This article needs to be updated. The reason given is: On June 23, 2020 The State Council have approved the renaming of Qiaoxi and Qiaodong district s, the full annexation of Xingtai County and the character-retaining annexation of Ren County(as Renze District) and Nanhe County(as Nanhe district). Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2020)
Xingtai
邢台市
Hsingtai, Shunteh
Clockwise from top: Xingtai Liberation Monument, sculpture of Lying Bull, Xingtai Telegraph Building, city wall ruins and Huoshen Temple, Zhongxing West Street, Dakaiyuan Temple, Qingfeng Tower, statue of Guo Shoujing
Nickname(s): 
Sitting Bull City (卧牛城)
Location of Xingtai City jurisdiction in Hebei
Xingtai
Xingtai
Location of the city center in Hebei
Xingtai
Xingtai
Xingtai (North China Plain)
Xingtai
Xingtai
Xingtai (China)
Coordinates (Xingtai municipal government): 37°04′18″N 114°30′17″E / 37.0717°N 114.5048°E / 37.0717; 114.5048Coordinates: 37°04′18″N 114°30′17″E / 37.0717°N 114.5048°E / 37.0717; 114.5048
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHebei
Settled3500 BC
EstablishedNovember 15, 1983
Area
 • Prefecture-level city12,432 km2 (4,800 sq mi)
 • Urban114.80 km2 (44.32 sq mi)
 • Districts[1]132.3 km2 (51.1 sq mi)
Population
 (2020 census)
 • Prefecture-level city7,111,106
 • Density570/km2 (1,500/sq mi)
 • Urban971,300
 • Urban density8,500/km2 (22,000/sq mi)
 • Districts[1]
971,000
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
054000
Area code(s)0319
ISO 3166 codeCN-HE-05
Vehicle registrationE
Websitewww.xingtai.gov.cn
Xingtai
Simplified Chinese邢台
Traditional Chinese邢臺
PostalHsingtai
Literal meaning"temple of Xing"

Xingtai (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: 邢臺; pinyin: Xíngtái; Wade–Giles: Hsing2-tʻai2), formerly known as Xingzhou and Shunde, is a prefecture-level city in southern Hebei province, People's Republic of China. It has a total area of 12,486 km2 (4,821 sq mi) and administers 4 districts, 2 county-level cities and 12 counties. At the 2020 census, its population was 7,111,106 inhabitants. It borders Shijiazhuang and Hengshui in the north, Handan in the south, and the provinces of Shandong and Shanxi in the east and west respectively.

History

Xingtai is the oldest city in North China.[citation needed] The history of Xingtai can be traced back 3500 years ago. During the Shang Dynasty, Xingtai functioned as a capital city. During the Zhou Dynasty, the State of Xing – from which the present name derives – was founded in the city. During the Warring States period, the state of Zhao made Xingtai its provisional capital. The city was known as Xindu for most of the Qin Dynasty, but after the 207 BC Battle of Julu (within present-day Pingxiang County, not today's Julu County), it became known as Xiangguo. During the Sixteen Kingdoms Period, when the Later Zhao was founded by Shi Le of the Jie, the capital was again at Xiangguo. During the Sui and Tang dynasties, the city was known as Xingzhou.

Sui, Tang and Song times saw the zenith of ceramics production in what was the most prolific ceramics center of northern China (rivaling the Yue ware from the South). The white ware and new technologies developed in the Xing kiln mark the transition from proto-porcelain to proper porcelain.[2] More than thirty kiln site have been excavated in different subdivisions of today's Xingtai City and a large high-tech museum have been established in Neiqiu County in 2017.[3][4][5]

During the Yuan Dynasty, Ming, and Qing dynasties, Xingtai was called Shunde (Shundefu) and functioned as a prefecture in China.

Geography and climate

Xingtai has a continental, monsoon-influenced semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk).[6] It has hot, humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and generally cold, windy, very dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone; fall is similar to spring both in temperature and lack of rainfall. In the spring, there are large sandstorms blowing in from the Mongolian steppe, accompanied by rapidly warming, but generally dry, conditions. The annual rainfall, more than half of which falls in July and August alone, is highly variable and not reliable. In the city itself, this amount has averaged to a mere 493 mm (19.4 in) per annum.

Climate data for Xingtai (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.9
(69.6)
27.4
(81.3)
30.2
(86.4)
35.2
(95.4)
39.7
(103.5)
41.1
(106.0)
40.6
(105.1)
38.7
(101.7)
39.0
(102.2)
37.0
(98.6)
27.8
(82.0)
27.6
(81.7)
41.1
(106.0)
Average high °C (°F) 3.9
(39.0)
7.3
(45.1)
13.6
(56.5)
21.9
(71.4)
27.5
(81.5)
32.1
(89.8)
31.9
(89.4)
30.3
(86.5)
26.9
(80.4)
21.1
(70.0)
12.4
(54.3)
5.9
(42.6)
19.6
(67.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.6
(29.1)
1.5
(34.7)
7.9
(46.2)
15.7
(60.3)
21.4
(70.5)
26.0
(78.8)
27.0
(80.6)
25.6
(78.1)
21.0
(69.8)
14.7
(58.5)
6.5
(43.7)
0.4
(32.7)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) −6.1
(21.0)
−3.1
(26.4)
2.5
(36.5)
9.8
(49.6)
15.1
(59.2)
20.2
(68.4)
22.6
(72.7)
21.6
(70.9)
16.1
(61.0)
9.4
(48.9)
1.8
(35.2)
−3.8
(25.2)
8.8
(47.9)
Record low °C (°F) −20.2
(−4.4)
−15.6
(3.9)
−10.9
(12.4)
−4.9
(23.2)
5.0
(41.0)
9.9
(49.8)
15.7
(60.3)
13.2
(55.8)
5.6
(42.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
−9.2
(15.4)
−17.4
(0.7)
−20.2
(−4.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 3.6
(0.14)
7.0
(0.28)
13.0
(0.51)
18.2
(0.72)
30.8
(1.21)
53.3
(2.10)
151.9
(5.98)
120.2
(4.73)
49.5
(1.95)
29.6
(1.17)
12.2
(0.48)
4.1
(0.16)
493.4
(19.43)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 2.3 2.9 3.8 4.0 6.1 8.0 12.9 11.1 7.3 5.3 3.9 2.1 69.7
Source: Weather China

Air quality

According to a survey made by "Global voices China" in February 2013, 7 cities in Hebei including Xingtai, Shijiazhuang, Baoding, Handan, Langfang, Hengshui and Tangshan, are among China's 10 most polluted cities. Xingtai ranked 1st in the list and is referred to has the worst air quality in all Chinese cities.[7] In 2020, the improvement rates of Xingtai's comprehensive air quality index and PM2.5 average concentration ranked first in Hebei Province. The average annual concentration of PM2.5 has successfully withdrawn from the "top ten" in China.[8]

Xingtai earthquake

A major earthquake, known as the Xingtai earthquake, with magnitude 6.8 on the Richter scale and epicenter in Longyao County occurred in the early morning of March 8, 1966. It was followed by 5 earthquakes above magnitude 6 on the Richter scale that lasted until March 29, 1966. The strongest of these quakes had a magnitude of 7.2 and took place in the southeastern part of Ningjin County on March 22. The earthquake damage included 8,064 dead, 38,000 injured and more than 5 million destroyed houses.[9]

Administrative divisions

Map including Xingtai (labeled as HSING-T'AI (SHUNTEH) 邢台) (AMS, 1954)
Map including Xingtai (labeled as HSING-T'AI (SHUNTEH) 邢台) (AMS, 1954)
Map
Name Chinese Pinyin Population (2020) Area (km2)
Xiangdu District 襄都区 Xiāngdū Qū 362,857 116
Xindu District 信都区 Xìndū Qū 798,770 1941
Renze District 任泽区 Rènzé Qū 342,869 431
Nanhe District 南和区 Nánhé Qū 350,384 405
Lincheng County 临城县 Línchéng Xiàn 199,793 797
Neiqiu County 内丘县 Nèiqiū Xiàn 260,000 788
Baixiang County 柏乡县 Bǎixiāng Xiàn 168,761 268
Longyao County 隆尧县 Lóngyáo Xiàn 480,447 749
Ningjin County 宁晋县 Níngjìn Xiàn 745,389 1,032
Julu County 巨鹿县 Jùlù Xiàn 346,007 631
Xinhe County 新河县 Xīnhé Xiàn 134,095 366
Guangzong County 广宗县 Guǎngzōng Xiàn 280,603 504
Pingxiang County 平乡县 Píngxiāng Xiàn 323,675 406
Wei County 威县 Wēi Xiàn 496,230 994
Qinghe County 清河县 Qīnghé Xiàn 421,582 500
Linxi County 临西县 Línxī Xiàn 326,968 542
Nangong City 南宫市 Nángōng Shì 396,718 861
Shahe City 沙河市 Shāhé Shì 431,746 859
Xingtai Economic Development Area 邢台经济开发区 Xíng Tái Jīng Jì Kāi Fā Qū 182,585 -
Xingdong New Area 邢东新区 Xíng Dōng Xīn Qū 63,367 -

Xingtai Economic Development Area and Xingdong New Area belong to Xiangdu District.

Economy

Xingtai is the most important base for natural resources in North China, producing 20 million metric tonnes of coal annually. It also features the largest power plant in the southern part of this region of China, with an output of 2.06 GW.[10]

Transport

Located on the Beijing−Guangzhou, the Beijing−Kowloon, the Xingtai-Huanghua and Xingtai-Heshun Railways, as well as the Beijing−Shenzhen, Daqing-Guangzhou, Taihangshan, Xingtai-Hengshui, Qingdao−Yinchuan, and Dongying-Lvliang Expressways and Xingtai Dalian Airport. Xingtai is a transport hub connecting the Eastern, Northern, and Central China.

Notable persons

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, ed. (2019). China Urban Construction Statistical Yearbook 2017. Beijing: China Statistics Press. p. 46. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  2. ^ Song, Xiaoyan (October 11, 2018). "The Most Ancient White Porcelain in China". China Today. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  3. ^ Song, Xiaoyan (April 12, 2013). "Significant Results from the Excavation of Xing Kiln Site in 2012". Chinese Archaeology. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Chinese Xingyao Museum". Shijiazhuang Municipality Official Website. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  5. ^ "Xing Kiln Museum / YCA". ArchDaily. May 29, 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  6. ^ Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633-1644. ISSN 1027-5606.
  7. ^ Bildner, Eli (27 February 2013). "Interactive Maps of China's Most–and Least–Polluted Places". Global Voices China. http://newsmotion.org. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 1 September 2014.
  8. ^ "重磅!邢台PM2.5年均浓度退出"倒十"!". baijiahao.baidu.com. Retrieved 2021-09-04.
  9. ^ "Major earthquakes on Chinese mainland since 1966" by the Consulate General of the People's Republic of China in Houston
  10. ^ 邢台市情介绍 (in Chinese). Xingtai People's Government. Retrieved 2011-05-20.