Chongqing
重庆
Chungking, Ch'ung-ch'ing
[[file:重庆市人民大礼堂正门.jpg
长江和重庆出租车
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From top, left to right: Yuzhong District skyline, Hongya Cave and Qiansimen Bridge; Chongqing Art Museum; a train of Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 coming through residential building at Liziba Station; Chongqing Art Museum; Jiefangbei CBD; Great Hall of the People
Location of Chongqing Municipality within China
Location of Chongqing Municipality within China
Coordinates (Chongqing municipal government): 29°33′49″N 106°33′01″E / 29.5637°N 106.5504°E / 29.5637; 106.5504Coordinates: 29°33′49″N 106°33′01″E / 29.5637°N 106.5504°E / 29.5637; 106.5504
CountryChina
Settledc. 316 BC
Municipal seatYuzhong District
Divisions
 - County-level
 - Township-level

25 districts, 13 counties
1259 towns, townships, and subdistricts
Government
 • TypeMunicipality
 • BodyChongqing Municipal People's Congress
 • CCP SecretaryYuan Jiajun
 • Congress chairmanZhang Xuan [zh]
 • MayorHu Henghua
 • CPPCC chairmanWang Jiong
Area
 • Municipality82,403 km2 (31,816 sq mi)
 • Built up area5,472.8 km2 (2,113.1 sq mi)
Elevation
244 m (801 ft)
Highest elevation
(Yintiao Ling)
2,797 m (9,177 ft)
Population
 (2020 census (total), 2018 (otherwise))[4]
 • Municipality32,054,159
 • Density390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
22,251,500[note 1][2]
 • Built up area
9,580,770[3]
Time zoneUTC+8 (CST)
Postal codes
4000 00 – 4099 00
Area code23
ISO 3166 codeCN-CQ
GDP2021[5]
 - Total¥2.80 trillion
$432 billion
 - Per Capita¥86,885
$13,467
 • growthIncrease 8.3%
HDI (2019)0.768[6] (11th) – high
AbbreviationCQ / ;
ClimateCfa
WebsiteCQ.gov.cn (in Chinese)
English.CQ.gov.cn
Symbols
FlowerCamellia[7]
TreeFicus lacor[8]
Chongqing
Chongqing (Chinese characters).svg
"Chongqing" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese重庆
Traditional Chinese重慶
PostalChungking
Literal meaning"Doubled Celebration"

Chongqing (/ˌɔːŋˈɪŋ/ chawng-CHING[9] or /ˈɔːŋˌɪŋ/ CHAWNG-ching;[10][11] simplified Chinese: 重庆; traditional Chinese: 重慶; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Sichuanese pronunciation: [tsʰoŋ˨˩tɕʰin˨˩˦], Standard Mandarin pronunciation: [ʈʂʰʊ̌ŋ.tɕʰîŋ] (listen)), alternately romanized as Chungking (/ˈʊŋˈkɪŋ/),[12] is a municipality in Southwest China. The official abbreviation of the city, "" (), was approved by the State Council on 18 April 1997.[13] This abbreviation is derived from the old name of a part of the Jialing River that runs through Chongqing and feeds into the Yangtze River.

Administratively, it is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China (the other three are Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin), and the only such municipality located deep inland.[14] The municipality of Chongqing, roughly the size of Austria, includes the city of Chongqing as well as various discontiguous cities. Due to a classification technicality, Chongqing municipality can claim to be the largest city proper in the world—though it does not have the world's largest urban area. Chongqing is the only city in China with the permanent population of over 30 million.[15] Chongqing is the fourth largest Chinese city by urban population, with urban population of 16.34 million as of the 2020 estimation, after Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen.[16] The city of Chongqing, comprising nine urban and suburban districts. According to the 2010 census, Chongqing is the most populous Chinese municipality,[17] and also the largest direct-controlled municipality in China, containing 26 districts, eight counties, and four autonomous counties.

During the Republic of China (ROC) era, Chongqing was a municipality located within Sichuan Province. It served as its wartime capital during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). The current municipality was separated from Sichuan province on 14 March 1997 to help develop the central and western parts of China.[18]

Chongqing has an extensive history and a rich culture. As one of China's National Central Cities, it serves as a financial center of the Sichuan Basin and the upstream Yangtze. It is a major manufacturing and transportation center; a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit described it as one of China's "13 emerging megalopolises".[19] Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport, a major aviation hub serving Chongqing metropolitan areas and Western China, is one of the top 50 busiest airports in the world,[20][21] and the city's monorails system is the world's longest and busiest monorails system with the greatest number of stations (70).[22][23] Chongqing is ranked as a Beta (global second-tier) city.[24] Chongqing is also the headquarters of the Changan Automobile, one of the "Big Four" car manufacturers of China,[25] and hosts more than 10 foreign consulates, making it the fifth major city to host more foreign representatives than any other city in China after Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Chengdu.[26]

Chongqing is one of the top 50 cities in the world by scientific research outputs as tracked by the Nature Index,[27] and home to several notable universities, including Chongqing University, Southwest University, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Southwest University of Political Science and Law, Chongqing Normal University and Chongqing University of Technology.[28][29]

History

Main article: History of Chongqing

Ancient history

Chongqing's location is historically associated with the State of Ba. Its capital was first called Jiangzhou (江州).[30]

Imperial era

Jiangzhou subsequently remained under Qin Shi Huang's rule during the Qin dynasty, the successor of the Qin State, as well as the rule of Han dynasty emperors. Jiangzhou was subsequently renamed during the Northern and Southern dynasties to Chu Prefecture (楚州), then again in 581 AD (Sui dynasty) to Yu Prefecture (渝州), and later in 1102 during Northern Song to Gong Prefecture (恭州).[31] The name Yu however survives to this day as an abbreviation for Chongqing, as well as for the city's historic center, where the old town once stood; its name is Yuzhong (渝中, Central Yu).[30] It received its current name in 1189, after Prince Zhao Dun of the Southern Song dynasty described his crowning as king and then Emperor Guangzong as a "double celebration" (simplified Chinese: 双重喜庆; traditional Chinese: 雙重喜慶; pinyin: shuāngchóng xǐqìng, or chóngqìng in short). To mark the occasion of his enthronement, Yu Prefecture was therefore converted to Chongqing Fu.

In 1362, (Yuan dynasty), Ming Yuzhen, a peasant rebel leader, established the Daxia Kingdom (大夏) at Chongqing for a short time.[32] In 1621 (Ming dynasty), another short-lived kingdom of Daliang (大梁) was established by She Chongming (奢崇明) with Chongqing as its capital.[33] In 1644, after the fall of the Ming dynasty to a rebel army, Chongqing, together with the rest of Sichuan, was captured by Zhang Xianzhong, who was said to have massacred a large number of people in Sichuan and depopulated the province, in part by causing many people to flee to safety elsewhere. The Manchus later conquered the province, and during the Qing dynasty, immigration to Chongqing and Sichuan took place with the support of the Qing emperor.[34]

In 1890, the British Consulate General was opened in Chongqing.[35] The following year, the city became the first inland commerce port open to foreigners, with the proviso that foreign ships should not be at liberty to trade there until Chinese-owned steamers had succeeded in ascending the river. This restriction was abolished by the Treaty of Shimonoseki in 1895, which declared the city open on the same terms as other ports, although it was not until 1907 that a steamship made the journey without the help of manual haulers.[36] From 1896 to 1904, the American, German, French, and Japanese consulates were opened in Chongqing.[37][38][39][40]

Provisional wartime capital of the Republic of China

Main article: Bombing of Chongqing

A street scene in Chongqing, c. 1944
A street scene in Chongqing, c. 1944

During and after the Second Sino-Japanese War, from Nov 1937 to May 1946, it was Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek's provisional capital. After the General and remaining army had lived there for a time following their retreat in 1938 from the previous capital of Wuhan, it was formally declared the second capital city (陪都, péi dū) on 6 September 1940.[41] After Britain, the United States, and other Allies entered the war in Asia in December 1941, one of the Allies' deputy commanders of operations in South East Asia (South East Asia Command SEAC), Joseph Stilwell, was based in the city. This made it a city of world importance in the fight against Axis powers, together with London, Moscow and Washington, D.C.[42]

The city was also visited by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Supreme Commander of SEAC which was itself headquartered in Ceylon, modern day Sri Lanka. Chiang Kai Shek as Supreme Commander in China worked closely with Stilwell.[43] From 1938 to 1943, the city suffered from continuously massive bombing campaigns of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Army Air Forces; battles of which were fought entirely by the Chinese Air Force squadrons and anti-aircraft artillery units.[44][45] Many lives were saved by the air-raid shelters which took advantage of the mountainous terrain. Chongqing was acclaimed to be the "City of Heroes" due to the indomitable spirits of its people as well as their contributions and sacrifices during the War of Resistance-World War II. Many factories and universities were relocated from eastern China and ultimately to Chongqing during years of setbacks in the war, transforming this city from inland port to a heavily industrialized city. In late November 1949, the Nationalist KMT government retreated from the city.[46]

Municipality status

A sunset view of Jiefangbei CBD and Hongya Cave, taken in 2017
A sunset view of Jiefangbei CBD and Hongya Cave, taken in 2017

On 14 March 1997, the Eighth National People's Congress decided to merge the sub-provincial city with adjacent Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang prefectures that it had governed on behalf of the province since September 1996. The resulting single entity became Chongqing Municipality, containing 30,020,000 people in forty-three former counties (without intermediate political levels). The municipality became the spearhead of China's effort to develop its western regions and to coordinate the resettlement of residents from the reservoir areas of the Three Gorges Dam project. Its first official ceremony took place on 18 June 1997.

On 8 February 2010, Chongqing became one of the four National Central/Core cities, the other three are Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin.[47] The same year on June 18, the Liangjiang New Area was established in Chongqing, which was the third state-level new area at the time of its establishment.[48]

Geography

Map including Chongqing (labeled as 重慶 CH'UNG-CH'ING (CHUNGKING)) (AMS, 1954)
Map including Chongqing (labeled as 重慶 CH'UNG-CH'ING (CHUNGKING)) (AMS, 1954)

Physical geography and topography

Topography of Chongqing
Topography of Chongqing

Chongqing is situated at the transitional area between the Tibetan Plateau and the plain on the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the sub-tropical climate zone often swept by moist monsoons. It often rains at night in late spring and early summer, and thus the city is famous for its "night rain in the Ba Mountains", as described by poems throughout Chinese history including the famous Written on a Rainy Night-A Letter to the North by Li Shangyin.[49] The municipality reaches a maximum length of 470 km (290 mi) from east to west, and a maximum width of 450 km (280 mi) from north to south.[50] It borders the following provinces: Hubei in the east, Hunan in the southeast, Guizhou in the south, Sichuan in the west and northwest, and Shaanxi to the north in its northeast corner.[51]

Qutang Gorge on the Yangtze River
Qutang Gorge on the Yangtze River

Chongqing covers a large area crisscrossed by rivers and mountains. The Daba Mountains stand in the north, the Wu Mountains in the east, the Wuling Mountains in the southeast, and the Dalou Mountains in the south. The whole area slopes down from north and south towards the Yangtze River valley, with sharp rises and falls. The area is featured by a large geological massif, of mountains and hills, with large sloping areas at different heights.[52] Typical karst landscape is common in this area, and stone forests, numerous collections of peaks, limestone caves and valleys can be found in many places. The Longshuixia Gap (龙水峡地缝), with its natural arch-bridges, has made the region a popular tourist attraction. The Yangtze River runs through the whole area from west to east, covering a course of 665 km (413 mi), cutting through the Wu Mountains at three places and forming the well-known Three Gorges: the Qutang, the Wuxia and the Xiling gorges.[53] Coming from northwest and running through "the Jialing Lesser Three Gorges" of Libi, Wentang and Guanyin, the Jialing River joins the Yangtze in Chongqing.[54]

Li Bai's Poem of Chongqing's Baidi Cheng

Leaving at dawn the White Emperor crowned with cloud,
I've sailed a thousand li through canyons in a day.
With the monkeys' adieus the riverbanks are loud,
My skiff has left ten thousand mountains far away.

The central urban area of Chongqing, or Chongqing proper, is a city of unique features. Built on mountains and partially surrounded by the Yangtze and Jialing rivers, it is known as a "mountain city" and a "city on rivers".[55] The night scene of the city is very illuminated, with millions of lights and their reflection on the rivers. With its special topographical features, Chongqing has the unique scenery of mountains, rivers, forests, springs, waterfalls, gorges, and caves. Li Bai, a famous poet of the Tang dynasty, was inspired by the natural scenery and wrote this epigram.[56]

Specifically, the central urban area is located on a huge folding area. Yuzhong District, Nan'an District, Shapingba District and Jiangbei District are located right on a big syncline. And the "Southern Mountain of Chongqing" (Tongluo Mountain), along with the Zhongliang Mountain are two anticlines next to the syncline of downtown.[57]

Zhongliang Mountains (中梁山) and Tongluo Mountains (铜锣山) roughly forms the eastern and western boundaries of Chongqing's urban area. The highest point in downtown is the top of Eling Hill, which is a smaller syncline hill that separates the Yangtze River and Jialing River. The elevation of Eling Hill is 379 m (1,243 ft). The lowest point is Chaotian Gate, where the two rivers merge with each other. The altitude there is 160 m (520 ft). The average height of the area is 259 m (850 ft). However, there are several high mountains outside central Chongqing, such as the Wugong Ling Mountain, with the altitude of 1,709.4 m (5,608 ft), in Jiangjin.

Climate

In the spring and fall, downtown Chongqing is often enshrouded in fog.
In the spring and fall, downtown Chongqing is often enshrouded in fog.

Chongqing has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), bordering on a monsoonal humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa) and for most of the year experiences very high relative humidity, with all months above 75%. Known as one of the "Three Furnaces" of the Yangtze River, along with Wuhan and Nanjing, its summers are long and among the hottest and most humid in China, with highs of 33 to 34 °C (91 to 93 °F) in July and August in the urban area.[58] Winters are short and somewhat mild, but damp and overcast. The city's location in the Sichuan Basin causes it to have one of the lowest annual sunshine totals nationally, at only 1,055 hours, lower than much of Northern Europe; the monthly percent possible sunshine in the city proper ranges from a mere 8% in December and January to 48% in August. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −1.8 °C (29 °F) on 15 December 1975 (unofficial record of −2.5 °C (27 °F) was set on 8 February 1943) to 43.7 °C (111 °F) on 18 and 19 August 2022[59] (unofficial record of 44.0 °C (111 °F) was set on 8 and 9 August 1933).[60]

Chongqing, with over 100 days of fog per year,[61] is known as the "Fog City" (雾都); this is because in the spring and fall, a thick layer of fog enshrouds it for 68 days per year.[62][63] During the Second Sino-Japanese War, this special weather possibly played a role in protecting the city from being overrun by the Imperial Japanese Army.

As exemplified by Youyang County below, conditions are often cooler in the southeast part of the municipality due to the higher elevations there.

Climate data for Chongqing (Shapingba District, 1981–2010 normals)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.8
(65.8)
24.6
(76.3)
34.0
(93.2)
36.5
(97.7)
38.9
(102.0)
39.8
(103.6)
42.0
(107.6)
43.7
(110.7)
41.9
(107.4)
35.1
(95.2)
29.2
(84.6)
21.5
(70.7)
43.7
(110.7)
Average high °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
12.9
(55.2)
17.7
(63.9)
23.0
(73.4)
27.2
(81.0)
29.4
(84.9)
33.0
(91.4)
33.2
(91.8)
28.3
(82.9)
21.7
(71.1)
17.1
(62.8)
11.5
(52.7)
22.1
(71.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.9
(46.2)
10.0
(50.0)
13.8
(56.8)
18.6
(65.5)
22.6
(72.7)
25.1
(77.2)
28.3
(82.9)
28.3
(82.9)
24.1
(75.4)
18.6
(65.5)
14.2
(57.6)
9.2
(48.6)
18.4
(65.1)
Average low °C (°F) 6.2
(43.2)
8.0
(46.4)
11.2
(52.2)
15.4
(59.7)
19.3
(66.7)
22.1
(71.8)
24.8
(76.6)
24.7
(76.5)
21.2
(70.2)
16.5
(61.7)
12.3
(54.1)
7.7
(45.9)
15.8
(60.4)
Record low °C (°F) −1.8
(28.8)
−0.8
(30.6)
1.2
(34.2)
2.8
(37.0)
10.8
(51.4)
15.5
(59.9)
19.2
(66.6)
17.8
(64.0)
14.3
(57.7)
6.9
(44.4)
0.7
(33.3)
−1.7
(28.9)
−1.8
(28.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 19.7
(0.78)
23.3
(0.92)
43.2
(1.70)
95.2
(3.75)
145.9
(5.74)
192.6
(7.58)
186.0
(7.32)
137.9
(5.43)
105.8
(4.17)
85.8
(3.38)
48.3
(1.90)
24.3
(0.96)
1,108
(43.63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 10.0 9.8 11.9 14.3 15.5 15.7 12.5 11.3 12.7 16.1 11.5 9.8 151.1
Average relative humidity (%) 84 80 77 77 77 81 76 74 79 85 84 85 80
Mean monthly sunshine hours 20.6 29.7 64.9 93.6 109.4 97.7 158.6 167.0 106.6 50.4 35.9 20.4 954.8
Percent possible sunshine 8 11 18 25 26 26 42 48 28 18 13 8 24
Average ultraviolet index 4 6 8 10 11 12 12 11 10 7 5 4 8
Source 1: China Meteorological Administration[64][65]
Source 2: Weather Atlas (uv)[66][59]

See or edit raw graph data.

Climate data for Youyang Tujia and Miao Autonomous County (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 21.4
(70.5)
27.9
(82.2)
30.6
(87.1)
33.4
(92.1)
35.3
(95.5)
35.6
(96.1)
36.7
(98.1)
37.5
(99.5)
35.6
(96.1)
31.9
(89.4)
26.7
(80.1)
20.9
(69.6)
37.5
(99.5)
Average high °C (°F) 7.6
(45.7)
9.3
(48.7)
13.7
(56.7)
19.9
(67.8)
24.4
(75.9)
27.2
(81.0)
30.1
(86.2)
30.2
(86.4)
26.1
(79.0)
20.1
(68.2)
15.5
(59.9)
10.2
(50.4)
19.5
(67.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
5.8
(42.4)
9.5
(49.1)
15.0
(59.0)
19.4
(66.9)
22.6
(72.7)
25.2
(77.4)
24.8
(76.6)
21.1
(70.0)
15.8
(60.4)
11.1
(52.0)
6.2
(43.2)
15.1
(59.1)
Average low °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
3.3
(37.9)
6.5
(43.7)
11.5
(52.7)
15.8
(60.4)
19.3
(66.7)
21.7
(71.1)
21.2
(70.2)
17.8
(64.0)
13.0
(55.4)
8.2
(46.8)
3.4
(38.1)
12.0
(53.5)
Record low °C (°F) −5.6
(21.9)
−4.5
(23.9)
−2.3
(27.9)
1.4
(34.5)
5.9
(42.6)
11.5
(52.7)
14.6
(58.3)
14.3
(57.7)
10.7
(51.3)
4.0
(39.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
−4.7
(23.5)
−5.6
(21.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 28.6
(1.13)
37.2
(1.46)
54.8
(2.16)
121.0
(4.76)
192.9
(7.59)
224.0
(8.82)
203.4
(8.01)
150.4
(5.92)
97.9
(3.85)
110.6
(4.35)
64.2
(2.53)
23.9
(0.94)
1,308.9
(51.52)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12.0 12.2 15.9 16.9 18.1 17.1 15.4 14.4 13.0 15.1 11.6 9.7 171.4
Average relative humidity (%) 77 78 79 79 80 82 81 80 79 82 79 76 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 42.5 37.4 47.6 83.3 102.7 101.4 155.9 171.7 112.3 88.7 68.7 64.4 1,076.6
Percent possible sunshine 13 12 13 22 25 24 37 42 31 25 21 20 24.3
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)[67][68]

Cityscape

Politics

Main article: Politics of Chongqing

See also: List of provincial leaders of the People's Republic of China

The Great Hall of the People serves as the venue for major political conferences in Chongqing
The Great Hall of the People serves as the venue for major political conferences in Chongqing

Chongqing has been, since 1997, a direct-controlled municipality in the Chinese administrative structure, making it a provincial-level division with commensurate political importance. The municipality's top leader is the secretary of the municipal committee of the Chinese Communist Party ("party chief"), which, since 2007, has also held a seat on the Politburo of the Chinese Communist Party, the country's second highest governing council. Under the Soviet-inspired nomenklatura system of appointments, individuals are appointed to the position by the central leadership of the Communist Party, and bestowed to an official based on seniority and adherence to party orthodoxy, usually given to an individual with prior regional experience elsewhere in China and nearly never a native of Chongqing. Notable individuals who have held the municipal Party Secretary position include He Guoqiang, Wang Yang, Bo Xilai, Zhang Dejiang, and Sun Zhengcai, the latter three were Politburo members during their term as party chief. The party chief heads the municipal party standing committee, the de facto top governing council of the municipality. The standing committee is typically composed of 13 individuals which includes the party chiefs of important subdivisions and other leading figures in the local party and government organization, as well as one military representative.

The municipal People's Government serves as the day-to-day administrative authority, and is headed by the mayor, who is assisted by numerous vice mayors and mayoral assistants. Each vice mayor is given jurisdiction over specific municipal departments. The mayor is the second-highest-ranking official in the municipality. The mayor usually represents the city when foreign guests visit.[69]

The municipality also has a People's Congress, theoretically elected by lower level People's Congresses. The People's Congress nominally appoints the mayor and approves the nominations of other government officials. The People's Congress, like those of other provincial jurisdictions, is generally seen as a symbolic body. It convenes in full once a year to approve party-sponsored resolutions and local regulations and duly confirm party-approved appointments. On occasion the People's Congress can be venues of discussion on municipal issues, although this is dependent on the actions of individual delegates. The municipal People's Congress is headed by a former municipal official, usually in their late fifties or sixties, with a lengthy prior political career in Chongqing. The municipal Political Consultative Conference (zhengxie) meets at around the same time as the People's Congress. Its role is to advise on political issues. The zhengxie is headed by a leader who is typically a former municipal or regional official with a lengthy career in the party and government bureaucracy.

Military

Chongqing was the wartime capital of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War (i.e., World War II), and from 1938 to 1946,[70] the seat of administration for the Republic of China's government before its departure to Nanjing and then Taiwan.[71] After the eventual defeat at the Battle of Wuhan General Chiang-Kai Shek and the army were forced to use it as base of resistance from 1938 onwards.[41] It also contains a military museum named after the Chinese Korean War hero Qiu Shaoyun.[72]

Chongqing used to be the headquarters of the 13th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the two group armies that formerly comprised the Chengdu Military Region, which in 2016 was re-organized into the Western Theater Command.[73]

Administrative divisions

For a more comprehensive list, see List of administrative divisions of Chongqing.

Chongqing is the largest of the four direct-controlled municipalities of the People's Republic of China. The municipality is divided into 38 subdivisions (3 were abolished in 1997, and Wansheng and Shuangqiao districts were abolished in October 2011[74]), consisting of 26 districts, 8 counties, and 4 autonomous counties. The boundaries of Chongqing municipality reach much farther into the city's hinterland than the boundaries of the other three provincial level municipalities (Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin), and much of its administrative area, which spans over 80,000 km2 (30,900 sq mi), is rural. At the end of year 2018, the total population is 31.02 million.

Administrative divisions of Chongqing
Division code[75] Division Area in km2[76] Total population 2010[77] Urban area
population 2010[78]
Seat Postal code Subdivisions[79]
Subdistricts Towns Townships
[n 1]
Ethnic townships Residential communities Villages
500000 Chongqing 82403 28,846,170 15295803 Yuzhong 400000 181 567 233 14 2324 5235
500101 Wanzhou 3457 1,563,050 859,662 Chenjiaba Subdistrict 404000 11 29 10 2 187 448
500102 Fuling 2946 1,066,714 595,224 Lizhi Subdistrict 408000 8 12 6 108 310
500103 Yuzhong 23 630,090 Qixinggang Subdistrict 400000 12 78
500104 Dadukou 102 301,042 280,512 Xinshancun Subdistrict 400000 5 2 48 32
500105 Jiangbei 221 738,003 672,545 Cuntan Subdistrict 400000 9 3 88 48
500106 Shapingba 396 1,000,013 900,568 Qinjiagang Subdistrict 400000 18 8 140 86
500107 Jiulongpo 431 1,084,419 939,349 Yangjiaping Subdistrict 400000 7 11 107 105
500108 Nan'an 263 759,570 683,717 Tianwen Subdistrict 400000 7 7 85 61
500109 Beibei 754 680,360 501,822 Beiwenquan Subdistrict 400700 5 12 63 117
500110 Qijiang 2747 1,056,817 513,935 Gunan Subdistrict 400800 5 25 99 365
500111 Dazu 1433 721,359 315,183 Tangxiang Subdistrict 400900 3 24 103 197
500112 Yubei 1452 1,345,410 985,918 Shuangfengqiao Subdistrict 401100 14 12 155 215
500113 Banan 1834 918,692 669,269 Longzhouwan Subdistrict 401300 8 14 87 198
500114 Qianjiang 2397 445,012 173,997 Chengxi Subdistrict 409700 6 12 12 80 138
500115 Changshou 1423 770,009 408,261 Fengcheng Subdistrict 401200 4 14 31 223
500116 Jiangjin 3200 1,233,149 686,189 Jijiang Subdistrict 402200 4 24 85 180
500117 Hechuan 2356 1,293,028 721,753 Nanjin Street Subdistrict 401500 7 23 61 327
500118 Yongchuan 1576 1,024,708 582,769 Zhongshan Road Subdistrict 402100 7 16 52 208
500119 Nanchuan 2602 534,329 255,045 Dongcheng Subdistrict 408400 3 15 15 58 185
500120 Bishan 912 586,034 246,425 Bicheng Subdistrict 402700 6 9 43 142
500151 Tongliang 1342 600,086 248,962 Bachuan Subdistrict 402500 3 25 57 269
500152 Tongnan 1585 639,985 247,084 Guilin Subdistrict 402600 2 20 21 281
500153 Rongchang 1079 661,253 271,232 Changyuan Subdistrict 402400 6 15 75 92
500154 Kaizhou 3959 1,160,336 416,415 Hanfeng Subdistrict 405400 7 26 7 78 435
500155 Liangping 1890 687,525 235,753 Liangshan Subdistrict 405200 2 26 7 33 310
500156 Wulong 2872 351,038 115,823 Gangkou town 408500 12 10 4 24 184
500229 Chengkou Co. 3286 192,967 49,039 Gecheng Subdistrict 405900 2 6 17 22 184
500230 Fengdu Co. 2896 649,182 224,003 Sanhe Subdistrict 408200 2 23 5 53 277
500231 Dianjiang Co. 1518 704,458 241,424 Guixi Subdistrict 408300 2 23 2 62 236
500233 Zhong Co. 2184 751,424 247,406 Zhongzhou town 404300 22 5 1 49 317
500235 Yunyang Co. 3634 912,912 293,636 Shuangjiang Subdistrict 404500 4 22 15 1 87 391
500236 Fengjie Co. 4087 834,259 269,302 Yong'an town 404600 19 8 4 54 332
500237 Wushan Co. 2958 495,072 148,597 Gaotang Subdistrict 404700 11 12 2 30 308
500238 Wuxi Co. 4030 414,073 105,111 Baichang Subdistrict 405800 2 15 16 38 292
500240 Shizhu Co. 3013 415,050 134,173 Nanbin town 409100 17 15 29 213
500241 Xiushan Co. 2450 501,590 150,566 Zhonghe Subdistrict 409900 14 18 59 208
500242 Youyang Co. 5173 578,058 137,635 Taohuayuan town 409800 15 23 8 270
500243 Pengshui Co. 3903 545,094 137,409 Hanjia Subdistrict 409600 11 28 55 241
  1. ^ Including other township related subdivisions.

Urban areas

Population by urban areas of districts
# City Urban area[78] District area[78] Census date
1 Chongqing[i] 6,263,790 7,457,599 2010-11-01
2 Wanzhou 859,662 1,563,050 2010-11-01
3 Hechuan 721,753 1,293,028 2010-11-01
4 Jiangjin 686,189 1,233,149 2010-11-01
5 Fuling 595,224 1,066,714 2010-11-01
6 Yongchuan 582,769 1,024,708 2010-11-01
7 Qijiang[ii] 513,935 1,056,817 2010-11-01
(8) Kaizhou[iii] 416,415 1,160,336 2010-11-01
9 Changshou 408,261 770,009 2010-11-01
10 Dazu[iv] 315,183 721,359 2010-11-01
(11) Rongchang[v] 271,232 661,253 2010-11-01
12 Nanchuan 255,045 534,329 2010-11-01
(13) Tongliang[vi] 248,962 600,086 2010-11-01
(14) Tongnan[vii] 247,084 639,985 2010-11-01
(15) Bishan[viii] 246,425 586,034 2010-11-01
(16) Liangping[ix] 235,753 687,525 2010-11-01
17 Qianjiang 173,997 445,012 2010-11-01
(18) Wulong[x] 115,823 351,038 2010-11-01
  1. ^ Chongqing core districts are consist of nine districts: Yuzhong, Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan'an, Beibei, Yubei, & Banan.
  2. ^ Wansheng District & Qijiang County currently known as Qijiang District after census.
  3. ^ Kaizhou County is currently known as Kaizhou District after census.
  4. ^ Shuangqiao District & Dazu County currently known as Dazu District after census.
  5. ^ Rongchang County is currently known as Rongchang District after census.
  6. ^ Tongliang County is currently known as Tongliang District after census.
  7. ^ Tongnan County is currently known as Tongnan District after census.
  8. ^ Bishan County is currently known as Bishan District after census.
  9. ^ Liangping County is currently known as Liangping District after census.
  10. ^ Wulong County is currently known as Wulong District after census.

a Indicates with which district the division was associated below prior to the merging of Chongqing, Fuling, Wanxian (now Wanzhou) and Qianjiang in 1997.

Central Chongqing

Jiefangbei CBD, Yuzhong Peninsula of Chongqing at night
Jiefangbei CBD, Yuzhong Peninsula of Chongqing at night

The main urban area of Chongqing city (重庆主城区) spans approximately 5,473 km2 (2,113 sq mi), and includes the following nine districts:[80][81]

Demographics

Population

Jiefangbei (People's Liberation Monument), the landmark and center of Chongqing
Jiefangbei (People's Liberation Monument), the landmark and center of Chongqing
Historical population
YearPop.±%
19491,003,000—    
19796,301,000+528.2%
198313,890,000+120.4%
199615,297,000+10.1%
1997[82]*28,753,000+88.0%
2000[82]28,488,200−0.9%
2005[82]27,980,000−1.8%
2008[82]28,390,000+1.5%
2012[82]28,846,170+1.6%
2013[82]29,700,000+3.0%
2014[83]29,914,000+0.7%
2015[84]30,170,000+0.9%
*Population size in 1997 was affected by expansion of administrative divisions.

According to a July 2010 article from the official Xinhua news agency, the municipality has a population of 32.8 million, including 23.3 million farmers. Among them, 8.4 million farmers have become migrant workers, including 3.9 million working and living in urban areas of Chongqing.[85] as of 2010, the metropolitan area encompassing the central urban area was estimated by the OECD to have, a population of 17 million.[86][87][88]

This would mean that the locally registered farmers who work in other jurisdictions number 4.5 million, reducing the local, year-round population of Chongqing in 2010 to 28.3 million, plus those who are registered in other jurisdictions but live and work in Chongqing. According to China's 2005 statistical yearbook, of a total population of 30.55 million, those with residence registered in other jurisdictions but residing in the Chongqing enumeration area numbered 1.4 million, including 46,000 who resided in Chongqing "for less than half-year". An additional 83,000 had registered in Chongqing, but not yet settled there.[89]

The 2005 statistical yearbook also lists 15.22 million (49.82%) males and 15.33 million (50.18%) females.[89]

In terms of age distribution in 2004, of the 30.55 million total population, 6.4 million (20.88%) were age 0–14, 20.7 million (67.69%) were 15–64, and 3.5 million (11.46%) were 65 and over.[90]

Of a total 10,470,000 households (2004), 1,360,000 consisted of one person, 2,940,000 two-person, 3,190,000 three-person, 1,790,000 four-person, 783,000 five-person, 270,000 six-person, 89,000 seven-person, 28,000 eight-person, 6,000 nine-person, and 10,000 households of 10 or more persons per household.[91]

Religion

Religion in Chongqing[92][note 2]

  Christianity (1.05%)
  Other or no religion[note 3] (72.32%)

The predominant religions in Chongqing are Chinese folk religions, Taoist traditions and Chinese Buddhism. According to surveys conducted in 2007 and 2009, 26.63% of the population believes and is involved in cults of ancestors, while 1.05% of the population identifies as Christian (see also Christianity in Sichuan).[92]

The reports did not give figures for other types of religion; 72.32% of the population may be either irreligious or involved in worship of nature deities, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, or folk religious sects.

In 2010, there were 9,056 Muslims in Chongqing.[93]

Buddhist temple in Jiulongpo

Economy

Main article: Economy of Chongqing

Chongqing products treemap, 2020
Chongqing products treemap, 2020

Chongqing is facing rapid urbanization. For instance, statistics suggest that new construction added approximately 137,000 m2 (1,470,000 sq ft) daily of usable floor space to satisfy demands for residential, commercial and factory space.[94] Thus, Chongqing was separated from Sichuan province and made into a municipality in its own right on 14 March 1997[95] in order to accelerate its development and subsequently China's relatively poorer western areas (see China Western Development strategy).[96] An important industrial area in western China,[97]

As of 2021, the economy of Chongqing was China's 16th largest economy with a GDP of CNY¥ 2,789 billion or USD$439 billion in (nominal), which is equivalent to the GDP of Nigeria, the largest economy in Africa.[98][99] However, its overall economic performance is still lagging behind coastal cities such as Shanghai, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. For example, its GDP per capita was 87,000 yuan (USD13,400 $),[98] which is around the national average. Nevertheless, there is a massive government push to transform Chongqing into the region's economic, trade, and financial center and use the municipality as a platform to open up the country's western interior to further development.[100]

Compared to a country, it would be the 33rd-largest economy and the 45th most populous with the total perminant population of 32.05 millions as of 2021.[101][99]

Chongqing has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit in the November 2010 Access China White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.[102]

Traditionally, due to its geographic inaccessibility, Chongqing and Sichuan have both been important military bases in weapons research and development.[103] Even though Chongqing's industries are diversified, unlike eastern China, its export sector is small due to its relatively disadvantageous inland location. Instead, factories producing local-oriented consumer goods such as processed food, cars, chemicals, textiles, machinery, sports equipment and electronics are common.

Chongqing is China's third largest motor vehicle production center and the largest for motorcycles. In 2007, it had an annual output capacity of 1 million cars and 8.6 million motorcycles.[104] Leading makers of cars and motorbikes includes China's fourth biggest automaker; Changan Automotive Corp and Lifan Hongda Enterprise, as well as Ford Motor Company, with the US car giant having 3 plants in Chongqing. The municipality is also one of China's nine largest iron and steel producers in China as well as one of its three major aluminum producers. Important manufacturers include Chongqing Iron and Steel Company (重庆钢铁股份有限公司) and Southwest Aluminum (西南鋁業), which is Asia's largest aluminum plant.[105] Agriculture remains significant. Rice and fruits, especially oranges, are the area's main produce. Natural resources are also abundant with large deposits of coal, natural gas, and more than 40 kinds of minerals such as strontium and manganese. Coal reserves total approximately 4,800,000,000 metric tons (4.7×109 long tons; 5.3×109 short tons). Chuandong Natural Gas Field is China's largest inland gas field with deposits of around 270 billion m3 – more than 1/5 of China's total. Has China's largest reserve of strontium (China has the world's 2nd biggest strontium deposit). Manganese is mined in the Xiushan area. Although the mining sector has been denounced as heavily polluting and unsafe.[note 4] Chongqing is also planned to be the site of a 10 million ton capacity refinery operated by CNPC (parent company of PetroChina) to process imported crude oil from the Sino-Burma pipelines. The pipeline itself, though not yet finished, will eventually run from Sittwe (in Myanmar's western coast) through Kunming in Yunnan before reaching Chongqing[106] and it will provide China with fuels sourced from Myanmar, the Middle East and Africa. Recently, there has been a drive to move up the value chain by shifting towards high technology and knowledge intensive industries resulting in new development zones such as the Chongqing New North Zone (CNNZ).[107] Chongqing's local government is hoping through the promotion of favorable economic policies for the electronics and information technology sectors, that it can create a 400 billion RMB high technology manufacturing hub which will surpass its car industry and account for 25% of its exports.[108]

The city has also invested heavily in infrastructure to attract investment.[104][109] The network of roads and railways connecting Chongqing to the rest of China has been expanded and upgraded reducing logistical costs. Furthermore, the nearby Three Gorges Dam which is the world's largest, supplies Chongqing with power and allows oceangoing ships to reach Chongqing's Yangtze River port.[110] These infrastructure improvements have led to the arrivals of numerous foreign direct investors (FDI) in industries ranging from car to finance and retailing; such as Ford,[111] Mazda,[112] HSBC,[113] Standard Chartered Bank,[114] Citibank,[115] Deutsche Bank,[116] ANZ Bank,[117] Scotiabank,[118] Wal-Mart,[119] Metro AG[120] and Carrefour,[121] among other multinational corporations.

Economic and technological development zones

The city includes a number of economic and technological development zones:

Chongqing itself is part of the West Triangle Economic Zone, along with Chengdu and Xi'an.

Education

As of 2022, Chongqing hosts 70 institutions of higher education (excluding adult colleges), making it the fourth city with most higher education institutions nationwide and the first city in Southwest China, which comprises Chongqing, Sichuan Province, Guizhou Province, Yunnan Province, and Tibet Autonomous Region with a combination of more than 180 million population.[130]

Colleges and universities

For a more comprehensive list, see List of universities and colleges in Chongqing.

Notable high schools

Entrance to the Chongqing Nankai Secondary School

International schools

Transport

Since its elevation to national-level municipality in 1997, the city has dramatically expanded its transportation infrastructure. With the construction of railways and expressways to the east and southeast, Chongqing is a major transportation hub in southwestern China.

As of October 2014, the municipality had 31 bridges across the Yangtze River including over a dozen in the city's urban core.[133] Aside from the city's first two Yangtze River bridges, which were built, respectively, in 1960 and 1977, all of the other bridges were completed since 1995.

Public transit

Chongqing Rail Transit

A train of Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 coming through a residential building at Liziba station.
A train of Chongqing Rail Transit Line 2 coming through a residential building at Liziba station.
Hongyancun station on Line 9.
Hongyancun station on Line 9.

Main article: Chongqing Rail Transit

Public transport in Chongqing consists of metro, intercity railway, a ubiquitous bus system and the world's largest monorail network.

According to the Chongqing Municipal Government's ambitious plan in May 2007, Chongqing is investing 150 billion RMB over 13 years to finish a system that combines underground metro lines with heavy monorail.

As of 2017, four metro lines, the 14 km (8.7 mi) long CRT Line 1, a conventional subway, and the 19 km (12 mi) long heavy monorail CRT Line 2 (through Phase II), Line 3, a heavy monorail connects the airport and the southern part of downtown.[134] Line 6, runs between Beibei, a district in the city's far north to downtown.[135] Line 5 opened in late 2017.

By 2020 CRT will consist of 6 lines and 1 loop line resulting in 363.5 km (225.9 mi) of road and railway to the existing transportation infrastructure and 93 new metro stations will be added to the 111 stations that are already in place.[136]

By 2050, Chongqing will have as many as 18 lines that are planned to be in operation.[137][full citation needed]

Aerial tramway

An aerial tramway across the Yangtze River in Chongqing CBD. (Photo by Chen Hualin)
An aerial tramway across the Yangtze River in Chongqing CBD. (Photo by Chen Hualin)

Chongqing is the only Chinese city that keeps public aerial tramways. Historically there were three aerial tramways in Chongqing: the Yangtze River Tramway, the Jialing River Tramway and the South Mountain Tramway. Currently, only Yangtze River Tramway is still operating and it is Class 4A Tourist Attractions in China. The 1,160-meter (3,810 ft)-long tramway connects the southern and northern banks of Yangtze River; its daily passenger volume is about 10,000.

空中缆车
空中缆车


Railways

Chongqing North railway station.

Major railway stations in Chongqing:

Chongqing is a major freight destination for rail with continued development with improved handling facilities. Due to subsidies and incentives, the relocation and construction of many factories in Chongqing has seen a huge increase in rail traffic.

Chongqing is a major rail hub regionally.

River port

Hydrofoil on the Yangtze in the outer reaches of the municipality
Hydrofoil on the Yangtze in the outer reaches of the municipality

Chongqing is one of the most important inland ports in China. There are numerous luxury cruise ships that terminate at Chongqing, cruising downstream along the Yangtze River to Yichang, Wuhan, Nanjing or even Shanghai.[citation needed] In the recent past, this provided virtually the only transportation option along the river. However, improved rail, expressways and air travel have seen this ferry traffic reduced or cancelled altogether. Most of the river ferry traffic consists of leisure cruises for tourists rather than local needs. Improved access by larger cargo vessels has been made due to the construction of the Three Gorges Dam. This allows bulk transport of goods along the Yangtze River. Coal, raw minerals and containerized goods provide the majority of traffic plying this section of the river. Several port handling facilities exist throughout the city, including many impromptu river bank sites.[138]

Highways

Traditionally, the road network in Chongqing has been narrow, winding and limited to smaller vehicles because of the natural terrain, large rivers and the huge population demands on the area, especially in the Yuzhong District. In other places, such as Jiangbei, large areas of homes and buildings have recently been cleared to improve the road network and create better urban planning; thus, several ring roads have also been constructed. This has seen many tunnels and large bridges needing to be built across the city. The construction of many expressways have connected Chongqing to its neighbors. The natural mountainous terrain that Chongqing is built on makes many road projects difficult to construct, including for example some of the world's highest road bridges.[139]

Unlike many other Chinese cities, it is rare for motorbikes, electric scooters or bicycles to be seen on Chongqing's Roads. This is due to the extremely hilly and mountainous nature of Chongqing's roads and streets. However, despite this, Chongqing is a manufacturing center for these types of vehicles.[140]

Bridges

View of Chaotianmen Bridge across the Yangtze River in Chongqing
View of Chaotianmen Bridge across the Yangtze River in Chongqing

With so many bridges crossing the Yangtze and Jialing rivers in the urban area, Chongqing is sometimes known as the 'Bridge Capital of China'. The first important bridge in urban Chongqing was the Niujiaotuo Jialing River Bridge, built in 1958. The first bridge over the Yangtze river was the Shibanpo Yangtze River Bridge (or Chongqing Yangtze River Bridge) built in 1977.

As of 2014, within the area of the 9 districts, there were 20 bridges on the Yangtze river and 28 bridges on the Jialing river. The bridges in Chongqing exhibit a variety of shapes and structures, making Chongqing a showcase for bridge design.

Airports

See also: Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport

Departure Level of Terminal 3, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport

The major airport of Chongqing is Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport (IATA: CKG, ICAO: ZUCK). It is located in Yubei District. The airport offers a growing network of direct flights to China, South East Asia, the Middle East, North America, and Europe. It is located 21 km (13 mi) north of the city center of Chongqing and serves as an important aviation hub for south-western China.[141] Jiangbei airport is a hub for China Southern Airlines, Chongqing Airlines, Sichuan Airlines, China Express Airlines, Shandong Airlines and Hainan Airlines's new China West Air. Chongqing also is a focus city of Air China, therefore it is very well connected with Star Alliance and Skyteam's international network. The airport currently has three parallel runways in operation. It serves domestic routes to most other Chinese cities, as well as international routes to Auckland, New York City, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, Doha, Dubai, Seoul, Bangkok, Phuket, Osaka, Singapore, Chiang Mai, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Malé, Bali, Tokyo, Kuala Lumpur, Batam, Rome and Helsinki. As of 2021, Jiangbei Airport was the 4th busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic in mainland China.[142]

Currently, Jiangbei airport has three terminals. Chongqing Airport has metro access (CRT Line 3 and Line 10) to its central city, and two runways in normal use.[143]

There are four other airports in Chongqing Municipality: Qianjiang Wulingshan Airport, Wanzhou Wuqiao Airport, Chongqing Xiannüshan Airport, and Chongqing Wushan Airport. They are all class 4C airports and serve passenger flights to domestic destinations including Beijing, Shanghai and Kunming.

Culture

Main article: Bashu culture

Language

Main article: Sichuanese Mandarin

Zhongshan Ancient Town, Jiangjin, Chongqing
Zhongshan Ancient Town, Jiangjin, Chongqing

The language native to Chongqing is Southwestern Mandarin. More precisely, the great majority of the municipality, save for Xiushan, speak Sichuanese, including the primary Chengdu-Chongqing dialect and Minjiang dialect spoken in Jiangjin and Qijiang.[144] There are also a few speakers of Xiang and Hakka in the municipality, due to the great immigration wave to the Sichuan region (湖广填四川) during the Ming and Qing dynasties. In addition, in parts of southeastern Chongqing, the Miao and Tujia languages are also used by some Miao and Tujia people.[145]

Tourism

Chongqing Grand Theater
Martyrs' Cemetery
Martyrs' Cemetery
Chongqing Art Museum

See also: Twelve Views of Bayu

As the provisional Capital of China for almost ten years (1937 to 1945), the city was also known as one of the three headquarters of the Allies during World War II, as well as being a strategic center of many other wars throughout China's history. Chongqing has many historic war-time buildings or sites, some of which have since been destroyed. These sites include the People's Liberation Monument, located in the center of Chongqing city. It used to be the highest building in the area, but is now surrounded and dwarfed by numerous shopping centers. Originally named the Monument for the Victory over Axis Armies, it is the only building in China for that purpose.[146] Today, the monument serves as a symbol for the city. The General Joseph W. Stilwell Museum, dedicated to General "Vinegar Joe" Stilwell, a World War II general.[147] the air force cemetery in the Nanshan area, in memory of those air force personnel killed during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), and the Red Rock Village Museum, a diplomatic site for the Communist Party in Chongqing led by Zhou Enlai during World War II, and Guiyuan, Cassia Garden, where Mao Zedong signed the "Double 10 (10 October) Peace Agreement" with the Kuomintang in 1945.[148]

The Hongya Cave (Hongya-dong) traditional Bayu-style stilted houses at Jiefangbei CBD
The Hongya Cave (Hongya-dong) traditional Bayu-style stilted houses at Jiefangbei CBD
The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing Town
The steep path up to the front gate of Fishing Town
Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District
Ciqikou ancient road in Shapingba District

Cuisine

Chongqing food is part of Sichuan cuisine. Chongqing is known for its spicy food. Its food is normally considered numbing because of the use of Sichuan pepper, also known as Sichuan peppercorn, containing hydroxy alpha sanshool. Chongqing's city center has many restaurants and food stalls where meals often cost less than RMB10. Local specialties here include dumplings and pickled vegetables and, different from many other Chinese cuisines, Chongqing dishes are suitable for the solo diner as they are often served in small individual sized portions.[162] Among the delicacies and local specialties are these dishes:

Typical Chongqing hot pot served with minced shrimp, tripes, pork aorta, goose intestine, and kidney slices.
Typical Chongqing hot pot served with minced shrimp, tripes, pork aorta, goose intestine, and kidney slices.
Chongqing Xiao mian with peas and spicy bean paste
Chongqing Xiao mian with peas and spicy bean paste
Laziji is famous for its crispy texture
Laziji is famous for its crispy texture

Media

The Chongqing People's Broadcast Station is Chongqing's largest radio station.[172] The only municipal-level TV network is Chongqing TV, claimed to be the 4th largest television station in China.[173] Chongqing TV broadcasts many local-oriented channels, and can be viewed on many TV sets throughout China.

Sports and recreation

Basketball

Chongqing Soaring Dragons became the 20th team playing in Chinese Basketball Association in 2013. They play at Datianwan Arena, in the same sporting complex as Datianwan Stadium.[174] The team moved to Beijing in 2015 and is currently known as Beijing Royal Fighters.

Soccer

Professional soccer teams in Chongqing include:

Chongqing Lifan is a professional Chinese soccer club that currently plays in the Chinese Super League. They are owned by the Chongqing-based Lifan Group, which manufactures motorcycles, cars and spare parts.[175] Originally called Qianwei (Vanguard) Wuhan, the club formed in 1995 to take part in the recently developed, fully professional Chinese Soccer League. They would quickly rise to top tier of the system and experience their greatest achievement in winning the 2000 Chinese FA Cup,[176] and coming in fourth within the league. However, since then they have struggled to replicate the same success, and have twice been relegated from the top tier.[177]

Chongqing FC was a soccer club located in the city that competed in China League One, the country's second-tier soccer division, before being relegated to the China League Two, and dissolved due to a resultant lack of funds.[178]

Sport venues

Sport venues in Chongqing include:

Cloud Valley

At the end of 2020, a collaboration between a Danish architecture firm and a Chinese tech company Terminus was announced, taking the form of an AI-controlled campus. The project is named Cloud Valley and aims to use sensors and WiFi-controlled devices to collect data on the city's residents and atmosphere, including weather and eating and sleeping habits. The AI will adapt devices to work in a way that fits the gathered information and improves residents' lives.[182]

Notable people

Main category: People from Chongqing

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International relations

Consulates

Consulate Date Consular District
Canada Consulate-General, Chongqing[183] 05.1998 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
United Kingdom Consulate-General, Chongqing[183] 03.2000 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Cambodia Consulate-General, Chongqing[183] 12.2004 Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi
Japan Consulate-General, Chongqing[183] 01.2005 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi
Philippines Consulate-General, Chongqing[183] 12.2008 Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan
Hungary Consulate-General, Chongqing[183] 02.2010 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu
Ethiopia Consulate-General, Chongqing[183] 11.2011 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Italy Consulate-General, Chongqing[184] 12.2013 Chongqing, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan
Netherlands Consulate-General, Chongqing[184] 01.2014 Chongqing, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Yunnan, Guizhou
Uruguay Consulate-General, Chongqing[185] 12.2019 Chongqing, Sichuan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu

Twin towns – sister cities

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Chongqing has sister city relationships with many cities of the world including:

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Total urban population in the municipality.
  2. ^ The data was collected by the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of 2009 and by the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) of 2007, reported and assembled by Xiuhua Wang (2015)[92] in order to confront the proportion of people identifying with two similar social structures: ① Christian churches, and ② folk traditional Chinese religion of the lineage (i. e. people practicing ancestral worship are often classified into lineage "churches" and ancestral shrines). Data for other religions with a significant presence in China (Buddhism, Taoism, folk religious sects, etc.) was not reported by Wang.
  3. ^ This may include:
  4. ^ A survey in 2005 by China's State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) found 13 firms in the manganese triangle had breached targets on the release of hexavalent chromium and ammonia-nitrogen – in the worst case, by a factor of 180. The cleanup ordered by SEPA resulted in firms closing and the expenditure of 280 million yuan.

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Preceded byGuangzhou Wartime Capital of China Republic of China21 November 1937 – 5 May 1946 Succeeded byNanjing Preceded byGuangzhou Wartime Capital of China Republic of China14 October 1949 – 30 November 1949 Succeeded byChengdu