Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area
UNESCO World Heritage Site
LocationSongpan County, Sichuan, People's Republic of China
CriteriaNatural: (vii)
Reference638
Inscription1992 (16th session)
Area60,000 ha (230 sq mi)
Coordinates32°44′36″N 103°49′59″E / 32.7432°N 103.8330°E / 32.7432; 103.8330Coordinates: 32°44′36″N 103°49′59″E / 32.7432°N 103.8330°E / 32.7432; 103.8330
Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area
Location of Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area in Sichuan

Huanglong (simplified Chinese: 黄龙; traditional Chinese: 黃龍; pinyin: Huánglóng; lit. 'yellow dragon') is a scenic and historic interest area in the northwest part of Sichuan, China. It is located in the southern part of the Minshan mountain range, 370 kilometres (230 mi) north-northwest of the capital Chengdu.[1] This area is known for its colorful travertine pools formed by calcite deposits, especially in Huanglonggou (Yellow Dragon Gully), as well as diverse forest ecosystems, snow-capped peaks, waterfalls and hot springs. Huanglong is also home to many endangered species including the giant panda and the Sichuan golden snub-nosed monkey.[1] In addition, a large population of the endemic orchid species 'Cypripedium plectrochilum' was discovered at the site [2] Huanglong was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1992 because of its outstanding travertine formations, waterfalls and limestone formations as well as its travertine terraces and lakes rating among the three most outstanding examples in the world. [1][3]

Description

Repeated glaciation events, the unique terrane structure, the formation of tufa, the stratum of carbonic acid rock, and climatic conditions such as Arctic-alpine sunlight have created this world-famous travertine landscape. Huanglong covers an area of 700 km2 at an altitude between 1700m and 5588m. Major scenic areas include:

Huanglong Valley

The total length of the travertine in Huanglong Valley is 3.6 km and it is thought to look like a huge golden dragon wheeling through the snow-capped mountains of the valley. The main landscapes are travertine banks, colorful ponds and travertine waterfalls and caves. The main body of water starts from the ancient Buddhist/Benbo temple at the top of the valley and ends at the Guests Welcome Pond in the north with a length of 2.5 km and a width of 30–170m. The colours of Huanglong's waters consist of yellows, greens, blues and browns.

Map of Huanglong Valley Scenic Spots
Map of Huanglong Valley Scenic Spots
Scenic spots in Huanglong Valley Sea level Remarks
1 Guests Welcome Pond 迎宾池 3230m 350 pools
2 Marvelous Flying Waterfall 飛瀑流輝 3245m 14m tall 68m wide
3 Lianyan Pond 瀲灩湖 3251m 2000sq.m
4 Flying Waterfall on Lotus Platform 蓮台飛瀑 3260m 45m tall 19m wide
5 Washing Cave 洗身洞 3280m 10m tall 40m wide
6 Golden Sand Pavement 金沙鋪地 3305m 1300m long
7 Seven Mile Golden Sand 七里金沙 3400m
8 Bonsai Pond 盆景池 3320m 330 pools
9 Mirror Pond 明鏡倒映池 3400m 180 pools
10 Azalea Pond 娑蘿映彩池 3415m 400 pools
11 Flamboyant Pond 爭豔池 3414m 658 pools
12 Huanglong Middle Temple 黃龍中寺 3470m
13 Huanglong Ancient Temple 黃龍古寺 3568m
14 Multi-Colored Pond 五彩池 3576m 693 pools

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c https://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=638
  2. ^ Li, P.; Luo, Y.; Bernhardt, P.; Kou, Y.; Perner, H. (27 February 2008). "Pollination of Cypripedium plectrochilum (Orchidaceae) by Lasioglossum spp. (Halictidae): the roles of generalist attractants versus restrictive floral architecture". Plant Biology. 10 (2): 220–230. doi:10.1111/j.1438-8677.2007.00020.x.
  3. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Huanglong Scenic and Historic Interest Area". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 2021-04-22.
  4. ^ Huadong, Guo (2013). Atlas of Remote Sensing for World Heritage: China. Springer. p. 282-287. ISBN 978-3-642-32823-7.