congress decided to combine the Tangshan Commissioners Office and the Tangshan People's Committee into the Tangshan People's Committee. On April 2, 1960, the State Council officially approved the abolition of Tangshan prefecture. Qinhuangdao city, Qian'an, Changli, Laoting, Baodi, Yutian, Jixian County and Zunhua which were formerly administered by Tangshan Prefecture were incorporated into the Tangshan Municipality. Luanxian County, Fengrun County (formerly a district) and Baigezhuang Farm were also incorporated into Tangshan Municipality. Meanwhile, Tangshan became a provincially administered municipality.

On May 23, 1961, the State Council approved the reinstatement of Tangshan prefecture, which was adopted at the 14th Meeting of the Hebei Provincial People's Committee on June 3, 1959. Tangshan prefecture and Tangshan municipality were separated again and Tangshan turned into a specially administered municipality.

The Tangshan Municipal Revolutionary Committee affiliated to the Revolutionary Committee of Tangshan Region was set up on January 6, 1968. On March 11, 1978, Tangshan turned to be a provincially administered municipality.

In October 1982, it was decided at the Seventh People's Congress of Tangshan city to abolish the Tangshan Municipal Revolutionary Committee and set up the Tangshan Municipal People's Government.

The State Council approved the move on March 3, 1983, and thereafter implemented the city-governing-county system. On May 13, 1983, the Hebei Provincial People's Government announced the cancellation of the Civic Administration office of Tangshan region, which ceased operation on May 15, 1983.

On December 15, 1984, the State Council approved Tangshan city as one of 13 national “comparatively big” cities.

1976 Tangshan earthquake

Main article: 1976 Tangshan earthquake

Tangshan suffered an earthquake of magnitude 7.8 (7.5 according to official reports) at 3:42 am on July 28, 1976, which resulted in many casualties. The official death toll was 255,000, but many experts believe that the actual number of fatalities was two to three times that number, making it the most destructive earthquake in modern history. As a result of the earthquake, most of the town had to be rebuilt. The earthquake was depicted in the 2010 movie Aftershock.


Tangshan is located in the central section of the Bohai Economic Rim, facing the Bohai Sea to the south. Lying on the North China Plain, Tangshan is adjacent to the Yan Mountains to the north, borders the Luan River and Qinhuangdao to the east, and to the west and southwest borders Tianjin. Because of its location in the northeast of Hebei, it is a strategic area and a corridor linking two China's north and northeast regions. The largest river in the prefecture is the Luan River.


Tangshan has a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), with cold and very dry winters, and hot, rainy summers. Spring and autumn are short with some rainfall. The monthly 24-hour average temperature in January is −3.6 °C (25.5 °F), and 26.9 °C (80.4 °F) in July, and the annual mean is 12.8 °C (55.0 °F). Close to 60% of the annual precipitation of 590 mm (23.2 in) falls in July and August alone. The frost-free period lasts 180−190 days, and the area receives 2,600−2,900 hours of sunshine annually.

Climate data for Tangshan (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1971–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12.9
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 1.5
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.6
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −9.5
Record low °C (°F) −22.7
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.7 2.3 2.7 4.9 6.5 9.1 11.2 9.7 5.8 4.5 3.1 2.3 63.8
Average snowy days 2.9 2.4 1.0 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.7 2.9 11.1
Average relative humidity (%) 55 53 49 49 53 64 75 77 70 65 62 58 61
Mean monthly sunshine hours 178.2 186.5 233.8 246.9 270.0 230.5 190.3 204.4 214.0 202.6 166.5 167.9 2,491.6
Percent possible sunshine 59 61 63 62 61 52 42 49 58 59 56 58 57
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[10][11]
Source 2: Weather China[12]

Air pollution

As air pollution in China has worsened in recent years, reports suggest cities in Hebei among the most polluted in the country, with Tangshan being no exception. According to a survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013, 7 cities in Hebei including Xingtai, Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Langfang, Hengshui and Tangshan, are among China's 10 most polluted cities.[13]


The Caofeidian Port

Tangshan is an important heavy industrial city in North China. Its output include machinery, motor vehicles, chemicals, textiles, glass, petroleum products, and cement. It has been a coal-mining center since late Qing dynasty, as Guangdong merchant Tong King-sing opened the first coal mine using modern techniques in Kaiping in 1877.[14] Since the construction of the Caofeidian Project, it has hosted large iron and steel plants, chemical projects, and electricity plants. It is China's largest steel-producing city.[15] Tangshan is also called the "porcelain capital of North China."[16]

Modern industry in China first arose in Tangshan. The second railway in China – after the abortive Woosung Railway in Shanghai – was the six-mile track laid between Hsukochuang and Tangshan which opened in 1881;[17] this eventually grew into the Imperial Railroad of North China and China's modern Jingshan and Jingha Railways. The first fire-resistant material manufactory and the first and largest cement manufactory were constructed in Tangshan as well.

Tangshan has experienced near-constant GDP growth in recent years, but has slowed down in the latter-half of the 2010s.[18] In 2008, the GDP of Tangshan was ¥353.747 billion, which nearly doubled to ¥612.121 billion by 2013, and grew further to ¥695.500 billion in 2018.[18] Tangshan's GDP was ranked the 26th largest among Chinese cities according to data from 2017.[19] The city's exports were valued at $7.109 billion in 2016.[20] Government figures for 2017 show that the city's economy was largely dominated by the secondary industry, contributing ¥408.14 billion to the city's economy.[21]

Industrial zone


Government data from 2017 shows that 7.897 million people live in Tangshan, of which, 61.64% live in an urban area.[22] The city's residents had a mean disposable income of ¥27,786, which was ¥36,415 among urban residents.[22]

Ethnic composition

Tangshan, like many other locations in China, is largely Han Chinese, who account for 95.25% of the city's population.[23] In Zunhua City, there are 3 ethnic townships and ethnic towns.[23] The following table shows the city's ethnic breakdown:

Tangshan Ethnic Composition (2017)[23]
Ethnic Group Population (total) Population (percent)
Han Chinese 7,194,200 95.25%
Manchu 287,700 3.81%
Hui 32,800 0.43%
Mongol 14,100 0.19%
Zhuang 12,900 0.17%
Other 13,700 0.18%


The prefecture-level city of Tangshan administers 14 county-level divisions including 7 districts, 4 counties and 3 county-level cities.

Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010 census)[24] Area (km2) Density (/km2) Seat
Lubei District 路北区 Lùběi Qū 743,504 112 6,638 Qiaotun Subdistrict
Lunan District 路南区 Lùnán Qū 311,076 355 876 South Xueyuan Road Subdistrict
Hangu Administration Zone* 汉沽管理区 Hàngū Guǎnlǐqū
Lutai Economic Development Zone* 芦台经济技术开发区 Lútái Jīngjì Jìshù Kāifāqū
Guye District 古冶区 Gǔyě Qū 358,461 253 1,417 Jinghua Subdistrict
Kaiping District 开平区 Kāipíng Qū 262,571 252 1,042 Kaiping Subdistrict
Fengrun District 丰润区 Fēngrùn Qū 916,092 1,334 687 Taiping Road Subdistrict
Fengnan District 丰南区 Fēngnán Qū 595,467 1,568 380 Qingnian Road Subdistrict
Built-up area 3,187,171 3,874 823
Caofeidian District 曹妃甸区 Cáofēidiān Qū 184,931 700 264 Tanghai Town
Zunhua City 遵化市 Zūnhuà Shì 737,011 1,521 485 Wenhua Road Subdistrict
Qian'an City 迁安市 Qiān'ān Shì 728,160 1,208 603 Yongshun Subdistrict
Luanzhou City 滦州市 Luánzhōu Shì 554,315 999 555 Luanhe Subdistrict
Luannan County 滦南县 Luánnán Xiàn 584,518 1,270 460 Youyilu Subdistrict
Laoting County 乐亭县 Làotíng Xiàn 526,222 1,308 402 Lean Subdistrict
Qianxi County 迁西县 Qiānxī Xiàn 390,128 1,439 271 Lixiang Subdistrict
Yutian County 玉田县 Yùtián Xiàn 684,833 1,165 588 Wuzhong Subdistrict
*Hangu Administration Zone and Lutai Economic Development Zone is subordinate to Lunan District but formally part of Binhai New Area or Ninghe District in Tianjin.

Further information: Phoenix New Town


Tangshan Museum

Universities and colleges

High schools


Eastern Qing tombs
The Anti-seismic Monument
The Pagoda in the Site of Tiangong Temple


Traditional arts




Tangshan Railway Station

As of 2017, Tangshan has 18,000 kilometers of roads, of which, 16,000 were in rural areas.[26] The city's roads served 410 million tons of freight, and the city's port served 570 million tons.[26] As of 2023, Tangshan is the largest city in China without an operating or planned metro system.




Notable people

See also


  1. ^ "China: Hébĕi (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. Retrieved 2015-01-02.
  2. ^ 河北省统计局、国家统计局河北调查总队. 《河北经济年鉴-2018》. 中国统计出版社. ISBN 978-7-5356-7824-9. Archived from the original on 2020-03-26. Retrieved 2019-07-11.
  3. ^ Xiangming Pan (2009). 唐胥铁路史实考辨. Jianghai Academic Journal (4): 185~191.
  4. ^ 工业概况-中国唐山. www.tangshan.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2018-08-28. Retrieved 2018-08-28.
  5. ^ 开滦国家矿山公园. www.kailuanpark.com. Archived from the original on 2018-08-27. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
  6. ^ Lei Yang. 开平矿务局创办中国第一家水泥厂. Archived from the original on 2018-09-19. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  7. ^ 国务院关于印发"十三五"现代综合交通运输体系发展规划的通知_政府信息公开专栏. www.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 2017-06-30. Retrieved 2018-08-27.
  8. ^ "Top 10 ports in China". www.china.org.cn. China Org. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  9. ^ The guide to port entry (21 ed.). London: IHS Fairplay guides. 1 January 2017.
  10. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  11. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  12. ^ 唐山 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Archived from the original on 1 October 2022. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  13. ^ Bildner, Eli (February 27, 2013). "Interactive Maps of China's Most–and Least–Polluted Places". Global Voices China. newsmotion.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  14. ^ Ellsworth C.Carlson, The Kaiping Mines, 1877-1912 2d ed (Cambridge, Massachusetts: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1971.
  15. ^ "Commodities: Steel chrysanthemums: A China-driven rally in metals prices may be as fleeting as spring". The Economist. 12 March 2016. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  16. ^ 筑巢引凤,"北方瓷都"再次腾飞发展. Archived from the original on 2014-09-10. Retrieved 2014-09-10.
  17. ^ Huenemann, Ralph Wm. Harvard East Asian Monographs, No. 109. The Dragon and the Iron Horse: the Economics of Railroads in China, 1876−1937 Archived 2016-04-27 at the Wayback Machine, p. 254. Harvard Univ Asia Center, 1984. ISBN 0-674-21535-4. Accessed 12 October 2011.
  18. ^ a b 中国 | 国内生产总值:河北:唐山 | 经济指标. www.ceicdata.com. Archived from the original on 2023-04-11. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  19. ^ 最新中国城市GDP排名出炉 唐山位列第26位!. hebei.sina.com.cn. Archived from the original on 2023-04-11. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  20. ^ 中国 | 出口:河北:唐山 | 经济指标. www.ceicdata.com. Archived from the original on 2023-07-28. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  21. ^ 唐山市2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报_中国统计信息网. www.cnstats.org. Archived from the original on 2021-11-30. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  22. ^ a b 唐山市2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报_中国统计信息网. www.cnstats.org. Archived from the original on 2021-11-30. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  23. ^ a b c 人口民族-唐山市人民政府. Tangshan People's Government. 2019-07-28. Archived from the original on 2019-07-28. Retrieved 2020-04-24.
  24. ^ "China: Hébĕi (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. Retrieved 2015-01-02.
  25. ^ "A Brief Introduction to Hebei United University". Archived from the original on 2014-09-10.
  26. ^ a b 唐山市2017年国民经济和社会发展统计公报_中国统计信息网. www.cnstats.org. Archived from the original on 2021-11-30. Retrieved 2020-04-24.