Xayar County
شايار ناھىيىسى (Uyghur)
沙雅县 (Chinese)
Shayar, Shaya
Huyanglin Nature Reserve
Huyanglin Nature Reserve
Location of Shayar County (red) within Aksu Prefecture (yellow) and Xinjiang
Location of Shayar County (red) within Aksu Prefecture (yellow) and Xinjiang
Xayar County is located in Xinjiang
Xayar County
Xayar County
Location of the seat
Xayar County is located in China
Xayar County
Xayar County
Xayar County (China)
Coordinates: 41°13′48″N 82°48′21″E / 41.23000°N 82.80583°E / 41.23000; 82.80583
CountryChina
Autonomous regionXinjiang
PrefectureAksu
Established date1902[1][2][3]
County seatXayar Town (Shayar, Shaya)[3]
Area
 • Total31,887.28 km2 (12,311.75 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[5]
 • Total278,516
 • Density8.7/km2 (23/sq mi)
Ethnic groups
 • Major ethnic groupsUyghur[6]
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard[a])
Postal code
842200
Websitewww.xjsy.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Xayar County
Uyghur name
Uyghurشايار ناھىيىسى
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese沙雅
Traditional Chinese沙雅

Xayar County,[7][8][9][10] also Shayar County[11][12][13][14] or, from Mandarin Chinese, Shaya,[15] is a county in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region and is under the administration of the Aqsu Prefecture. It contains an area of 31,868 km2 (12,304 sq mi). According to the 2004 census it has a population of 210,000.

History

In 1902, Xayar County was established.[1][2][3]

In March 1964, Tarim Farm (塔里木农场) was founded. In 1970, Tarim Farm was renamed Nong Yi Shi 15th Regiment (农一师十五团). In 1973, Nong Yi Shi 15th Regiment was renamed Third Laogai Detachment (第三劳改支队).[16] As of 1982, the prison had a cotton processing factory.[17]: 43  In 1985, Third Laogai Detachment was renamed Tarim Laogai Detachment (塔里木劳改支队). In 1994, Tarim Laogai Detachment was renamed Tarim Prison (塔里木监狱).[16]

On July 15, 1996, a prison rebellion in Xayar County led to the deaths of fifteen.[18]

In 1998, Tarim Prison was renamed Xayar Prison (沙雅监狱).[16]

In June 2008, Gezqum Township (Gaizikumu) was established. On December 30, 2008, the township's government started operation.[3]

In 2011, Yantaqsheher Township (Yangtakexiehai'er) was established.[3]

In 2012, Xadadong (Hadedun) was established. On February 25, 2013, the town's government started operation.[3]

According to Radio Free Asia, in January 2014 after Uyghur residents were reportedly forced to bow to a flag of China before worshipping at Xaniqa mosque in Yengimehelle township, three Uyghur youths burned the flag. Raids on Uyghur homes searching for the youths continued into 2015. Authorities warned residents not to discuss the flagburning incident.[14]

On May 26, 2014, Gulbagh (Gulebage), then a township, was made a town.[3]

In an Agence France-Presse report, between 2017 and 2019, three cemeteries in Xayar County were among dozens of Uyghur cemeteries destroyed in Xinjiang. The unearthed human bones from the cemeteries in Xayar County were discarded.[12][13]

Administrative divisions

Xayar County included seven towns, four townships and four other areas:[3][4][19]

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Uyghur (UEY) Uyghur Latin (ULY) Administrative division code Notes
Towns
Xayar Town 沙雅镇 Shāyǎ Zhèn شايار بازىرى shayar baziri 652924100
Toyboldi Town[20] 托依堡勒迪镇 Tuōyībǎolèdí Zhèn تويبولدى بازىرى toyboldi baziri 652924101 formerly Toyboldi Township (托依堡勒迪乡)
Qizilbayraq Town 红旗镇 Hóngqí Zhèn قىزىلبايراق بازىرى qizilbayraq baziri 652924102 formerly Toyboldi Township (红旗乡)
Yengimehelle Town[14] 英买里镇 Yīngmǎilì Zhèn يېڭىمەھەللە بازىرى yëngimehelle baziri 652924103 formerly Yengimehelle Township (英买里乡)
Xadadong Town 哈德墩镇 Hādédūn Zhèn خادادۆڭ بازىرى xadadöng baziri 652924104
Gülbag Town[20] 古勒巴格镇 Gǔlèbāgé Zhèn گۈلباغ بازىرى gülbagh baziri 652924105 formerly Gülbag Township (古勒巴格乡)
Qaylor 海楼镇 Hǎilóu Zhèn قايلور بازىرى qaylor baziri 652924106 formerly Qaylor Township (海楼乡)
Townships
Nurbagh Township 努尔巴格乡 Nǔ'ěrbāgé Xiāng نۇرباغ يېزىسى nurbagh yëzisi 652924205
Tarim Township 塔里木乡 Tǎlǐmù Xiāng تارىم يېزىسى tarim yëzisi 652924206
Gezqum Township 盖孜库木乡 Gàizīkùmù Xiāng گەزقۇم يېزىسى gezqum yëzisi 652924207
Yantaqsheher Township 央塔克协海尔乡 Yāngtǎkèxiéhǎi'ěr Xiāng يانتاقشەھەر يېزىسى yantaqsheher yëzisi 652924208

Other areas: Xinken Farm (新垦农场), No. 2 Pasture (二牧场), Xayar Prison[17]: 42  (Xinjiang Shaya Prison,[17]: 64  沙雅监狱), Xayar County Industrial Zone (沙雅县工业集中区).

Climate

Climate data for Xayar, elevation 983 m (3,225 ft), (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
15.6
(60.1)
26.6
(79.9)
35.8
(96.4)
36.4
(97.5)
38.9
(102.0)
40.5
(104.9)
41.2
(106.2)
36.1
(97.0)
30.0
(86.0)
21.4
(70.5)
10.5
(50.9)
41.2
(106.2)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −0.4
(31.3)
6.5
(43.7)
15.4
(59.7)
23.7
(74.7)
28.4
(83.1)
31.7
(89.1)
33.1
(91.6)
31.9
(89.4)
27.6
(81.7)
20.6
(69.1)
10.7
(51.3)
1.3
(34.3)
19.2
(66.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −6.8
(19.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
8.5
(47.3)
16.4
(61.5)
21.1
(70.0)
24.6
(76.3)
25.9
(78.6)
24.8
(76.6)
19.9
(67.8)
11.8
(53.2)
3.0
(37.4)
−4.7
(23.5)
12.0
(53.6)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −12.0
(10.4)
−6.1
(21.0)
2.2
(36.0)
9.8
(49.6)
14.5
(58.1)
18.1
(64.6)
19.6
(67.3)
18.6
(65.5)
13.5
(56.3)
5.2
(41.4)
−2.4
(27.7)
−9.1
(15.6)
6.0
(42.8)
Record low °C (°F) −24.2
(−11.6)
−22.9
(−9.2)
−9.7
(14.5)
−2.0
(28.4)
2.2
(36.0)
8.0
(46.4)
10.9
(51.6)
9.7
(49.5)
3.9
(39.0)
−3.3
(26.1)
−14.2
(6.4)
−22.6
(−8.7)
−24.2
(−11.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 1.3
(0.05)
2.3
(0.09)
0.6
(0.02)
3.5
(0.14)
5.4
(0.21)
12.7
(0.50)
10.2
(0.40)
11.2
(0.44)
6.3
(0.25)
2.3
(0.09)
3.7
(0.15)
1.3
(0.05)
60.8
(2.39)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.0 1.4 0.8 1.2 2.7 5.3 6.1 4.9 3.0 0.9 0.9 1.7 30.9
Average snowy days 4.4 1.7 0.2 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 4.6 11.8
Average relative humidity (%) 66 53 39 34 35 41 46 49 51 55 58 68 50
Mean monthly sunshine hours 187.2 197.7 227.8 249.5 288.7 294.5 304.3 283.7 267.8 260.7 208.1 172.2 2,942.2
Percent possible sunshine 63 65 61 62 64 65 67 68 73 78 72 60 67
Source: China Meteorological Administration[21][22]

Economy

Agriculture and animal husbandry are equally strong in the county. Agricultural products include wheat, corn and cotton as well as melons, yema (野麻), walnut, velvet antler, muskrat, and licorice root. The county is the main location for Sanbei Sheep (三北羊) lambskin production. Industries include knitting, leather making, food processing and others.[2]

The seven major speciality products of the county include Tarim Huyang, cotton, red deer, dates, Karakul sheep, salt cedar, and sword-leaf dogbane.[4]

As of 1885, there was about 45,900 acres (303,747 mu) of cultivated land in Xayar.[23]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000202,992—    
2010257,502+2.41%
[3]

As of 2015, 230,129 of the 274,382 residents of the county were Uyghur, 41,463 were Han Chinese and 2,790 were from other ethnic groups.[24]

Most residents of Xayar are Muslim Uyghurs.[6]

As of 1999, 84.05% of the population of Xayar (Shaya) County was Uyghur and 14.6% of the population was Han Chinese.[25]

Transportation

Historical maps

Historical English-language maps including Xayar:

Notes

  1. ^ Locals in Xinjiang frequently observe UTC+6 (Xinjiang Time), 2 hours behind Beijing.
  2. ^ From map: "THE DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES ON THIS MAP MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE"
  3. ^ From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."

References

  1. ^ a b 沙雅县史志办 (1 October 2011). 行政区划 (in Simplified Chinese). Archived from the original on 2 June 2015. Retrieved 26 April 2020 – via Internet Archive.
  2. ^ a b c d 夏征农; 陈至立, eds. (September 2009). 辞海:第六版彩图本 [Cihai (Sixth Edition in Color)] (in Chinese). 上海. Shanghai: 上海辞书出版社. Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 1954. ISBN 9787532628599.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 沙雅县历史沿革 [Xayar County Historical Development] (in Simplified Chinese). XZQH.org. 30 January 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2019. 2010年第六次人口普查,沙雅县常住总人口257502人,其中:沙雅镇51806人,托依堡勒迪镇42227人,红旗镇31736人,英买力镇43151人,古勒巴格乡28795人,海楼乡23198人,努尔巴格乡10952人,塔里木乡6940人,盖孜库木乡8827人,新垦农场1684人,一牧场1849人,二牧场1528人,沙雅监狱4429人,沙雅县工业集中380人。2011年,设立央塔克协海尔乡。2012年,设立哈德墩镇(镇政府于2013年2月25日正式挂牌成立)。2014年5月26日,自治区政府(新政函[2014]80号)批复同意撤销古勒巴格乡,设立古勒巴格镇。至此,全县辖6个镇、5个乡。
  4. ^ a b c 沙雅简介. شايار 沙雅县人民政府 (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 25 April 2020. 辖7镇4乡1管委会,169个村(社区),
  5. ^ Xinjiang: Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties
  6. ^ ZX, ed. (26 September 2019). "Pic story: oil workers at Shunbei oil-gas field in China's Xinjiang". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on August 13, 2020. Retrieved 25 April 2020. Oil workers have a morning meeting at Shunbei oil-gas field of China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) in Xayar County, northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Sept. 25, 2019.
  7. ^ Ted Regencia (25 October 2019). "Communist loyalty no shield for Uighurs from Chinese detention". Aljazeera.com. Retrieved 25 April 2020. Uighurs work at a roadside in Xayar County east of the city of Aksu in Xinjiang last September
  8. ^ &Diacritics=DC Xayar (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  9. ^ Complete Atlas Of The World (3rd ed.). Penguin Random House. 2016. p. 238 – via Internet Archive. Xayar
  10. ^ The official spelling is "Shayar" according to 中国地名录. Beijing: SinoMaps Press. 1997. p. 313. ISBN 7-5031-1718-4.
  11. ^ a b "Even in death, Uighurs feel long reach of Chinese state". France 24. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2020. In just two years, dozens of cemeteries have been destroyed in the northwest region, according to an AFP investigation with satellite imagery analysts Earthrise Alliance.
    Some of the graves were cleared with little care -- in Shayar county, AFP journalists saw unearthed human bones left discarded in three sites.
  12. ^ a b Eva Xiao; Pak Yiu (11 October 2019). "China disturbs even the Uighur dead in 'development' of Xinjiang". The Japan Times. Retrieved 25 April 2020. Some of the graves were cleared with little care — in Shayar County, journalists saw unearthed human bones left discarded at three sites.
  13. ^ a b c Shohret Hoshur; Roseanne Gerin (16 April 2015). "Police Conduct Raids in Xinjiang a Year After Flag Burning at Mosque". Radio Free Asia. Translated by Shohret Hoshur. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
  14. ^ "China dissident lawyer Gao Zhisheng 'in Xinjiang jail'". BBC. 2 January 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2020. Gao Zhiyi said he planned to visit his brother in the Shaya County jail in the western prefecture of Aksu later this month.
  15. ^ a b c Tang Yaozeng 汤耀增 (15 January 2019). 55年的滋养,塔里木农场的胡杨在沙雅监狱蓬勃向上 (in Simplified Chinese). Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  16. ^ a b c Han Lianchao (August 2019). Cotton: The Fabric Full of Lies. Citizen Power Initiatives for China.
  17. ^ J. Todd Reed; Diana Raschke (2010). The ETIM: China's Islamic Militants and the Global Terrorist Threat. Praeger Publishing. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-313-36540-9 – via Google Books. On 15 July 1996, the "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Justice Party" engineered a prison rebellion in Xayar County, killing 15 people
  18. ^ 2019年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:沙雅县 [2019 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Xayar County] (in Simplified Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2019. Retrieved 25 April 2019. 统计用区划代码 名称 652924100000 沙雅镇 652924101000 托依堡勒迪镇 652924102000 红旗镇 652924103000 英买力镇 652924104000 沙雅县哈德墩镇 652924105000 古勒巴格镇 652924106000 海楼镇 652924205000 努尔巴格乡 652924206000 塔里木乡 652924207000 盖孜库木乡 652924208000 央塔克协海尔乡 652924400000 新垦农场 652924402000 二牧场 652924403000 沙雅监狱 652924404000 沙雅县工业集中区
  19. ^ a b Xie Yuzhong 解玉忠 (2003). 地名中的新疆 (in Simplified Chinese). Ürümqi: 新疆人民出版社. p. 172. ISBN 7-228-08004-1. 托依堡勒迪 Toyboldi {...}
    古勒巴格 Gülbag {...
    }
  20. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  21. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  22. ^ Herold J. Wiens (November 1966). "Cultivation Development and Expansion in China's Colonial Realm in Central Asia". The Journal of Asian Studies. 26 (1): 75. doi:10.2307/2051832. JSTOR 2051832. S2CID 162339064.
  23. ^ 3-7 各地、州、市、县(市)分民族人口数 (in Simplified Chinese). شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى 新疆维吾尔自治区统计局 Statistic Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. 15 March 2017. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  24. ^ Morris Rossabi, ed. (2004). Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers (PDF). University of Washington Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-295-98390-6.