Fuxian Lake
Aerial panorama of Fuxian Lake and Luchong Scenic Resort
Fuxian Lake and Luchong Scenic Resort
Fuxian Lake is located in Yunnan
Fuxian Lake
Fuxian Lake
LocationYunnan Province
Coordinates24°30′08″N 102°53′20″E / 24.50225°N 102.888888889°E / 24.50225; 102.888888889
Primary inflowsLiangwang River, Dongda River, Jianshan River
Primary outflowsHaikou River
Basin countriesChina
Max. length31.5 km (20 mi)
Max. width11.5 km (7 mi)
Surface area211 km2 (100 sq mi)
Average depth89.6 m (294 ft)
Max. depth155 m (509 ft)
Water volume18,900×10^6 m3 (670×10^9 cu ft)
Surface elevation1,721 m (5,646 ft)
IslandsGushan
SettlementsChengjiang
References[1]
Black-headed Gulls in Fuxian Lake
Gushan Hill in Fuxian Lake

Fuxian Lake (Chinese: 抚仙湖; pinyin: Fǔxiān Hú) stretches out through Chengjiang, Jiangchuan and Huaning Counties in Yunnan Province, spanning an area of 212 square kilometers. The lake is ranked third-largest in Yunnan, after Dian Lake and Erhai Lake. The deepest lake in Yunnan, it is 155 meters deep at its greatest depth. It is also the third-deepest fresh water lake in China, after Tianchi and Kanas Lake.[1]

Climate

Fuxian Lake has humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa) with humid summers and mild dry winters.[2]

Climate data for Fuxian Lake
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) 16.7
(62.1)
18.7
(65.7)
22.6
(72.7)
25.1
(77.2)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
25.6
(78.1)
25.9
(78.6)
24.6
(76.3)
21.2
(70.2)
18.7
(65.7)
16.7
(62.1)
22.4
(72.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
12.1
(53.8)
15.5
(59.9)
18.6
(65.5)
21.0
(69.8)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
21.6
(70.9)
20.2
(68.4)
17.0
(62.6)
13.7
(56.7)
10.8
(51.4)
17.1
(62.7)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) 3.9
(39.0)
5.5
(41.9)
8.5
(47.3)
12.2
(54.0)
15.7
(60.3)
18.2
(64.8)
18.0
(64.4)
17.4
(63.3)
15.9
(60.6)
12.8
(55.0)
8.8
(47.8)
4.8
(40.6)
11.8
(53.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 12
(0.5)
17
(0.7)
19
(0.7)
27
(1.1)
93
(3.7)
165
(6.5)
200
(7.9)
195
(7.7)
113
(4.4)
78
(3.1)
41
(1.6)
14
(0.6)
974
(38.5)
Source: Climate-Data.org

Flora and fauna

Fuxian Lake is known for its unique fauna, including many endemic species. However, its relative isolation makes it vulnerable to biological invasions and pollution.[3][4]

Together with other Yunnan lakes (Dian, Qilu, Yangzong, Xingyun, and Yilong), Fuxian is recognized as an ecoregion.[5] Fuxian is one of three major Yunnan lakes with a high number of endemics, the others being Dian (Dianchi) and Erhai.[6] There are 24 native fish species and subspecies in Fuxian Lake, including 11 endemics.[6] The situation for most of these is precarious because they have been negatively impacted by the many introduction of exotic species of fish (26 species), habitat degradation, water pollution, and overfishing.[6][7] The endemic fish are all cyprinids or stone loaches.[6]

Endemic fish in Fuxian Lake
Species IUCN assessment Comment
Poropuntius chonglingchungi Critically endangered[8] Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s)[6]
Cyprinus fuxianensis Critically endangered[9] Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s)[6]
Schizothorax lepidothorax Endangered[10] Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s)[6]
Sinocyclocheilus tingi Endangered[11] Still survives, but strong decline[11]
Tor yunnanensis Endangered[12] Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s)[12]
Anabarilius grahami Not assessed Still survives, but nearing extinction[4]
Discogobio longibarbatus Not assessed Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s)[6]
Percocypris regani Not assessed Still survives.[6] Recent evidence suggests it should be considered a species (Percocypris regani) instead of a subspecies (Percocypris pingi regani)[13]
Triplophysa fuxianensis Not assessed Still survives[6]
Yunnanilus chuia Not assessed Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s)[6]
Yunnanilus obtusirostrisa Not assessed Possibly extinct (last seen in the 1990s)[6]

The fungus Dyrithiopsis lakefuxianensis, growing on submerged wood, has been collected from Fuxian Lake and described as a newly discovered species, as indicated by its scientific name.[14]

A few native hydrophytes have disappeared from the lake.[6]

The prehistoric Fuxianhuia from the early-Cambrian, significant in discussions of early arthropod evolution, is also named after the lake, where it was discovered in 1987.

Lost city

In 2001 People's Daily reported that earthenware and stonework covering an area of approximately 2.4–2.7 square kilometers had been discovered beneath the lake. Carbon dating circa 2007 confirmed an age of 1,750 years. Yunnan Museum archaeologist Zhang Zengqi says the lake is the site of a city called Yunyuan that slid into the lake during an earthquake, according to Han era documents.[15]

In 2006, CCTV made an additional survey. Carbon dating in 2007 found shells attached to relics to be roughly 1,750 years old. In October 2014 additional research was made on the site by a multidisciplinary team. Portions were mapped and 42 handmade stone artifacts were recovered from a depth of seven meters.[16][17]

Panorama

Fuxian Lake
Panorama of Fuxian Lake taken from mountains to the west.

References

  1. ^ a b Sumin, Wang; Hongshen, Dou (1998). Lakes in China. Beijing: Science Press. p. 374. ISBN 7-03-006706-1.
  2. ^ "Fuxian climate: Average Temperatures, weather by month, Fuxian weather averages - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  3. ^ Cui, Y. D.; Liu, X. Q.; Wang, H. Z. (2008). "Macrozoobenthic community of Fuxian Lake, the deepest lake of southwest China". Limnologica - Ecology and Management of Inland Waters. 38 (2): 116–125. doi:10.1016/j.limno.2007.10.003.
  4. ^ a b Qin, J.; Xu, J.; Xie, P. (2007). "Diet overlap between the endemic fish Anabarilius grahami (Cyprinidae) and the exotic noodlefish Neosalanx taihuensis (Salangidae) in Lake Fuxian, China". Journal of Freshwater Ecology. 22 (3): 365–370. doi:10.1080/02705060.2007.9664165. S2CID 84874731.
  5. ^ Freshwater Ecoregions of the World: Yunnan Lakes. Archived 2017-01-16 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Wang, Wang, Li, Du, Yang, Lassoie, and Hassan (2013). Six decades of changes in vascular hydrophyte and fish species in three plateau lakes in Yunnan, China. Biodivers. Conserv. 22: 3197–3221. doi: 10.1007/s10531-013-0579-0
  7. ^ Yang, J.X. and Y.R. Chen, editors (1995). The biology and resource utilization of the fishes of Fuxian Lake, Yunnan. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming, China. ISBN 9787541607677
  8. ^ Zhao, H. (2011). "Poropuntius chonglingchungi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T166192A6189259. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T166192A6189259.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  9. ^ Devi, R.; Boguskaya, N. (2009). "Cyprinus fuxianensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009: e.T166157A6184730. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T166157A6184730.en. Retrieved 13 November 2021.
  10. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). "Schizothorax lepidothorax". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 1996: e.T19993A9129962. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T19993A9129962.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  11. ^ a b Cui, K. & Chen, X.-Y. (2011). "Sinocyclocheilus tingi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T166116A6177364. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T166116A6177364.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  12. ^ a b Chen, X.-Y. (2011). "Folifer yunnanensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2011: e.T21992A9345434. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2011-2.RLTS.T21992A9345434.en. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  13. ^ Wang, Yang, and Chen (2013). Phylogeny and Biogeography of Percocypris (Cyprinidae, Teleostei). PLoS ONE 8(6): e61827. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0061827
  14. ^ Jeewon, R.; L. Cai; E. C. Y Liew; K. Q Zhang; K. D Hyde (2003-09-01). "Dyrithiopsis lakefuxianensis gen. et sp. nov. from Fuxian Lake, Yunnan, China, and notes on the taxonomic confusion surrounding Dyrithium". Mycologia. 95 (5): 911–920. doi:10.2307/3762019. hdl:10722/53354. JSTOR 3762019. PMID 21148998.
  15. ^ "Ancient Buildings Found in Fuxian Lake". 2001-06-04. Retrieved 2010-08-20.
  16. ^ "New underwater archeological discoveries made at Fuxian". 23 October 2014.
  17. ^ "云南抚仙湖发现水下史前遗址构件(组图)". 16 October 2014.