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Baoshan
保山市
Clockwise: Urban skyline, Nine Dragons Sculpture, Yiluochi Park, Baoxiu Square, Qinghua Lake, Jade Emperor Pavilion
Location of Baoshan in Yunnan
Location of Baoshan in Yunnan
Coordinates (Baoshan municipal government): 25°06′43″N 99°09′40″E / 25.112°N 99.161°E / 25.112; 99.161
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceYunnan
Admin HQLongyang
Area
 • Total19,064.6 km2 (7,360.9 sq mi)
Elevation
1,677 m (5,502 ft)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total2,506,491
 • Density130/km2 (340/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
678000
Area code0875
ISO 3166 codeCN-YN-05
Vehicle registration云M
Websitewww.baoshan.gov.cn

Baoshan (Chinese: 保山; pinyin: Bǎoshān ; Burmese: ပေါက်ရှန်), historically also Yongchang (Chinese: 永昌; pinyin: Yǒngchāng), is a prefecture-level city in western Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China. Baoshan is the second-biggest metropolitan area in western Yunnan after Dali.

Geography and climate

Map including Baoshan (labeled as PAO-SHAN (YUNG-CH'ANG) (Walled) 保山 (永昌)) (AMS, 1954)

Baoshan is located between the border of Burma and the Lancang river (Mekong); specifically it borders the Burmese states of Kachin to the northwest and Shan to the south. The Nujiang (Salween River) flows through the entire length of the prefecture, north to south.

Tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, Baoshan has a mild subtropical highland climate (Köppen Cwb), with short, mild, dry winters and warm, rainy summers. Frost may occur in winter but the days still generally warm up to around 16 to 17 °C (61 to 63 °F), with a January average of 9.1 °C (48.4 °F). The warmest month is June, which averages 21.5 °C (70.7 °F). Nearly three quarters of the annual rainfall occurs from June to October.

Climate data for Baoshan (1991–2020 normals, extremes 1971–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
25.4
(77.7)
28.9
(84.0)
29.9
(85.8)
32.4
(90.3)
32.3
(90.1)
31.3
(88.3)
31.4
(88.5)
30.1
(86.2)
28.8
(83.8)
25.2
(77.4)
22.4
(72.3)
32.4
(90.3)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 17.4
(63.3)
19.3
(66.7)
22.3
(72.1)
24.5
(76.1)
25.9
(78.6)
26.5
(79.7)
25.8
(78.4)
26.4
(79.5)
25.7
(78.3)
23.9
(75.0)
20.8
(69.4)
18.1
(64.6)
23.1
(73.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.7
(49.5)
11.8
(53.2)
14.9
(58.8)
17.6
(63.7)
20.2
(68.4)
21.9
(71.4)
21.6
(70.9)
21.5
(70.7)
20.5
(68.9)
18.2
(64.8)
13.8
(56.8)
10.4
(50.7)
16.8
(62.3)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.5
(38.3)
5.2
(41.4)
8.4
(47.1)
11.7
(53.1)
15.5
(59.9)
18.7
(65.7)
18.9
(66.0)
18.6
(65.5)
17.3
(63.1)
14.4
(57.9)
8.8
(47.8)
4.7
(40.5)
12.1
(53.9)
Record low °C (°F) −3.8
(25.2)
−2.6
(27.3)
−1
(30)
2.7
(36.9)
7.4
(45.3)
12.4
(54.3)
13.1
(55.6)
13.0
(55.4)
10.7
(51.3)
5.5
(41.9)
0.7
(33.3)
−2.3
(27.9)
−3.8
(25.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 23.2
(0.91)
21.0
(0.83)
30.6
(1.20)
45.4
(1.79)
90.1
(3.55)
100.4
(3.95)
173.6
(6.83)
196.2
(7.72)
145.9
(5.74)
102.7
(4.04)
26.8
(1.06)
8.3
(0.33)
964.2
(37.95)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.6 5.0 7.7 10.7 12.0 15.2 21.4 21.3 16.1 12.2 4.5 2.6 132.3
Average relative humidity (%) 65 60 57 61 67 73 79 80 79 76 72 69 70
Mean monthly sunshine hours 247.1 232.8 254.9 236.6 221.9 162.6 116.2 144.1 159.9 191.7 229.2 239.8 2,436.8
Percent possible sunshine 74 73 68 62 54 40 28 36 44 54 71 73 56
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[1][2]
Source 2: Weather China[3]

Administrative divisions

The city-prefecture of Baoshan has jurisdiction over five subdivisions — a district, one county-level city and three counties.

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km2) Density (/km2)
Longyang District 隆阳区 Lóngyáng Qū 935,618 5,011 187
Tengchong City 腾冲市 Téngchōng Shì 644,765 5,845 110
Shidian County 施甸县 Shīdiàn Xiàn 305,223 2,009 152
Longling County 龙陵县 Lónglíng Xiàn 277,319 2,884 96
Changning County 昌宁县 Chāngníng Xiàn 343,566 3,888 88

Tengyue, the other major populated area in the county, successfully lobbied for and achieved city status in 2015-16 and is currently in the process of separating itself and the surrounding Tengchong area from Baoshan administratively.[citation needed]

Demography

The prefecture has about 2.5 million inhabitants.

Ethnic groups

Among the resident population, the population of Han is 2,248,140, accounting for 89.69%; the population of ethnic minorities is 258,351, accounting for 10.31%.

Ethnic Composition of Baoshan City (November 2010)[4]
National name Han Yi Bai Dai Lisu Hui Miao Bulang Wa Jingpo Others
Population 2248140 81524 45890 43049 34423 12436 10580 9834 4833 4204 11578
Proportion of total population (%) 89.69 3.25 1.83 1.72 1.37 0.50 0.42 0.39 0.19 0.17 0.46
Proportion of minority population (%) --- 31.56 17.76 16.66 13.32 4.81 4.10 3.81 1.87 1.63 4.48

Bulang

According to the Baoshan Ethnic Gazetteer (2006:337), ethnic Bulang are distributed in the following villages within Baoshan City.

De'ang

The Yaojing (尧净), a subgroup of the De'ang, are located in Baizhai (白寨), Laxian (拉线), and Dagoubian (大沟边) of Mangyan Village (芒颜村) and Shiti Village (石梯村) in Lujiang Township (潞江乡), Longyang District (Baoshan Ethnic Gazetteer 2006:490-491).[full citation needed]

Transport

Baoshan lies on the main road from Ruili on the Burmese border to Kunming. The Baoshan−Kunming section is completed highway, and the Baoshan-Ruili part was completed in 2016, finalizing the highway net crossing Yunnan east-to-west. It is the first finished highway between China and Myanmar.

Baoshan Yunrui Airport (IATA: BSD, ICAO: ZPBS) has daily flights to and from Kunming.

The currently under construction Dali–Ruili railway will pass through Baoshan. Baoshan railway station will handle passenger services while Baoshan North will handle freight.

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ 中国气象数据网 – WeatherBk Data (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  2. ^ 中国气象数据网 (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  3. ^ 保山 - 气象数据 -中国天气网 (in Chinese). Weather China. Retrieved 21 November 2022.
  4. ^ Yunnan Provincial Census Office, Yunnan Provincial Bureau of Statistics (September 2012). "Yunnan Provincial Census Data in 2010". China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-6548-3.