Qapqal County
察布查尔县ᠴᠠᠪᠴᠠᠯ
ᠰᡳᠶᠠᠨ

چاپچال ناھىيىسى
شاپشال اۋدانى
Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County
察布查尔锡伯自治县
ᠴᠠᠪᠴᠠᠯ ᠰᡞᠪᡝ ᠪᡝᠶᡝ ᡩᠠᠰᠠᡢᡤᠠ ᠰᡞᠶᠠᠨ

چاپچال شىبە ئاپتونوم ناھىيىسى
شاپشال سىبە اۆتونوميالىق اۋدانى
"Sibo military colonists", picture drawn during Henry Lansdell visit to today's Qapqal County in 1882
"Sibo military colonists", picture drawn during Henry Lansdell visit to today's Qapqal County in 1882
Location of Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County (pink) in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Location of Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County (pink) in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture
Qapqal is located in Dzungaria
Qapqal
Qapqal
Location of the seat in Xinjiang
Qapqal is located in Xinjiang
Qapqal
Qapqal
Qapqal (Xinjiang)
Qapqal is located in China
Qapqal
Qapqal
Qapqal (China)
Coordinates (Qapqal County government): 43°50′27″N 81°09′05″E / 43.8407°N 81.1513°E / 43.8407; 81.1513
CountryChina
Autonomous regionXinjiang
Autonomous prefectureIli
County seatCabcal Town
Area
 • Total4,469.36 km2 (1,725.63 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)[1]
 • Total157,764
 • Density35/km2 (91/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST[a])
Websitewww.xjcbcr.gov.cn
Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese察布查尔锡伯自治县
Traditional Chinese察布查爾錫伯自治縣
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese宁西县
Traditional Chinese寧西縣
Uyghur name
Uyghurچاپچال شىبە ئاپتونوم ناھىيىسى
Kazakh name
Kazakhشاپشال سىبە اۆتونوميالىق اۋدانى
Şapşal Sıbe avtonomialyq audany
Xibe name
Xibeᠴᠠᠪᠴᠠᠯ ᠰᡞᠪᡝ ᠪᡝᠶᡝ ᡩᠠᠰᠠᡢᡤᠠ ᠰᡞᠶᠠᠨ
Cabcal Sibe beye dasangga siyan

Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County[2] (Chinese: 察布查尔锡伯自治县; pinyin: Chábùchá'ěr Xībó Zìzhìxiàn; Xibe: ᠴᠠᠪᠴᠠᠯ ᠰᡞᠪᡝ ᠪᡝᠶᡝ ᡩᠠᠰᠠᡢᡤᠠ ᠰᡞᠶᠠᠨ, Cabcal Sibe beye dasangga siyan, also transliterated as Chapchal, Uyghur: چاپچال شىبە ئاپتونوم ناھىيىسى; Kazakh: شاپشال سىبە اۆتونوميالىق اۋدانى) in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Northern Xinjiang, is the only Xibe autonomous county of China, bordering Kazakhstan's Almaty Region to the west. It has an area of 4,430 square kilometers and a population 160,000 (2000). Qapqal means "the granary" in the Xibe language.

History

The Xibe, sent to garrison the area by the Qing dynasty, were divided into eight niru (companies); each niru established a settlement. The settlements are thus simply referred to as "First Niru" through "Eighth Niru", with the exception of the settlement established by the Sixth, which came to be known as Qapqal, thus giving the county its name.[3]

Subdivisions

Qapqal administered 7 towns, 5 townships, and 1 ethnic township.[4]

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Xibe Möllendorff transliteration Uyghur (UEY) Uyghur Latin (ULY) Kazakh (Arabic script) Kazakh (Cyrillic script) Administrative division code
Towns
Cabcal Town 察布查尔镇 Chábùchá'ěr Zhèn ᠴᠠᠪᠴᠠᠯ ᡪᡝᠨ cabcal jen چاپچال بازىرى chapchal baziri شاپشال قالاشىعى 654022100
Aisin Šeri Town 爱新色里镇 Àixīnsèlǐ Zhèn ᠠᡞᠰᡞᠨ ᡧᡝᠷᡞ ᡪᡝᠨ aisin šeri jen ئايشىن سىرى بازىرى Ayshin siri baziri ٵيشىنى سىرى قالاشىعى 654022101
Sunjaci Niru Town 孙扎齐牛录镇 Sūnzhāqíniúlù Zhèn ᠰᡠᠨᡪᠠᠴᡞ ᠨᡞᠷᡠ ᡪᡝᠨ sunjaci niru jen سۇنجاچىنىرۇ بازىرى sunjachiniru baziri بەسسۇمىن قالاشىعى 654022102
Cohor Town 绰霍尔镇 Chuòhuò'ěr Zhèn ᠴᠣᡥᠣᠷ ᡪᡝᠨ cohor jen چوقۇر بازىرى choqur baziri شوعىر قالاشىعى 654022103
Jahūstai Town 加尕斯台镇 Jiāgǎsītái Zhèn ᡪᠠᡥᡡᠰᡨᠠᡞ ᡪᡝᠨ jahūstai jen جاغىستاي بازىرى jaghistay baziri جاعىستاي قالاشىعى 654022104
Amba Boro Town 琼博拉镇 Qióngbólā Zhèn ᠠᠮᠪᠠ ᠪᠣᠷᠣ ᡪᡝᠨ amba boro jen چوڭ بۇغرا بازىرى chong bughra baziri ۇلكەنبۋرا قالاشىعى 654022105
Hainuk Town 海努克镇 Hǎinǔkè Zhèn ᡥᠠᡞᠨᡠᡣ ᡪᡝᠨ hainuk jen قاينۇق بازىرى qaynuq baziri قاينۇق قالاشىعى 654022106
Townships
Dūici Niru Township 堆齐牛录乡 Duīqíniúlù Xiāng ᡩᡡᡞᠴᡞ ᠨᡞᠷᡠ ᡤᡡᠰᠠ dūici niru gūsa دۇيچىنىرۇ يېزىسى duychiniru yëzisi ٴتورتسۇمىن اۋىلى 654022200
Nadaci Niru Township 纳达齐牛录乡 Nàdáqíniúlù Xiāng ᠨᠠᡩᠠᠴᡞ ᠨᡞᠷᡠ ᡤᡡᠰᠠ nadaci niru gūsa ناداچىنىرۇ يېزىسى nadachiniru yëzisi سەگىزسۇمىن اۋىلى 654022203
Jakūci Niru Township 扎库齐牛录乡 Zhākùqíniúlù Xiāng ᡪᠠᡣᡡᠴᡞ ᠨᡞᠷᡠ ᡤᡡᠰᠠ jakūci niru gūsa جاقۇچىنىرۇ يېزىسى jaquchiniru yëzisi جاقۇشنىرۇ اۋىلى 654022204
Kan Township 坎乡 Kǎn Xiāng ᠺᠠᠨ ᡤᡡᠰᠠ kʹan gūsa كان يېزىسى kan yëzisi كان اۋىلى 654022206
Gohūnci Township 阔洪奇乡 Kuòhóngqí Xiāng ᡤᠣᡥᡡᠨᠴᡞ ᡤᡡᠰᠠ gohūnci gūsa قوغۇنچى يېزىسى qoghunchi yëzisi قوغۇنچى اۋىلى 654022207

Demographics

Demographics per niru (2000)
Number[3] Xibe name[3] Chinese name % Xibe[3] % Han[3] % Other[3] Population Number of villages Source
1 Uju Niru 乌珠牛录乡 61.8 20.9 17.3
2 Jai Niru 扎依牛录乡 72.2 15.5 12.3
3 Ilaci Niru 依拉齐牛录乡 73.2 12.3 14.5
4 Duici Niru 堆依齐牛录乡 32.9 28.4 38.7
5 Sunjaci Niru 孙扎齐牛录镇 38.2 15 46.8 8033 4 [5]
6 Ningguci Niru or Capcal 察布查尔镇 29 32 39
7 Nadaci Niru 纳达齐牛录乡 41.6 32 24.6
8 Jakûci Niru 扎库齐牛录乡 72.2 15.5 12.3 13,000 5 [6]

Climate

Climate data for Qapqal (1991–2020 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −2.5
(27.5)
1.1
(34.0)
11.9
(53.4)
21.6
(70.9)
26.4
(79.5)
30.3
(86.5)
32.2
(90.0)
31.1
(88.0)
26.5
(79.7)
18.8
(65.8)
8.8
(47.8)
0.1
(32.2)
17.2
(62.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −9.2
(15.4)
−5.0
(23.0)
5.0
(41.0)
13.5
(56.3)
18.5
(65.3)
22.6
(72.7)
24.1
(75.4)
22.7
(72.9)
17.5
(63.5)
9.9
(49.8)
2.0
(35.6)
−5.6
(21.9)
9.7
(49.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −14.5
(5.9)
−10.3
(13.5)
−0.7
(30.7)
6.6
(43.9)
11.6
(52.9)
15.9
(60.6)
17.4
(63.3)
15.6
(60.1)
10.1
(50.2)
3.4
(38.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
−10.0
(14.0)
3.6
(38.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.2
(0.72)
17.7
(0.70)
14.5
(0.57)
23.7
(0.93)
23.3
(0.92)
22.5
(0.89)
24.3
(0.96)
17.3
(0.68)
11.8
(0.46)
19.3
(0.76)
26.5
(1.04)
22.2
(0.87)
241.3
(9.5)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 7.6 6.8 6.1 7.5 7.6 8.4 7.9 5.5 4.8 5.4 7.0 8.2 82.8
Average snowy days 9.4 8.2 3.0 0.6 0.1 0 0 0 0 0.4 3.9 9.4 35
Average relative humidity (%) 80 79 69 57 54 56 58 59 60 69 78 82 67
Mean monthly sunshine hours 142.2 162.2 227.7 257.5 304.1 310.1 327.3 310.7 269.7 222.3 143.2 123.6 2,800.6
Percent possible sunshine 49 54 61 63 66 67 71 73 74 67 50 45 62
Source: China Meteorological Administration[7][8]

Media

A ca. 1809 map of the Ili Region (the map is drawn "upside down": the south is on top) showing the Xibo Eight Banners (锡伯八旗) stationed across the Ili River from the Manchu Fort Huiyuan (惠远城), exactly where Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County is nowadays. There is a place - or perhaps a river - named "察布察儿" (Chabucha'er, Chinese: 察布查爾) in that area as well.

The county has one Xibe language newspaper, the Qapqal News. A television station broadcasts a few programmes in Xibe as well each month, with Mandarin, Uyghur and Kazakh language content for the rest of the time.[9]

Notes

  1. ^ Locals in Xinjiang frequently observe UTC+6 (Xinjiang Time), 2 hours behind Beijing.

References

  1. ^ Xinjiang: Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties
  2. ^ Judy Bonavia, Sarah Jessup, Edward Juanteguy (1993). The Silk Road From Xi'an to Kashgar. Passport Books. p. 187. ISBN 9780844299518.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e f Stary, Giovanni (2003), "Sibe: An endangered language", in Janse, Mark; Tol, Sijmen; Hendriks, Vincent (eds.), Language death and language maintenance, John Benjamins, pp. 81–89, ISBN 978-90-272-4752-0
  4. ^ 2022年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:察布查尔锡伯自治县. National Bureau of Statistics of China.
  5. ^ 察布查尔县孙扎齐乡, Qapqal Online, retrieved 2009-04-15
  6. ^ 察布查尔县扎库齐牛录乡, Qapqal Online, retrieved 2009-04-15
  7. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  8. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  9. ^ 张莉 [Zhang Li] (2007), 新疆锡伯族新闻事业发展现状 [Xinjiang Xibo Peoples' News Undertaking Present Situation], Yili Shi Fan Xue Yuan Xue Bao: She Hui Ke Xue Ban = Journal of Yili Normal University (Social Science Edition) 伊犁师范学院学报 [Journal of Ili Normal University] (1), ISSN 1009-1076, archived from the original on 2011-07-07, retrieved 2009-04-13