Shanshan County
鄯善县پىچان ناھىيىسى
Piqan, Pichan
Sheds for drying grapes in the desert outside Shanshan
Sheds for drying grapes in the desert outside Shanshan
Shanshan is located in Xinjiang
Shanshan
Shanshan
Location of the seat in Xinjiang
Shanshan is located in China
Shanshan
Shanshan
Shanshan (China)
Coordinates: 42°52′08″N 90°12′47″E / 42.869°N 90.213°E / 42.869; 90.213
CountryChina
Autonomous regionXinjiang
Prefecture-level cityTurpan
County seatShanshan Town
Area
 • Total39,550 km2 (15,270 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total242,310
 • Density6.1/km2 (16/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard[a])
Websitewww.xjss.gov.cn
Shanshan County
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese鄯善县
Traditional Chinese鄯善縣
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese皮羌县
Traditional Chinese皮羌縣
Uyghur name
Uyghurپىچان ناھىيىسى

Shanshan County (Chinese: 鄯善县) as the official romanized name, also transliterated from Uyghur as Piqan County (Uyghur: پىچان ناھىيىسى; Chinese: 皮羌县), is a county within the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administrative jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Turpan. It contains an area of 39,548 km2 (15,270 sq mi), occupying the eastern majority of Turpan. According to the 2002 census, it has a population of 210,000.

The county seat is in Shanshan Town.

Name

The county is named after the ancient Shanshan Kingdom, although the kingdom was actually located mostly outside of the borders of the modern county, in the Lop Nur area. The place was originally named Piqian, and the Grand coordinator and provincial governor of Xinjiang proposed the name of Shanshan when Guangxu Emperor decided to set up a county in 1902.[2]

History

The local geology and the desert climate made it possible to discover a number of important fossil sites in the area, including China's largest cluster of fossilized dinosaur tracks and China's largest dinosaur.[3] Important dinosaur sites are associated with the Lianmuqin Formation (named after Lianmuqin Town) and the Subashi Formation (named after Subashi Village (42°55′16″N 89°44′39″E / 42.9212°N 89.7441°E / 42.9212; 89.7441) in Tuyugou Township (吐峪沟乡).[4] The Shanshanosaurus is named after Shanshan.

In 2008–2011, a team of German and Chinese paleontologists discovered and studied an "enormous" accumulation of Jurassic turtle fossils at a site they nicknamed "Mesa Chelonia", approximately 25 km (16 mi) NNE of Shanshan Town. It is estimated that at least 1,800 skeletons of freshwater turtles, preliminary identified as belonging to the Annemys species were buried in this bone bed, in a stratigraphic layer probably belonging to the Qigu Formation. The researchers suggest that during a drought the turtles congregating at one of the few remaining water sources, and died there once that last water hole dried out. Then the skeletons were transported to the present location by a debris flow during a catastrophic rainfall event, forming a Konzentrat-Lagerstätte.[5][6]

According to the paleontologist Walter Joyce, the Shanshan find has more than doubled the total number of Jurassic turtle specimens known to science.[6] The excavated fossils have been transported to Shanshan Town, where they will be housed in the county museum (currently under construction).[5]

On January 6, 2009, five well-preserved mummies of ethnic Han men who lived during the Qing dynasty were excavated at a construction site near the Flaming Mountains in the county.[7]

In June 2013, an incident in Lukchun lead to the deaths of dozens.[8]

Subdivisions

Shanshan County is divided into 7 towns, 2 townships, 1 ethnic township and 2 other township-level divisions.

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Uyghur (UEY) Uyghur Latin (ULY) Administrative division code
Towns
Shanshan Town 鄯善镇 Shànshàn Zhèn پىچان شەھەر بازىرى Pichan sheher baziri 650421100
Chiqtim Town
(Qiketai Town)
七克台镇 Qīkètái Zhèn چىقتىم بازىرى Chiqtim baziri 650421101
Railway Station Town 火车站镇 Huǒchēzhàn Zhèn پويىز ئىستانسىسى بازىرى Poyiz Istansisi baziri 650421102
Lemjin Town
(Lianmuqin Town)
连木沁镇 Liánmùqìn Zhèn لەمجىن بازىرى Lemjin baziri 650421103
Lükchün Town
(Lukeqin Town)
鲁克沁镇 Lǔkèqìn Zhèn لۈكچۈن بازىرى Lükchün baziri 650421104
Pichan Town 辟展镇 Pìzhǎn Zhèn پىچان ئەتراپى بازىرى Pichan etrapi baziri 650421105
Dighar Town 迪坎镇 Díkǎn Zhèn دىغار بازىرى Dighar baziri 650421106
Ethnic township
Dungbazar Hui Ethnic Township 东巴扎回族乡 Dōngbāzhā Huízú Xiāng دۇڭبازار خۇيزۇ يېزىسى Dungbazar xuyzu yëzisi 650421201
Townships
Tuyuq Township
(Tuyugou Township)
吐峪沟乡 Tǔyùgōu Xiāng تۇيۇق يېزىسى Tuyuq yëzisi 650421202
Dalankariz Township
(Dalangkan Township)
达朗坎乡 Dálǎngkǎn Xiāng دالانكارىز يېزىسى Dalankariz yëzisi 650421203
Township-level divisions
Nanshan Mining District 南山矿区 Nánshān Kuàngqū نەنسەن كانچىلىق رايونى Nensen kanchiliq rayoni 650421400
Shanshan Horticultural Ground 园艺场 Yuányìchǎng باغۋەنچىلىك مەيدانى Baghwenchilik meydani 650421401

Geography

Biratar Bulak is a spring in the southern part of the county.[9][10]

Climate

Climate data for Shanshan (1991–2020 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −2.8
(27.0)
5.8
(42.4)
16.0
(60.8)
25.3
(77.5)
31.4
(88.5)
36.3
(97.3)
38.0
(100.4)
36.7
(98.1)
30.8
(87.4)
21.1
(70.0)
9.4
(48.9)
−0.8
(30.6)
20.6
(69.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.4
(15.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
8.2
(46.8)
17.3
(63.1)
23.2
(73.8)
28.3
(82.9)
29.7
(85.5)
27.9
(82.2)
21.1
(70.0)
11.5
(52.7)
1.9
(35.4)
−7.0
(19.4)
12.6
(54.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −14.4
(6.1)
−7.7
(18.1)
1.2
(34.2)
9.7
(49.5)
15.2
(59.4)
20.5
(68.9)
22.2
(72.0)
20.3
(68.5)
13.8
(56.8)
5.1
(41.2)
−3.3
(26.1)
−11.4
(11.5)
5.9
(42.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1.4
(0.06)
0.8
(0.03)
1.2
(0.05)
2.1
(0.08)
2.3
(0.09)
4.7
(0.19)
5.1
(0.20)
3.5
(0.14)
1.9
(0.07)
1.9
(0.07)
0.7
(0.03)
1.1
(0.04)
26.7
(1.05)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.3 2.3 4.1 2.6 1.4 1.0 0.6 1.1 17.4
Average snowy days 3.5 1.1 0.1 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 2.7 8
Average relative humidity (%) 61 45 29 27 29 33 37 38 41 50 52 59 42
Mean monthly sunshine hours 182.8 208.4 260.0 281.5 321.3 319.8 315.0 316.1 294.3 267.3 199.5 166.9 3,132.9
Percent possible sunshine 62 69 69 69 70 70 69 75 80 80 70 60 70
Source: China Meteorological Administration[11][12]

Demographics

The proportion of nationalities in Shanshan (Pichan) County
Nationality Percentage
Uyghurs
75.0%
Han
19.9%
Hui
4.8%
Others
0.3%
Source of the population statistics :[13]

Transportation

Shanshan is served by China National Highway 312, the Lanzhou–Xinjiang Railway and Shanshan Airport.

Notes

  1. ^ Locals in Xinjiang frequently observe UTC+6 (Xinjiang Time), 2 hours behind Beijing.

References

  1. ^ Xinjiang: Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties
  2. ^ "鄯善县 - 吐鲁番地区 - 新疆维吾尔自治区 - 行政区域网".
  3. ^ Large Jurassic dinosaur fossil discovered in Xinjiang, Xinhua, 2012-04-15
  4. ^ "2017年统计用区划代码".
  5. ^ a b Wings, Oliver; Rabi, Márton; Schneider, Jörg W.; Schwermann, Leonie; Sun, Ge; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Joyce, Walter G. (2012), "An enormous Jurassic turtle bone bed from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China", Naturwissenschaften, 114 (11): 925–35, Bibcode:2012NW.....99..925W, doi:10.1007/s00114-012-0974-5, PMID 23086389, S2CID 17423081
  6. ^ a b Gannon, Megan (October 31, 2012), "Jurassic turtle graveyard found in China", Livescience.com
  7. ^ "Well preserved mummies found in Xinjiang", China Daily
  8. ^ Shohret Hoshur, Joshua Lipes (28 July 2013). "Two Uyghurs Believed Killed in Hotan Violence". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Dolkun Kamberi and Luisetta Mudie. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
  9. ^ Complete Atlas Of The World (3 ed.). Penguin Random House. 2016. p. 238 – via Internet Archive. Shanshan{...}Biratar Bulak
  10. ^ Biratar Bulak (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  11. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  12. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  13. ^ 3-7 各地、州、市、县(市)分民族人口数 [3-7 Population by Nationality by Prefecture, State, City and County (City)]. tjj.xinjiang.gov.cn (in Chinese). Statistical Bureau of Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. 2020-06-10. Archived from the original on 2020-11-01. Retrieved 2021-06-11.