Yengisar County
يېڭىسار ناھىيىسى (Uyghur)
英吉沙县 (Chinese)
Yangi Hissar, Yingjisha
Signs advertising Yengisar's famous knives
Signs advertising Yengisar's famous knives
Location of Yengisar County (red) within Kashgar Prefecture (yellow) in Xinjiang
Location of Yengisar County (red) within Kashgar Prefecture (yellow) in Xinjiang
Yengisar is located in Southern Xinjiang
Yengisar
Yengisar
Location of the seat in Xinjiang
Yengisar is located in Xinjiang
Yengisar
Yengisar
Yengisar (Xinjiang)
Yengisar is located in China
Yengisar
Yengisar
Yengisar (China)
Coordinates: 38°55′33″N 76°10′17″E / 38.92583°N 76.17139°E / 38.92583; 76.17139
CountryChina
Autonomous regionXinjiang
PrefectureKashgar
County seatYengisar
Area
 • Total3,425 km2 (1,322 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[3]
 • Total276,641
 • Density81/km2 (210/sq mi)
Ethnic groups
 • Major ethnic groupsUyghur[4]
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard[a])
Postal code
844500
Websitewww.yjs.gov.cn (in Chinese)
Yengisar County
Uyghur name
Uyghurيېڭىسار ناھىيىسى
Literal meaningnew town county
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese英吉沙
Traditional Chinese英吉沙
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese新城县
Traditional Chinese新城縣

Yengisar County[5][6][7][8][9][10] (formerly transliterated as Yangi Hissar, from Uyghur: يېڭىسار ناھىيىسى[11]), also known as Yingjisha County[12][13] (Chinese: 英吉沙县), is a county of Kashgar Prefecture in southwest Xinjiang, China. It covers an area of 3,373 km2 (1,302 sq mi). As of the 2002 census, it had a population of 230,000.

The county seat is the city of Yengisar, a town well known among the local Uyghurs for its handmade knives. The finely-tuned skill of knife-making used to be passed down among generations in Yengisar,[14] but it is slowly dying due to China's strict response to deadly clashes in Xinjiang.[15]

History

In 1499, Ahmad Alaq seized Kashgar and Yengisar from Mirza Abu Bakr Dughlat.[16]

In 1847 and again in 1857, Kashgar and Yengisar were captured.[17]

In 1882, Yengisar Independent Subprefecture (英吉沙直隸廳) was created.[18]

In 1913, Yengisar Independent Subprefecture became Yengisar County.[18]

The Battle of Yangi Hissar took place here in April 1934, when Ma Zhancang led the Chinese Muslim 36th division to attack the Turkic Muslim Uighur forces at Yangi Hissar, wiping out the entire Uighur force of 500 and killing the Emir Nur Ahmad Jan Bughra.[19][20]

In 1955, Barin, Jamaterek and Ujme were transferred from Yengisar County to Akto County.[21]

In September 2017, Horigul Nasir, then 21, was jailed for ten years for allegedly promoting the wearing of head scarves. Her brother Yusupjan Nasir was subsequently demoted from his position as an assistant officer of the Saghan township police office to a security guard at the township's Family Planning Department.[22]

Administrative Divisions

Yengisar County included 4 towns, 10 townships, and two other areas:[2][23][24]

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Uyghur (UEY) Uyghur Latin (ULY) Administrative division code Notes
Towns
Yengisar Town 英吉沙镇 Yīngjíshā Zhèn يېڭىسار بازىرى yëngisar baziri 653123100
Ulugqat Town 乌恰镇 Wūqià Zhèn ئۇلۇغچات بازىرى Ulughchat baziri 653123101 Formerly Ulugqat Township (乌恰乡)
Mangshin Town
(Mangxin Town[25])
芒辛镇 Mángxīn Zhèn ماڭشىن بازىرى[26] mangshin baziri 653123102 Formerly Mangshin Township (ماڭشىن يېزىسى / 芒辛乡)
Saghan Town 萨罕镇 Sàhǎn Zhèn ساغان بازىرى saghan baziri 653123102 Formerly Mangshin Township (ساغان يېزىسى / 萨罕乡)
Townships
Sheher Township
(Chengguan Township)
城关乡 Chéngguǎn Xiāng شەھەر يېزىسى sheher yëzisi 653123200
Qolpan Township[27] 乔勒潘乡 Qiáolèpān Xiāng چولپان يېزىسى cholpan yëzisi 653123201
Lompa Township 龙甫乡 Lóngfǔ Xiāng لومپا يېزىسى lompa yëzisi 653123202
Siyitle Township 色提力乡 Sètílì Xiāng سىيىتلە يېزىسى siyitle yëzisi 653123204
Yengiyer Township 英也尔乡 Yīngyě'ěr Xiāng يېڭىيەر يېزىسى yëngiyer yëzisi 653123206
Qizil Township 克孜勒乡 Kèzīlè Xiāng قىزىل يېزىسى qizil yëzisi 653123207
Topluq Township 托普鲁克乡 Tuōpǔlǔkè Xiāng توپلۇق يېزىسى topluq yëzisi 653123208
Soget Township 苏盖提乡 Sūgàití Xiāng سۆگەت يېزىسى söget yëzisi 653123209
Egus Township 艾古斯乡 Àigǔsī Xiāng ئەگۈس يېزىسى Egüs yëzisi 653123211
Egizyer Township 依格孜也尔乡
(依格孜牙乡[28])
Yīgézīyě'ěr Xiāng ئېگىزيەر يېزىسى Ëgizyer yëzisi 653123212

Climate

Climate data for Yengisar (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
21.5
(70.7)
29.4
(84.9)
34.8
(94.6)
35.8
(96.4)
39.5
(103.1)
40.7
(105.3)
42.1
(107.8)
35.7
(96.3)
30.5
(86.9)
26.1
(79.0)
19.4
(66.9)
42.1
(107.8)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 0.1
(32.2)
6.2
(43.2)
15.6
(60.1)
23.6
(74.5)
28.0
(82.4)
32.0
(89.6)
33.6
(92.5)
32.1
(89.8)
27.5
(81.5)
20.6
(69.1)
11.4
(52.5)
2.1
(35.8)
19.4
(66.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.4
(22.3)
0.3
(32.5)
9.2
(48.6)
16.6
(61.9)
20.8
(69.4)
24.6
(76.3)
26.4
(79.5)
24.9
(76.8)
20.4
(68.7)
13.0
(55.4)
4.5
(40.1)
−3.1
(26.4)
12.7
(54.8)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −9.8
(14.4)
−4.7
(23.5)
3.5
(38.3)
10.2
(50.4)
14.3
(57.7)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68.0)
18.8
(65.8)
14.2
(57.6)
6.7
(44.1)
−0.8
(30.6)
−7.0
(19.4)
7.0
(44.5)
Record low °C (°F) −22.2
(−8.0)
−22.6
(−8.7)
−10.1
(13.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
4.4
(39.9)
8.8
(47.8)
10.9
(51.6)
9.5
(49.1)
3.4
(38.1)
−4.4
(24.1)
−12.0
(10.4)
−20.1
(−4.2)
−22.6
(−8.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.2
(0.13)
6.1
(0.24)
7.1
(0.28)
4.9
(0.19)
12.1
(0.48)
10.4
(0.41)
10.1
(0.40)
11.9
(0.47)
12.1
(0.48)
4.7
(0.19)
2.7
(0.11)
2.2
(0.09)
87.5
(3.47)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.7 2.6 2.1 1.8 3.8 4.9 4.8 4.6 3.6 1.3 0.7 2.0 34.9
Average snowy days 6.6 3.9 1.0 0.1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 5.6 18
Average relative humidity (%) 66 57 44 36 38 38 41 46 50 53 58 68 50
Mean monthly sunshine hours 137.6 147.6 179.5 211.2 257.6 293.6 295.9 270.5 248.5 236.7 184.7 131.9 2,595.3
Percent possible sunshine 45 48 48 53 58 66 66 65 68 70 62 45 58
Source: China Meteorological Administration[29][30]

Economy

As of 1885, there was about 72,700 acres (480,014 mu) of cultivated land in Yengisar.[31]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
2000213,338—    
2010262,067+2.08%
[2]

As of 2015, 297,290 of the 302,542 residents of the county were Uyghur, 25,404 were Han Chinese and 851 were from other ethnic groups.[32]

As of 1999, 97.82% of the population of Yengisar (Yingjisha) County was Uyghur and 1.79% of the population was Han Chinese.[33]

Transportation

Yengisar is served by China National Highway 315 and the Southern Xinjiang railway.

Wildlife

The city of Yengisar gave its name to Yangihissar gecko (Cyrtopodion elongatum) lizard species, which occurs throughout eastern Central Asia, including Xinjiang and Gansu Province.[1]

Notable persons

Gallery

Notes

  1. ^ Locals in Xinjiang frequently observe UTC+6 (Xinjiang Time), 2 hours behind Beijing.
  2. ^ From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative."
  3. ^ From map: "The representation of international boundaries is not necessarily authoritative"

References

  1. ^ 英吉沙简介. 英吉沙县总面积3425平方公里,辖2镇12乡,耕地面积38.03万亩,有维吾尔、汉、回、乌孜别克、柯尔克孜、哈萨克等,总人口28.4万人(2013年)。. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  2. ^ a b c 英吉沙县历史沿革. XZQH.org. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2020. 2000年第五次人口普查,英吉沙县常住总人口213338人,{...}2003年,英吉沙县总面积3420.9平方千米,{...}2010年第六次人口普查,英吉沙县常住总人口262067人,其中:城镇31113人,城关乡13058人,乔勒潘乡11848人,龙甫乡6882人,芒辛乡25746人,色提力乡10424人,萨罕乡30029人,英也尔乡12593人,克孜勒乡24772人,托普鲁克乡13860人,苏盖提乡23280人,乌恰乡42385人,艾古斯乡9371人,依格孜也尔乡5114人,兵团东风农场1592人。
  3. ^ Xinjiang: Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties
  4. ^ 1997年英吉沙县行政区划. XZQH.org (in Simplified Chinese). 19 November 2010. Retrieved 4 March 2020. 面积4306.5平方千米,人口20.5万,有维吾尔、汉、柯尔克孜、乌孜别克、塔吉克、哈萨克、蒙古等民族,其中维吾尔族占98%,
  5. ^ Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development (2010). 建筑抗震设计规范 [GB50011-2010: Code for Seismic Design of Buildings] (in English and Simplified Chinese). Beijing: China Architecture & Building Press. p. 203 – via Google Books. Yengisar County
  6. ^ Liangyu, ed. (29 July 2018). "Across China: Xinjiang county builds eco-friendly fruit industry". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on July 29, 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2020. The farmers benefitted from the transformation. Having harvested 86,000 tonnes of apricots this year, Yengisar County's farmers increased their per capita income by around 1,000 yuan.
  7. ^ yan, ed. (13 April 2019). "Across China: 1,000-year-old folk craft preserved in Xinjiang". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on April 14, 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2020. As a staff member of the culture center in Yengisar County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Urziashim performs traditional cloth stamping, a 1,000-year-old Chinese intangible cultural heritage.
  8. ^ Rahilä Dawut (2009). "Shrine Pilgrimage among the Uighurs". The Silk Road. 6 (2): 58 – via Internet Archive. The Hazriti Beg mazar, Yengisar, Kashgar prefecture.
  9. ^ Shohret Hoshur, Joshua Lipes (31 October 2019). "Male Chinese 'Relatives' Assigned to Uyghur Homes Co-sleep With Female 'Hosts'". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 4 March 2020. The head of a local neighborhood committee in Yengisar county, who also declined to be named, confirmed that male officials regularly sleep in the same beds or sleeping platforms with female members of Uyghur households during their home stays. (See: Civil Servant-Family Pair Up)
  10. ^ Yengisar (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  11. ^ يېڭىسار (Variant Non-Roman Script - VS) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  12. ^ huaxia, ed. (30 December 2019). "Dawazi performers: chasing dreams on a tightrope". Xinhua News Agency. Archived from the original on December 30, 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2020. Located in Yingjisha County of Xinjiang, Adili Dawazi Art Heritage Center was founded by Adili Hoshur, a sixth generation Dawazi practitioner known as the "tightrope walking prince". The center currently has 22 members, with the youngest being just 11 years old.
  13. ^ Yingjisha (Approved - N) at GEOnet Names Server, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  14. ^ Summers, Josh. "The Uyghur Knife and My Visit to Yengisar". FarWestChina.com. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  15. ^ Makinen, Julie (September 17, 2014). "For China's Uighurs, Knifings Taint an Ancient Craft". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  16. ^ Grousset, Rene (1970), Empire of the Steppes, p. 495
  17. ^ "JPRS Report China". Foreign Broadcast Information Service. 6 November 1990. p. 42 – via Internet Archive.
  18. ^ a b 夏征农; 陈至立, eds. (September 2009). 辞海:第六版彩图本 [Cihai (Sixth Edition in Color)] (in Chinese). Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. p. 2748. ISBN 9787532628599.
  19. ^ "Fighting Continues Tungan Troops Still Active in Chinese Turkestan". The Montreal Gazette. 10 May 1934.
  20. ^ Andrew D. W. Forbes (1986). Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: a political history of Republican Sinkiang 1911-1949. Cambridge, England: CUP Archive. p. 123. ISBN 0-521-25514-7. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
  21. ^ Xie Yuzhong 解玉忠 (2003). 地名中的新疆 (in Simplified Chinese). Ürümqi: 新疆人民出版社. pp. 191–92. ISBN 7-228-08004-1.
  22. ^ Shohret Hoshur, Joshua Lipes (6 November 2017). "Families of Uyghur Police Officers Among Those Detained in Xinjiang's Kashgar". Radio Free Asia. Retrieved 9 April 2020.
  23. ^ 2019年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:英吉沙县 (in Simplified Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2020. 统计用区划代码 名称 653123100000 英吉沙镇 653123101000 乌恰镇 653123102000 芒辛镇 653123103000 萨罕镇 653123200000 城关乡 653123201000 乔勒潘乡 653123202000 龙甫乡 653123204000 色提力乡 653123206000 英也尔乡 653123207000 克孜勒乡 653123208000 托普鲁克乡 653123209000 苏盖提乡 653123211000 艾古斯乡 653123212000 依格孜也尔乡 653123401000 英吉沙工业园区 653123500000 兵团东风农场
  24. ^ 行政区域. 英吉沙县人民政府门户网站. 24 November 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2020. 英吉沙县辖2个镇、12个乡。英吉沙镇、乌恰镇、城关乡、乔勒潘乡、龙甫乡、芒辛镇、色提力乡、萨罕乡、英也尔乡、克孜勒乡、托普鲁克乡、苏盖提乡、艾古斯乡、依格孜也尔乡。
  25. ^ Zhao Ruixue, Mao Weihua (13 July 2017). "Textile park tackles poverty in Kashgar". China Daily. Retrieved 9 April 2020. In the seventh village of Mangxin town in Yengisar county, a stage which was used by residents for dancing is now also used as a place to lock-stitch carpets.
  26. ^ يېڭىسار ناھىيە ماڭشىن بازىرى ئاققۇش كەنتى بېيىش ماھىرلىرىنى ئالدىن تەرەققىي قىلدۇرۇشقا نۇقتىلىق ياردەم بېرىپ، تېخىمۇ كۆپ نامرات كەنت ئاھالىسىنىڭ نامراتلىقتىن قۇتۇلۇپ بېيىشىغا تۈرتكە بولدى. 中亚之声 (in Uyghur). 28 November 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2020. يېڭىسار ناھىيە ماڭشىن بازىرى
  27. ^ Alessandra Cappelletti (2020). Socio-Economic Development in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Disparities and Power Struggle in China's North-West. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 243. ISBN 978-981-15-1536-1 – via Google Books. Qiaolepan/Qolpan Township (乔勒潘乡, چولپان يېزىسى), Village 7 in Yingjisha/Yengihisar County
  28. ^ “三区分离”使南疆四地州乡村人居环境“换代升级”. State Council of the People's Republic of China (in Simplified Chinese). 30 October 2019. Retrieved 9 April 2020. 眼下,位于昆仑山脚下的新疆英吉沙县依格孜牙乡天气逐渐转凉。{...}依格孜牙乡塔克里克艾日克村
  29. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  30. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  31. ^ Herold J. Wiens (November 1966). "Cultivation Development and Expansion in China's Colonial Realm in Central Asia". The Journal of Asian Studies. 26 (1): 75. doi:10.2307/2051832. JSTOR 2051832. S2CID 162339064.
  32. ^ 3-7 各地、州、市、县(市)分民族人口数 (in Simplified Chinese). شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى 新疆维吾尔自治区统计局 Statistic Bureau of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. 15 March 2017. Archived from the original on 11 October 2017. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  33. ^ Morris Rossabi, ed. (2004). Governing China's Multiethnic Frontiers (PDF). University of Washington Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-295-98390-6.