Gongshan County
贡山县
贡山独龙族怒族自治县
Gongshan Derung and Nu Autonomous County
Location of Gongshan County (pink) and Nujiang Prefecture (yellow) within Yunnan province of China
Location of Gongshan County (pink) and Nujiang Prefecture (yellow) within Yunnan province of China
Gongshan is located in Yunnan
Gongshan
Gongshan
Location of the seat in Yunnan
Coordinates: 27°44′28″N 98°39′58″E / 27.741°N 98.666°E / 27.741; 98.666Coordinates: 27°44′28″N 98°39′58″E / 27.741°N 98.666°E / 27.741; 98.666
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceYunnan
Autonomous prefectureNujiang
SeatCikai [zh]
Area
 • Total4,506 km2 (1,740 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total37,894
 • Density8.4/km2 (22/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)
Postal code
673500
Area code(s)0886
Websitegs.nujiang.gov.cn

Gongshan Derung and Nu Autonomous County (simplified Chinese: 贡山独龙族怒族自治县; traditional Chinese: 貢山獨龍族怒族自治縣; pinyin: Gòngshān Dúlóngzú Nùzú Zìzhìxiàn; Lisu: ꓗꓳꓹ-ꓢ ꓔꓴꓽ-ꓡꓳꓽ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓠꓳꓸ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓚꓲꓸ ꓛꓬꓽ ꓗꓪꓼ ꓫꓵꓽ ꓫꓯꓹ; Derung: Koksang, the name has nothing to do with the Derung language for Gaoligong Mountains) is an autonomous county located in Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, in the northwest of Yunnan province, China. It has an area of 4,506 km2 (1,740 sq mi) and a population of about 37,894 according to the 2010 Census.[1][2] The county government is stationed in Cikai Town (Derung: Svkeun)

The Nu people in Gongshan (Vnung'long) belongs to the Anu branch (Vnung) and use the Anu language (Nujiang dialect of the Derung language).

Etymology

The county is named after the Gaoligong Mountains (Chinese: 高黎贡山; pinyin: Gāolígòng Shān), which run through the county.[2] The country is known historically as Chamutong or Tramutang.

Administrative divisions

The county is divided into two towns and three townships.[3]

Township-level divisions of Gongshan County
English Name Hanzi[3] Type[3] Area (km2)[4] Population (2010)[2] Postal Code[4]
Cikai [zh] Chinese: 茨开镇 Town 779 14,478 673500
Bingzhongluo [zh] Chinese: 丙中洛镇 Town 823 6,465 673502
Pengdang Township [zh] Chinese: 捧当乡 Township 488 6,085 673500
Puladi Township [zh] Chinese: 普拉底乡 Township 422 6,627 673501
Dulongjiang Township [zh] Chinese: 独龙江乡 Township 1,994 4,239 673503

History

The People's Liberation Army took the county on August 25, 1949, and a provisional government was set up on March 11, 1950.[2] On April 8, the Gongshan County People's Government was established.[2] In October 1956, Gongshan County was changed to Gongshan Derung and Nu Autonomous County.[2]

Geography

Gongshan (labelled as KUNG-SHAN (TA-LA) 貢山 (打拉)) (1954)
Gongshan (labelled as KUNG-SHAN (TA-LA) 貢山 (打拉)) (1954)

Gongshan occupies the northmost part of Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture, and has a latitude with a range of 27°29’ to 28°23’N, and a longitude with a range of 98°08’ to 98°56’E.[citation needed] The county covers an area of 4,506 km2 (1,740 sq mi), and borders Zayü County in the Tibet Autonomous Region to the north, and Myanmar to the west.[1] The county's boundary with Burma is 172.008 kilometers in length, and the county's boundary with Tibet is 135 kilometers.[citation needed]

It is located in the Hengduan Mountains, and with the Salween and N'Mai rivers running through the county.[1] The N'Mai River is known for its green appearance.[citation needed] In the spring, flowers blossom in the fields and gardens of Bingzhongluo [zh].[citation needed]

The county's three major mountain ranges are the Biluo Snow Mountains (Chinese: 碧罗雪山), the Gaoligong Mountains, and the Dandanglika Mountains [zh].[1]

Climate

Climate data for Gongshan (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
25.7
(78.3)
30.4
(86.7)
31.9
(89.4)
33.9
(93.0)
35.5
(95.9)
34.1
(93.4)
35.0
(95.0)
33.7
(92.7)
30.8
(87.4)
25.8
(78.4)
21.6
(70.9)
35.5
(95.9)
Average high °C (°F) 15.3
(59.5)
15.4
(59.7)
16.5
(61.7)
19.6
(67.3)
24.3
(75.7)
26.2
(79.2)
26.9
(80.4)
27.4
(81.3)
25.5
(77.9)
22.7
(72.9)
19.4
(66.9)
16.5
(61.7)
21.3
(70.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.7
(45.9)
8.9
(48.0)
10.6
(51.1)
13.5
(56.3)
17.7
(63.9)
20.6
(69.1)
21.4
(70.5)
21.3
(70.3)
19.6
(67.3)
15.9
(60.6)
11.3
(52.3)
8.1
(46.6)
14.7
(58.5)
Average low °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
4.6
(40.3)
6.9
(44.4)
9.8
(49.6)
13.5
(56.3)
17.2
(63.0)
18.3
(64.9)
18.0
(64.4)
16.6
(61.9)
12.1
(53.8)
6.3
(43.3)
2.6
(36.7)
10.7
(51.3)
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
−1.0
(30.2)
−0.2
(31.6)
0.4
(32.7)
7.6
(45.7)
11.5
(52.7)
13.4
(56.1)
13.6
(56.5)
9.3
(48.7)
4.5
(40.1)
0.9
(33.6)
−2.2
(28.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.7
(2.63)
128.0
(5.04)
241.6
(9.51)
228.1
(8.98)
161.1
(6.34)
211.1
(8.31)
201.0
(7.91)
157.8
(6.21)
167.4
(6.59)
142.4
(5.61)
44.3
(1.74)
29.1
(1.15)
1,778.6
(70.02)
Average relative humidity (%) 69 74 80 81 78 82 84 84 85 83 76 71 79
Source: China Meteorological Data Service Center

Demographics

The county's population as of the 2010 Chinese Census was 37,894, up from the 34,746 recorded in the 2000 Chinese Census, and the 33,000 people estimated to be living in the county as of 1996.[2]

As of 2003, 34,622 people were living in the county, of which, 83.8% lived in rural areas.[2] The ethnic composition of the county in 2003 was 51.7% Lisu, 18.2% Nu, 14.7% Derung, 4.6% Tibetan, 6.3% other officially recognized ethnic groups, and the remaining 4.5% belonging to unrecognized ethnic groups.[2]

Economy

Mineral deposits in the county include lead, tin, zinc, white marble, and mutton fat jade (Chinese: 羊脂玉).[1]

Culture

Gongshan is a notoriously remote place, isolated by its mountains and gorges.[citation needed] National Geographic author Joseph F. Rock came to the area during the 1920s and early 1930s, and wrote about the area in several articles for National Geographic Magazine.[citation needed] He described Gongshan as a virgin land where no white man had ever came before, and as a paradise for explorers, photographers and botanists.[citation needed]

The county's Derung and Nu people host numerous ethnic festivals.[1]

Piao Niu Wu

Piao Niu Wu
Piao Niu Wu

Piao Niu Wu (Chinese: 剽牛舞, literally "slaughter cattle dance") is a traditional ceremony of the Derung People unique to Gongshan County.[1][5] Traditionally performed during Derung New Year, the ceremony is prepared by tying a cattle to a sacrificial pole with traditional Derung rope, placing bead ornaments on the cattle, and placing other material sacrifices in front of it.[5] The host of the ceremony then leads a prayer, and another man pierces the cattle's heart with a bamboo spear once the prayer is finished.[5] Before preparing the dead cattle for further use, the ceremony host performs a ritual fortune-telling.[5] This follows with traditional song and dance.[5] In modern times, the festival has become less common, and is typically for entertainment purposes, rather than spiritual ones.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g 贡山县概况地图. xzqh.org (in Chinese). 2014-09-11. Archived from the original on 2020-08-21. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i 贡山县历史沿革. xzqh.org (in Chinese). 2014-09-24. Archived from the original on 2020-08-21. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
  3. ^ a b c 2019年统计用区划代码 (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of China. 2019. Archived from the original on 2020-08-21. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
  4. ^ a b 2006年贡山县行政区划. xzqh.org (in Chinese). 2010-04-15. Archived from the original on 2020-04-12. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Wu, Yunming (2004). 舞蹈辭典 [Dance Dictionary] (in Chinese).