Tacheng
Tarbagatay, Chuguchak, Qoqek
"Ruins in Chuguchak" by Vasily Vereshchagin (1869)
"Ruins in Chuguchak" by Vasily Vereshchagin (1869)
Location of Tacheng City (pink) in Tacheng Prefecture (yellow) and Xinjiang
Location of Tacheng City (pink) in Tacheng Prefecture (yellow) and Xinjiang
Tacheng is located in Dzungaria
Tacheng
Tacheng
Location of the city centre in Xinjiang
Tacheng is located in Xinjiang
Tacheng
Tacheng
Tacheng (Xinjiang)
Tacheng is located in China
Tacheng
Tacheng
Tacheng (China)
Coordinates (Tacheng municipal government): 46°45′06″N 82°59′13″E / 46.7517°N 82.9869°E / 46.7517; 82.9869
CountryChina
Autonomous regionXinjiang
PrefectureTacheng
Municipal seatHeping Subdistrict
Area
 • Total3,991.9 km2 (1,541.3 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total158,098
 • Density40/km2 (100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard[a])
Postal code
834700
Websitewww.xjtcsh.gov.cn
Tacheng
Chinese name
Chinese塔城
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese缺切克
Second alternative Chinese name
Chinese楚呼楚
Third alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese塔尔巴哈台
Traditional Chinese塔爾巴哈台
Mongolian name
Mongolian CyrillicТарвагатай
Mongolian scriptᠲᠠᠷᠪᠠᠭᠠᠲᠠᠢ
Uyghur name
Uyghurچۆچەك
Kazakh name
Kazakhشاۋەشەك
Sháýeshek
Daur name
DaurТарбгьти
Tarbgti

Tacheng[2] (Chinese: 塔城), also known as Tarbagatay, Chuguchak[3] or Qoqek,[4] is a county-level city and the administrative seat of Tacheng Prefecture, in northern Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang. The Chinese name "Tacheng" is an abbreviation of "Tarbagatay City", a reference to the Tarbagatay Mountains. Tacheng is located in the Dzungarian Basin, some 10 km (6.2 mi) from the Chinese border with Kazakhstan. For a long time it has been a major center for trade with Central Asia because it is an agricultural hub. Its industries include food processing, textiles, and utilities.

History

In the mid-19th century, Chuguchak was considered the most important commercial center of Western China after Ghulja (Yining), being an important center of trade between China and Russia, in particular in tea. The city, surrounded by an earth wall, was the residence of two Qing ambans and had a garrison of some 1,000 Chinese soldiers and 1,500 Manchu and Mongol soldiers.[3]

Chuguchak suffered harshly in 1865 during the fighting between the Qing forces and the Dungan and Hui rebels.

Tacheng is the site of an internment camp for Turkic Muslims such as the Uyghurs and Kazakhs; it is one of many such camps in Xinjiang. The Chinese government maintains that they are "vocational education centers" for citizens to learn trade skills and the Chinese language, and that the camp was shutdown in 2019. However, satellite imagery shows that the camp expanded five-fold later that year.[5][6]

Border crossing

The Baktu border crossing (simplified Chinese: 口岸; traditional Chinese: 巴克圖口岸; pinyin: Bākètú Kǒu'àn) into Kazakhstan is located 17 km (11 mi) from Tacheng. The checkpoint on the Kazakh side of the border is also known as Bakhty and is located 60 km (37 mi) from Makanchi in East Kazakhstan Province. In April 1962, during the Yi–Ta incident, over 60,000 Chinese citizens, including around 48,000 Tacheng residents, crossed the Xinjiang–Kazakh SSR border, leading to massive economic loss in Tacheng; the border crossing closed in August of that year.[7] The crossing re-opened on 20 October 1990, and was deemed a "first-class port of entry" (一类口岸) on 14 March 1994. On 1 July 1995, the crossing opened to use by third nations.[7]

Administrative divisions

Tacheng is divided into 3 subdistricts, 2 towns, 3 townships, and 1 ethnic township,

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Uyghur (UEY) Uyghur Latin (ULY) Kazakh (Arabic script) Kazakh (Cyrillic script) Administrative division code
Subdistricts
Heping Subdistrict 和平街道 Hépíng Jiēdào تېنچىلىق كوچا باشقارمىسى tënchiliq kocha bashqarmisi بەيبىت كوشە باسقارماسى 654201001
Dubik Subdistrict 杜别克街道 Dùbiékè Jiēdào دۇبىك كوچا باشقارمىسى dubik kocha bashqarmisi دۋبەك كوشە باسقارماسى 654201002
Xincheng Subdistrict 新城街道 Xīnchéng Jiēdào يېڭى شەھەر كوچا باشقارمىسى yëngi sheher kocha bashqarmisi جاڭا جامبىل كوشە باسقارماسى 654201003
Towns
Ergong Town 二工镇 Èrgōng Zhèn ئەرگۇڭ بازىرى Ergung baziri ارگۇڭ قالاشىعى 654201100
Chasha Town 恰夏镇 Qiàxià Zhèn چاشا بازىرى chasha baziri شاشا قالاشىعى 654201101
Bozdakh Town 博孜达克镇 Bózīdákè Zhèn بوزداق بازىرى bozdaq baziri بوزداق قالاشىعى 654201102
Townships
Kharakhabakh Township 喀拉哈巴克乡 Kālāhǎbākè Xiāng قاراقاباق يېزىسى qaraqabaq yëzisi قاراقاباق اۋىلى 654201200
Abdira Township 阿不都拉乡 Ābùdūlā Xiāng ئابدىرا يېزىسى Abdira yëzisi ابدىرا اۋىلى 654201203
Ëmil Township 也门勒乡 Yěménlè Xiāng ئېمىل يېزىسى Ëmil yëzisi ەمىل اۋىلى 654201204
Ethnic Township
Axili Daur Ethnic Township 阿西尔达斡尔民族乡 Āxī'ěr Dáwò'ěr Mínzúxiāng ئاشىلى داغۇر يېزىسى Ashili daghur yëzisi اشىلى داعۇر ۇلتتىق اۋىلى 654201202

Climate

Tacheng has a typical Xinjiang cool semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) that is almost moist enough to be a hot summer humid continental climate (Köppen Dfa), as being on the west side of the Altay Mountains the region receives more winter snowfall than most of Xinjiang.

Climate data for Tacheng (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1971–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
10.5
(50.9)
24.7
(76.5)
33.2
(91.8)
38.2
(100.8)
37.6
(99.7)
40.3
(104.5)
41.6
(106.9)
37.7
(99.9)
32.0
(89.6)
20.8
(69.4)
11.8
(53.2)
41.6
(106.9)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−0.8
(30.6)
7.0
(44.6)
18.2
(64.8)
24.2
(75.6)
29.3
(84.7)
31.1
(88.0)
30.2
(86.4)
24.2
(75.6)
15.8
(60.4)
5.2
(41.4)
−2.1
(28.2)
14.9
(58.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.9
(14.2)
−6.8
(19.8)
0.9
(33.6)
11.1
(52.0)
16.8
(62.2)
21.7
(71.1)
23.4
(74.1)
22.2
(72.0)
16.3
(61.3)
8.5
(47.3)
−0.3
(31.5)
−7.4
(18.7)
8.0
(46.5)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −14.7
(5.5)
−11.8
(10.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
5.2
(41.4)
10.3
(50.5)
14.9
(58.8)
16.8
(62.2)
15.2
(59.4)
9.5
(49.1)
3.0
(37.4)
−4.5
(23.9)
−11.6
(11.1)
2.4
(36.2)
Record low °C (°F) −33.5
(−28.3)
−37.1
(−34.8)
−30.6
(−23.1)
−12.3
(9.9)
−3.7
(25.3)
2.6
(36.7)
6.2
(43.2)
4.0
(39.2)
−4.1
(24.6)
−13.3
(8.1)
−31.5
(−24.7)
−34.7
(−30.5)
−37.1
(−34.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21.6
(0.85)
17.3
(0.68)
18.5
(0.73)
28.8
(1.13)
29.1
(1.15)
25.2
(0.99)
28.0
(1.10)
20.5
(0.81)
18.2
(0.72)
23.1
(0.91)
38.0
(1.50)
28.8
(1.13)
297.1
(11.7)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 9.7 8.2 8.2 7.8 8.2 8.5 9.0 7.1 5.2 6.9 10.1 11.0 99.9
Average snowy days 11.4 11.1 7.3 1.3 0.2 0 0 0 0 2.0 9.1 13.5 55.9
Average relative humidity (%) 70 68 63 51 48 49 51 47 47 57 69 71 58
Mean monthly sunshine hours 151.7 172.4 232.1 263.4 320.2 324.7 331.7 321.3 273.3 219.1 142.7 125.5 2,878.1
Percent possible sunshine 53 58 62 64 68 69 70 75 74 67 52 47 63
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[8][9]
Source 2: Weather China[10]

Transportation

The Karamay–Tacheng Railway (opened on May 30, 2019) connects Tacheng with Baikouquan Station (百口泉站) on the Kuytun–Beitun Railway in Karamay City. It takes 9 hours from Tacheng to Ürümqi.[11]

Tacheng is also served by the Tacheng Qianquan Airport with flights to Ürümqi and other cities in Xinjiang.

Notes

  1. ^ Locals in Xinjiang frequently observe UTC+6 (Xinjiang Time), 2 hours behind Beijing.

References

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Citations

  1. ^ Xinjiang: Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties
  2. ^ The official spelling according to 中国地名录. Beijing: SinoMaps Press (中国地图出版社). 1997. ISBN 7-5031-1718-4.
  3. ^ a b Lumley, John (1869), Report by Mr. Lumley, Her Majesty's Secretary of Embassy at St. Petersburgh, on the Tea Trade of Russia, dated May 4, 1867. [Extracted from "Commercial reports" presented to Parliament, July 1867.], p. 73
  4. ^ Kraus, Charles (June 2019). "Laying Blame for Flight and Fight: Sino-Soviet Relations and the 'Yi–Ta' Incident in Xinjiang, 1962". The China Quarterly. 238: 504. doi:10.1017/S0305741018001789. ISSN 0305-7410.
  5. ^ "Inside Xinjiang's Prison State". The New Yorker. 26 February 2021.
  6. ^ Buschek, Megha Rajagopalan, Alison Killing, Christo (27 August 2020). "China Secretly Built A Vast New Infrastructure To Imprison Muslims". BuzzFeed News.((cite news)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b 百年口岸——巴克图-塔城市政府门户网 (in Chinese (China)). Tacheng People's Government. 2011-07-20. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
  8. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  9. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  10. ^ 塔城 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 29 November 2022.
  11. ^ 穿越“魔鬼风区”的克塔铁路通车 新疆实现所有地州首府通火车. Xinhua. 2019-05-30. Archived from the original on May 30, 2019.

Sources

  • Khālidī, Qurbanʻali, Allen J. Frank, and Mirkasym Abdulakhatovich Usmanov. An Islamic Biographical Dictionary of the Eastern Kazakh Steppe, 1770-1912. Brill's Inner Asian library, v. 12. Leiden: Brill, 2004.
  • Light, Nathan. "Qazaqs in the People's Republic of China: The Local Processes of History". Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana Center on Global Change and World Peace, Occasional Paper No. 22, June 1994. ISBN 1-881157-24-5.
  • Light, Nathan. "Kazakhs of the Tarbaghatai: Ethno-History Through a Novel". The Turkish Studies Association Bulletin, 17/2 (1993): 91–102.
  • Saguchi Toru. "Kazak Pastoralists on the Tarbaghatai Frontier under the Ch'ing." In: Proceedings of the International Conference on China Border Area Studies. Lin En-hsien [Lin Enxian], ed. Taipei: National Chengchi University, 1985, pp. 953–996.
  • Wiens, Herold J. "Change in the Ethnography and Land Use of the Ili Valley and Region, Chinese Turkestan". Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 59, No. 4. (Dec., 1969), pp. 753–775.